Слова на букву prop-root (732) Dictionary of invertebrate zoology
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Слова на букву prop-root (732)

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reflected
adj. [L. re, again; flectere, to bend or turn] 1. Turned back on itself; turned from the general course of the structure. 2. (MOLLUSCA: Gastropoda) Referring to the outer ...
reflex
adj. [L. re, back; flexus, bend] A simple unconditioned response.
reflex arc
A series of neurons transmitting excitation from a receptor through the central nervous system to an effector.
reflex bleeding
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Blood as well as other fluids discharged through various body articulations; functioning in protection from predators.
reflex immobilization
see hypnosis, stereokinesis.
reflexed ovary
Turned back upon itself, generally at the junction of the ovary and oviduct; bent abruptly back.
refractive
adj. [L. re, back; frangere, break] To turn from a direct course; turned aside.
refractory
n. [L. re, back; frangere, break] 1. Not readily infectible; not amenable to therapy. 2. Unresponsive; the intermission after excitation during which repetition of the ...
refringent
adj. [L. re, back; frangere, to break] Refractive; to deflect rays of light.
refugium
n.; pl. -ia [L. re, back; fugere, flee] An area that has escaped the great changes of the region as a whole, as unglaciated mountain tops in an ice age.
regeneration
n. [L. regenerare, to regenerate] The replacement of a part or parts lost through mutilation or otherwise.
regenerative budding
(BRYOZOA: Gymnolaemata) Budding inside a broken zooid.
regenerative cells
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Cells of the stomach (ventriculus) that may be singly, in pairs beneath the columnar cells or grouped into clusters (nidi) or arranged in crypt-like ...
regression
n. [L. re, back; gradi, to step] 1. Regressive evolution. 2. A statistical method of comparing paired observations.
regressive character
A character being reduced or lost in the course of phylogeny.
regressive evolution
The appearance of characters in a taxon that are usually considered primitive.
regressive molting
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Isoptera, reversal during metamorphosis, when they are already in the process of developing into a particular caste, back to a less differentiated ...
regular triact
(PORIFERA) A megasclere spicule with three equal rays separated by angles of 120 degrees.
regularization
(ANNELIDA) Anatomical adjustments involved in reducing the asymmetry due to unilateral splitting of mesoblastic somites.
regulator gene
A gene that controls the action of other genes through curtailing the rate of synthesis of the products of other distant genes.
reinfection
n. [L. re, again; inficere, to make] A second infection by the same microorganism after recovery from or during the course of a primary infection.
relic
n. [L. reliquia, remnant] A present nonfunctional structure that was originally useful; an isolated remnant of a once widespread population.
remiform
adj. [L. remus, oar; forma, shape] Oar-like in shape.
remigium
n. [L. remigare, to row] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) The wing area anterior to the claval furrow, in both fore and hind wings; if claval furrow is indistinct, may be described as ...
remigrant foramen
(BRACHIOPODA) The pedicle opening moving dorsally after an initial movement toward the ventral beak.
remiped
adj. [L. remus, oar; pes, foot] Having oar-shaped feet; adapted for rowing.
remotion
n. [L. re, again; motus, move] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In leg movements, the corresponding movement of the coxa.
renal
adj. [L. renis, kidneys] Pertaining to a kidney.
renal appendage
(MOLLUSCA: Cephalopoda) A sacculate organ functioning in providing blood pressure to carry blood through the gills.
renal cells
Nephrocytes.
renal sac
(MOLLUSCA: Cephalopoda) One of four organs of the nephridium that receives pericardial filtrate via the renopericardial canal and secretions from the large renal ...
renette
adj. [L. dim. ren, kidney] (NEMATA) The ventral excretory gland cell(s).
reniform
adj. [L. dim. ren, kidney; forma, shape] Kidneyshaped.
reniform spot
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Noctuidae, a kidneyshaped spot at the end of the discal cell.
renopericardial canal
(MOLLUSCA: Cephalopoda) Ciliated canal connecting the metanephridium with the pericardial cavity.
renopericardial pore
see nephrostome.
repagula
n. pl.; sing. -um [L. repagulum, bar] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In neuropteran Ascalaphidae, modified eggs that often fence the normal eggs, possibly guarding them from the ...
repand
adj. [L. re, back; pandus, bent] Wavy, with alternate segments of circles and minute angles; having a wavy or uneven outline; sinuate.
repent
adj. [L. repens, creeping] Appearing as if creeping or crawling.
repetition-molt
(ARTHROPODA: Chelicerata) A molt that results in no change in characters of form or size; see growing molt.
replacement name
A substitute name.
replacement reproductive
see supplementary reproductive.
replete
n. [L. repletus, filled] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, individuals of certain ant species that are specially adapted with distended abdomens for the storage of honey; ...
replicate
n. [L. re, back; plicare, to fold] Doubled back over on itself.
reproduction
n. [L. re, back; producere, to lead forth] The process of perpetuating the species from generation to generation.
repugnatorial
adj. [L. repugnans, offensive] Repellent; offensive as to drive away.
repugnatorial glands
1. (ARTHROPODA: Diplopoda) Stink glands. 2. (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Glands secreting noxious liquids or vapors to repel antagonists.
reservoir
n. [L. re, back; servo, keep] A case or cavity for storage of certain fluids or secretions; see ampulla.
reservoir host
A definitive host in which the infection usually resides in nature.
resilifer
n. [L. resilire, to leap back; fero, bear] (MOLLUSCA: Bivalvia) A Modification of a bivalve shell to which the resilium is attached.
