Слова на букву (mus-amph (732) Dictionary of invertebrate zoology
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alkaline gland
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, the Dufour\'s gland; an accessory gland that discharges at the base of the sting; function unknown, but thought to be concerned with ...
n. pl. [OF. al qualiy, ashes of salt wart] A group of saturated hydrocarbons found in Pre-Cambrian geological strata presumed to be fossils.
См. allesthetic.
n. [Gr. allas, sausage] The resultant of purine and pyrimidine metabolism occurring in allantoic fluid and urine of various invertebrates.
n. [L. allatum, brought; Gr. ektemnein, to cut out] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Total excision of the endocrine glands, corpora allata.
allatum hormone
see juvenile hormone.
Allee's principle
The concept of an optimal population level where organisms flourish.
n. [Gr. allelon, one another] Genes occupying the same locus in homologous chromosomes, that segregate from each other at the reduction division; see dominant allele, ...
n. [Gr. allelon, one another] The relationship between two characters that are alleles; alleomorphism; alternative inheritance.
См. allelochemical.
n. [Gr. allelon, one another; chemeia, pert. chemistry and chemical terms] 1. A chemical agent of natural origin involved in interaction between species or individuals; ...
adj. [Gr. allelon, one another; mimikos, imitative] Referring to imitation of behavioral habits of another animal, usually of the same species.
n. [Gr. allelon, one another; morphe, form] 1. Two contrasting, although closely parallel genetic characters. 2. A member of a Mendelian pair.
n. [Gr. allelon, one another; pathos, suffer] The chemical effect of plants on other organisms in the environment.
n. [Gr. allelon, one another; tropein, to turn] The mutual attraction between two cells or organisms.
n. [Gr. allelon, one another; typos, type] The repeated occurrence of alleles in a given population.
adj. [Gr. allos, other; aisthetes, perceiver] Recognition of characteristics of an organism, as perceived by another.
v.t. [L. alligare, to tie] To unite, fasten or suspend.
see alloiogenesis.
n. [Gr. allos, other; biosis, manner of life] Differentiation from the normal; a changed environment.
n. [Gr. allos, other; chorein, to spread] Any organism occurring in two different habitats in the same geographic region.
adj. [Gr. allos, other; chroia, color of the skin] Changeable in color, or variation of color.
adj. [Gr. allos, other; chronos, time] Not occurring at the same period of time; not contemporary.
allochronic speciation
Speciation that does not occur at the same period of time, thus causing morphological discontinuity; see synchronic speciation.
adj. [Gr. allos, other; chthon, earth] Exotic; imported or migrated from another area; peregrine; see autochthonous.
adj. [Gr. allos, other; kryptos, conceal] Concealing; said of organisms that conceal themselves with coverings of other organisms or with inanimate materials.
n. [Gr. allos, other; gamos, marriage] Cross-fertilization; see autogamy.
n. [Gr. allos, other; OF. greffe, graft] A piece of tissue or organ from one individual grafted to another of the same species.
n. [Gr. allos, other; heteros, different; aploos, onefold; eidos, form] Heteroploid individuals whose chromosomes derive from various chromosome sets; see autoheteroploid.
n. [Gr. alloios, of another kind; genesis, beginning] Alternation of sexual and parthenogenetic generations: alternation of generations.
n. [Gr. alloios, of another kind; metron, measure] Measurable variability in the physical development within a species or race.
n. [Gr. allos, other; kinesis, movement] Passive or reflex movement; allokinetic a; see autokinesis.
adj. [Gr. allos, other; meros, part] Refers to any organism differing in the number of parts of any organ from that which is customary in the group.
allometric coefficient
The slope of the logarithmic growth curve of the measurement of an organ or part against that of the whole remainder or another part; sometimes referred to as the heterogonic ...
allometric growth
The growth rate of one part of an organism differing from that of another part or of the body as a whole; see heterauxesis.
n. [Gr. allos, other; metros, mother] Having different species or races living in an organized group.
n. [Gr. allos, other; metron, measure] The study of relationship of growth; allometric adj..
see cross-fertilization.
n. [Gr. allos, other; hormaein, to instigate] Any chemical secreted by an organism that causes another organism of different species to react favorably to the emitter.
allomorphic evolution
A rapid increase in specialization.
n. [Gr. allos, other; morphe, form] Rapid development of specialized organs or increase of specialization in an organism; see aromorphosis.
n. [Gr. allos, other; para, beside; lektos, chosen; typos, type] A specimen from the original collection, a sex other than that of the holotype, and described later than the ...
n. [Gr. allos, other; patrios, father land] Populations separated by spatial barriers preventing gene flow. allopatric a; see sympatry.
adj. [Gr. allos, other; pelagos, sea] Referring to open water; marine or freshwater organisms found at various depths.
n. [Gr. allos, other; plassein, to mold] Cell organelles that serve a special purpose and are not of regular occurrence, such as the neuro- and myofibrils, cilia and ...
n. [Gr. allos, other; plassein, to mold] A cell organelle composed of more than one kind of tissue; see homoplast.
n. [Gr. allos, other; polyploos, many fold; eidos, form] A polyploid produced by the chromosome doubling of a species or genus hybrid, that is, of an individual with two ...
n. [Gr. allos, other; L. scutum, shield] (ARTHROPODA: Chelicerata) In Acari, the dorsal part of the exoskeleton posterior to the scutum of larval ticks.
allosematic color
Having protective coloration resembling that of dangerous or inedible species; aposematic color; Batesian mimicry; see sematic.
allosomal inheritance
The inheritance of characters produced by genes in an allosome.
n. [Gr. allos, other; soma, body] A chromosome deviating in size, form or behavior from other chromosomes, usually a sex-chromosome; heterochromosome; see autosome.
see allosyndesis.
n. [Gr. allos, other; syndesis, a binding together] In polyploids, pairing of completely or partially homologous chromosomes that were introduced into the zygote by the same ...
n. [Gr. allos, other; tetraploos, fourfold; eidos, form] A tetraploid produced when a hybrid derived from a genetically different parent doubles its chromosome number; ...
n. [Gr. allos, other; therme, heat] Any organism dependent on environmental temperature for its own body temperature; see poikilothermal, ectotherm.
n. [Gr. allos, other; topos, place; typos, type] An allotype obtained from the original locality.
adj. [Gr. allotrios, abnormal; morphe, shape] Displaying an abnormal or unexpected shape.
n. [Gr. allos, other; triploos, threefold; eidos, form] A triploid with two similar and one dissimilar chromosome sets; see autotriploid.
adj. [Gr. allos, other; trophe, nourishment] Referring to organisms dependent upon other organisms for nutrition; heterotrophic.
n. [Gr. allos, other; tropos, turn] The propensity of attraction of certain cells or structures; allotropy.
adj. [Gr. allos, other; tropos, turn] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Refers to insects that are not limited to or adapted to visiting certain kinds of flowers.
see allotropism.
n. [Gr. allos, other; typos, type] A paratype of the opposite sex to the holotype.
n. [Gr. allos, other; zygotos, yoked] A homozygote with only recessive characters.
alluring coloration
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Patterns or colorings adapted by predators that attract other species; aggressive mimicry.
alluring glands
Glandular structures that disperse an odor attractive to the opposite sex; sex pheromones.
n. [L. ad, to; luxus, dislocated] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Curculionidae, the next to the last joint of the tarsus.
alpha taxonomy
That level of taxonomy involved with the characterization and naming of species; see beta taxonomy.
n. [Gr. alpha, a; chloros, green; phyllon, leaf] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Chlorophylic properties producing coloration; see beta-chlorophyll.
n. [Gr. alpha, α Α; L. femina, female] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Formicidae, the intermediate form between the teratogyne and normal female.
adj. [L. alpinus, of or like high mountains] Applied to organisms occurring in high mountain meadows; also referred to as alpestrine.
n. [L. alter, the other; Gr. keras, horn; tuba, trumpet] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In certain scale insects, ceratubae shaped like large broad cylinders with oblique openings, ...
alteration theory
Explanation of the phenomenon of electromotive forces of nerve and muscle by changes in chemical composition of tissue in cross-section.
alternate host
One that alternates with another in the life cycle of a parasite; see intermediate host.
alternating cleavage
see spiral cleavage.
alternation of generations
The alternation of two or more generations reproducing in different ways; an alternation of sexual and asexual, or parasitic with a free-living cycle; see alloiogenesis, ...
see height.
adj. [L. altrix, nourisher] Having young at hatching or birth that require care for sometime.
n. [L. alter, the other] Behavior disadvantageous to the individual, but benefits other individuals of the species.
n.; pl. -lae [L. dim. ala, wing] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) 1. In some Diptera, one of the membranous lobes in the region of the wing base, thought to be part of the vannal ...
n. [L. dim. ala, wing] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Diptera, a lobe at the basal posterior part of the wing; wing appendage; posterior lobe; see alula.
adj. [L. alutaceus, soft leather] Pertaining to brown or brownish-yellow; leathery; covered with, or appearing like, minute cracks.
n. [L. alveatus, hollowed out] (ECHINODERMATA) A form of pedicellaria; usually two valved and recessed into an alveolus or depression in the endoskeleton.
n.; pl. -lae [L. alveolus, small cavity] A small pit or depression on the surface of an organ; faveolus; alveolus. alveolar adj..
alveolar hydatid cyst
(PLATYHELMINTHES: Cestoda) A larval form of Echinococcus multilocularis comprised of many compartments containing many protoscolices that infiltrate body tissues.
adj. [L. alveolus, small cavity] Deeply pitted or having the appearance of a honeycomb.
n.; pl. -eoli [L. alveolus, small cavity] Any small cavity, pit or depression; alveola.
adj. [Gr. a, without; makros, long; inos, fiber] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Pertaining to a unipolar nerve cell within a synaptic region of the brain, i.e., the antennal lobes ...
amalgamated lips
(NEMATA) Lips combined together giving a smooth contour, not discernibly separated from each other.
n. [Gr. a, without; mastix, whip; pherein, to bear] (CNIDARIA) A nematocyst with no tube beyond the hempe; in microbasic types , the hempe is not more than three times the ...
n. [Ar. anbar ambergris, a fossilized resin] A transparent, clear, pale yellow-brown gummy resin of coniferous trees in which insects and spiders were trapped and fossilized ...
adj. [L. ambire, to go around] Moving around; surrounding.
ambient vein
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) 1. The vein that partially encircles the wing close to the margin. 2. The vein-like structure that serves to stiffen the margin of a wing.
adj. [L. ambo, both; fenestra, window] (NEMATA) A term used to describe two semifenestrae in the vulval cone formed by a narrow vulval bridge, but not surrounding the ...
adj. [L. ambigere, to wander about] Vague or doubtful in meaning; having more than a single meaning.
adj. [L. ambo, both; latus, side] Pertaining to or affecting both sides; bilateral.
see monoecious, hermaphrodite.
see ambitus.
n. [L. ambitus, going around] The periphery or outer edge of an organism; ambital adj..
adj. [Gr. amblys, dull; chroma, color] Staining only slightly, as opposed to trachychromatic.
see hermaphrodite.
n. [Gr. ambrotos, immortal] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Fungi cultures cultivated by scolytid beetles to feed their larvae; sometimes used to designate that part of the fungus that ...
ambulacral areas
(ECHINODERMATA: Asteroidea) The radially arranged arms (typically 5) bearing the tube feet or podia; see interambulacral areas.
ambulacral groove
(ECHINODERMATA: Asteroidea) A groove or furrow bordered by large spines extending along the oral surface of each arm of sea stars, that contain two to four rows of small ...
ambulacral ridge
(ECHINODERMATA: Asteroidea) The internal ridge of the external ambulacral groove.
adj. [L. ambulare, to walk; forma, shape] Resembling or having the form of an ambulacrum.
n.; pl. -lacra [L. ambulare, to walk] 1. (ARTHROPODA: Chelicerata) The adhesive disc of hooks that terminate the tarsus of ticks. 2. (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) The walking ...
v.i. [L. ambulare, to walk] To walk or move about.
adj. [L. ambulare, to walk] Having the power of walking or moving from place to place.
ambulatory leg
see pereopod.
ambulatory rosette
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Neuroptera, a prehensile "holdfast" organ located at the tip of the abdomen that aids in locomotion of larval snakeflies.
ambulatory setae
1. (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Hairs or bristles on the ventral segments of the abdomen. 2. (NEMATODA: Adenophorea) Hollow tubelike projections used for locomotion; see adhesion ...
ambulatory wart
see ampulla.
see amoe- for words not found here.
n. [Gr. amoibe, change] Any amoeba-like cell or corpuscle of the blood or other parts of an organism.
n. [Gr. a, without; meiosis, to make smaller] Failure of meiosis that is replaced by a form of nuclear division not involving the reduction of the chromosome number.
adj. [Gr. a, without; meiosis, to make smaller] Pertaining to maturation division of a gamete without the diploid number of chromosomes being reduced to the haploid.
ameiotic parthenogenesis
Parthenogenesis without meiosis.
n. [Gr. a, without; L. mensa, table] A form of symbiotic relationship in which one of the organisms is inhibited and the other is not.
adj. [Gr. a, without; metabole, change] Without metamorphosis; ametamorphic.
ametabolous metamorphosis
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Insects whose eggs hatch into nymphs closely resembling the adult form, differing only in size and life stages; without metamorphosis.
adj. [Gr. a, without; meta, after; morphe, form] Having no metamorphosis.
adj. [Gr. amethystos, not drunk] Pertaining to, or resembling amethyst, a bluish-violet color.
n. [Gr. a, without; mikros, small] One of the smallest particles detectable with the electron microscope; smaller than one (1) nm and can only be seen as a diffuse ...
adj. [Gr. a, without; mikros, small; skopein, to view] Too small to be seen with either the light microscope or the electronmicroscope; less than about one (1) nanometer in ...
amictic egg
Eggs that do not undergo a meiotic division and are therefore diploid producing females parthenogenetically; see mictic egg.
n. [prefix names of chemical compounds containing one of the amino groups; Gr. sakcharon, sugar] A monosaccharide with an amino or substituted amino group in place of a ...
n. [Gr. a, without; mitos, thread] Cellular division without the appearance of chromosomes or any mitotic figure.
a; see mitosis.
См. amixis.
n. [Gr. a, without; mixis, a mixing] Absence of interbreeding between members of the same species or races due to morphological, geographical or physiological isolation.
n.; pl. -tae [Gr. ammos, sand; chaite, long hair] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, specialized hairs or bristles on the head or lower lip of desert ants, used for ...
n. [Gr. Ammon, Jupiter] (MOLLUSCA: Cephalopoda) Any fossil ammonean shell curved into a spiral like a ram\'s horn, common in Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks of all parts of ...
adj. [Gr. Ammon, Jupiter; ferre, to carry] Said of rocks containing ammonites.
adj. [Gr. Ammon, Jupiter] (MOLLUSCA: Cephalopoda) Pertaining to a shell covered cephalopod.
adj. [Gr. ammoniakon, temple of Jupiter Ammon; telos, end] The excretion of nitrogen principally as ammonia; see uricotelic.
adj. [Gr. ammos, sand; philos, loving] Sand-loving; living in or frequenting sand.
n.; pl. -nions, -nia [Gr. amnion, membrane around the fetus] (ARTHROPODA) The inner cellular, membranous embryonic covering of various insects and other arthropods.
n. [Gr. amnion, membrane around the fetus] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Cuticular covering of an embryo that is shed before or very shortly after hatching.
amniotic cavity
The cavity between the amnion and the embryo in the developing egg of various invertebrates.
amniotic fluid
Liquid surrounding the embryo while in the egg.
amniotic folds
Lateral folds of the amnion that meet to enclose the germ band in the ovum.
amniotic pore
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) An opening to the amniotic cavity during embryonic development.
См. ameba.
n. [Gr. amoibe, change; kytos, container] 1. Certain body cells or tissues capable of independent amoeba-like movement. 2. (PORIFERA) Any mesohyl cell where no special ...
n. [Gr. a, without; morphe, form] An inactive allele that acts as a genetic block to biosynthesis.
n. [Gr. a, without; morphe, form] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Those pupa that share no resemblance with the imago.
adj. [Gr. a, without; morphe, form] Lacking distinctive form or structure; shapeless.
adenosine monophosphate A compound of importance in the release of energy for cellular activity, composed of adenine, d-ribose and phosphoric acid; also called AMP, adenylic ...
n. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; tokos, birth] Parthenogenesis in which unfertilized eggs develop into either sex; deuterotoky; gametotoky.
n. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; apo, away; miktos, mixed] Biotypes that propagate facultatively, i.e. amphimictally and parthenogenetically.
n. pl. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; aster, star] 1. The two asters in cell division, one at each end of the cell, from which the spindle fibers diverge. 2. (PORIFERA) ...
adj. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; biotikos, pert. to life] Being aquatic during one period of the life history and terrestrial during the rest.
adj. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; bios, life] Capable of living both on land and in the water.
n. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; dim. blastos, bud] A blastula in which the cells of one pole are markedly different in size or shape from the other pole.
amphiblastula larva
(PORIFERA: Calcarea) A type of free-swimming larva possessing a central cavity, and two morphologically distinct types of cells, one anterior and the other posterior.
adj. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; koilos, hollow] Being biconcave.
adj. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; kyrtos, curved] Having both sides curved, said of angles between curves; biconvex.
n. [Gr. amphi, on both sides] (NEMATA) One of a pair of lateral chemosensory organs opening on or near the lip region; variable in size and shape according to taxa.
amphid aperture
see amphidial aperture.
adj. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; delphys, womb] (NEMATA) Pertaining to uteri opposed; position and direction of the uteri, not the ovary; see didelphic.
adj. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; detos, bound] (MOLLUSCA: Bivalvia) Refers to the ligament extending both before and behind the umbo or beak; see opisthodetic, ...
amphidial aperture
(NEMATA) The amphid opening pore or orifice through which stimuli are received.
amphidial duct
(NEMATA) The passage connecting the amphidial aperture and the amphidial pouch.
amphidial gland
(NEMATA) A gland originating posterior to the nerve ring that connects with the anterior lateral amphids.
amphidial nerve
(NEMATA) The nerve originating posterior to the nerve ring that extends anteriorly, connecting to the amphid.
amphidial pouch
or pocket (NEMATA) The anterior cavity or chamber of the amphid; a fovea.
amphidial tubes
(NEMATA) Passages containing the amphidial nerves connecting the fibrillar terminals and the sensilla.
see allopolyploid, allotetraploid.
См. amphidisks.
n. pl. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; diskos, round plate] (PORIFERA: Hexactinellida) Small spicules with hooks at both ends, grapnel shape; no six rayed spicules.
adj. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; gaia, the earth] Pertaining to both the Old and New Worlds.
См. amphigaean.
n. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; genesis, beginning] Development induced by the fusion of two unlike gametes; amphigony.
adj. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; gonos, seed] Referring to sperm and ova being produced in separate gonads in different individuals; biparental reproduction; see di.
n. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; gonos, seed] biparental or bisexual reproduction. amphigonus adj..
n. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; haploos, simple; eidos, form] Said of haploid types produced from amphidiploids.
n. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; karyon, nut] The nucleus of the zygote produced in the course of fertilization containing two haploid genomes; see diplokaryon.
n. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; miktos, mixed] Reproduction by amphimixis.
n. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; mixis, mingling] The union of two gametes in sexual reproduction, as opposed to automixis.
n. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; L. morum, mulberry] A morula derived from an amphiblastula.
См. amphineuran.
see Polyplacophora.
adj. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; odous, tooth] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Coleoptera, male stag beetles bearing mandibles only intermediate in size; mesodont; see telodont, ...
amphion larva
(ARTHROPODA: Crustacea) In Malacostraca, larva of Amphionidacea, zoea and megalopa types; telson is narrow with spines in first stage and pointed with no spines in last stage.
see allopolyploid.
adj. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; pneustikos, breathe] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Refers to aquatic larva having the first and last pairs of spiracles open and functioning; see ...
n. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; pyren, fruit stone] The substance of the nuclear membrane of cell nuclei.
adj. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; sternon, breastbone] (ECHINODERMATA: Echinoidea) Used to describe the sternum structure in certain sea urchins; two equal plates that meet ...
adj. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; stoma, mouth] (PLATYHELMINTHES: Trematoda) Having a ventral acetabulum located at the posterior end.
adj. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; stoma, mouth] (PLATYHELMINTHES: Trematoda) Bearing a sucker at each extremity.
adj. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; telos, end] In mitosis, pertaining to orientation of the two chromatids of each chromosome to different spindle poles at the first meiotic ...
См. ampherotoky.
n. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; triaina, trident] (PORIFERA) A spicule with three divergent rays at each extremity.
n. [Gr. amphi, on both sides; trochos, wheel] (ANNELIDA) Larva bearing two rings of cilia that function in locomotion.
see amphophil.
adj. [Gr. ampho, both; dynamis, power] Pertaining to an organism that may or may not enter a diapause phase, according to circumstances.
adj. [Gr. ampho, both; gennaein, to produce] Refers to females producing male and female offspring at a ratio of 1:1.
См. amphophilic.

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