resilin
n. [L. resilire, to leap back] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) A colorless, rubber-like protein found in elastic and extensible cuticle of insects that stores energy for tension ...
resilium
n. [L. resilire, to leap back] (MOLLUSCA: Bivalvia) The internal ligament, irrespective of composition; in oysters rests in a subtrigonal central socket or fossa.
resinous
adj. [Gr. resina, resin] Having the appearance of rosin; clear brownish yellow.
resonator
n. [L. re, again; sonare, to sound] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) A structure functioning to intensify or activate sound; a thin vibrating plate or lamella.
resonator ridge
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Diptera, a ridge on the hind femur that rubs against the stridulatory file to produce sounds.
resorption
n. [L. re, again; sorbere, drink in] (MOLLUSCA: Gastropoda) The removal of a previously formed shell by action of the living gastropod.
respiration
n. [L. re, back; spirare, to breathe] The intake of oxygen and giving off of carbon dioxide.
respiratory funnel
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Diptera, a distinctive chitinous funnel attached to the host tracheal system so that encapsulation does not impair the respiration in older ...
respiratory horn
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) 1. In Diptera, paired prothoracic protuberances on the aquatic pupae of most Culicidae and Ceratopogonidae; respiratory trumpet. 2. A sharply pointed ...
respiratory movements
Movements designed to increase the supply of oxygen or disperse carbon dioxide, such as abdominal movements in insects or undulations of aquatic oligochaetes.
respiratory siphon
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Diptera, the caudal breathing tube of culicid larvae.
respiratory tree
(ECHINODERMATA: Holothuroidea) Branched cloacal tubules thought to have a respriatory function.
respiratory trumpet
see respiratory horn.
response
n. [L. responsum, reply, answer] A change of activity due to change of external or internal conditions; responsiveness a; see stimulus.
restiform
adj. [L. restis, rope; forma, form] Shaped like a rope or cord; prominent cordlike masses.
resting eggs
(ROTIFERA: Monogononta) Fertilized mictic eggs of certain Ploima produced in response to environmental factors or vitamin E; thick shelled eggs resistant to drying and other ...
resting stage
see growth stage.
restitution
n. [L. re, back; statuare, to put] Rejoining broken chromosomes, thereby restoring prebreakage structure.
restitution nucleus
In either meiosis or mitosis, a nucleus with double the normal number of chromosomes due to non-disjunction.
resupinate
adj. [L. resupinare, to bend back] Having the appearance of being inverted, reversed, or upside down.
rete
n. [L. rete, net] 1. A net or network; a plexus. 2. (ACANTHOCEPHALA) A thin-walled tubular network between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers, or inside the ...
retecious
adj. [L. rete, net] In the form of a network.
reticular membrane
(PORIFERA: Hexactinellida) A membrane formed by the fused bases of the choanocytes.
reticulate
adj. [L. rete, net] Forming a network of obliquely intersecting linear ridges or lines; a network; cancellated; see retiform.
reticulate evolution
Evolution dependent on repeated intercrossing between a number of lines.
reticulosome
n. [L. dim. rete, net; Gr. soma, body] Cytoplasmic inclusion thought to be involved in membrane formation.
reticulum
n.; pl. reticula [L. dim. rete, net] A network of anastomosing fibers or tubules.
retiform
adj. [L. rete, net; forma, form] Having the form of a network; composed of crossing lines.
retina
n. [L. rete, net] The receptive apparatus of an eye.
retinaculum
n.; pl. -la [L. retinaculum, holdfast] 1. A connecting or retaining band. 2. (ACANTHOCEPHALA) Muscular sheath of a nerve. 3. (ARTHROPODA: Crustacea) In Malacostraca, ...
retinal
adj..
retinal cell
The photosensitive neurosensory cells.
retinal pigment cells
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Pigment cells in the retinal region of the eye; see accessory pigment cells, corneal pigment cells, retinular pigment cells.
retinula
n.; pl. -lae [L. dim. rete, net] 1. Sensory neuron in the eye. 2. (ARTHROPODA) A group of cells and their associated rhabdoms that are surrounded by a sheath of pigment ...
retinular pigment cell
См. basal pigment cell.
retort-shaped organs
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Hemiptera, oval areas of glandular tissue at the enlarged proximal ends of both pairs of the mouth stylets, that secrete a new stylet at each ...
retractile
adj. [L. retractus, withdrawn] Capable of being drawn inwards; having the tendency to retract.
retractive
see opisthocline.
retractor
n. [L. re, back; trahere, to pull] Any muscle that serves to return an organ to its original position; see protractor muscle.
retractor gubernaculi
see gubernaculum.
retractor preputii
see hood retractor.
retractor spiculi
(NEMATA) Paired spicular muscles, each containing a nucleus in the sarcoplasm, arising from the spicular head and extending to the hypodermis in the region of the lateral ...
retroarcuate
adj. [L. retro, backwards; arcuare, to bow] Curved backwards.
retrobursal
adj. [L. retro, backwards; bursa, purse] (PLATYHELMINTHES: Turbellaria) In Tricladida, having the bursal stalk short, so that the bursa lies behind the penis; ...
retrocerebral endocrine system
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) System comprised of corpora allata, corpora cardiaca and ventral gland.
retrocerebral organ
(ROTIFERA) A small glandular organ, attached to the epidermis above and behind the brain, comprised of the retrocerebral sac and the subcerebral glands; function unknown. ...
retrocerebral pore
(CHAETOGNATHA) A pore on the dorsal surface behind the brain where the rectocerebral organs open.
retrocerebral sac
1. (CHAETOGNATHA) A pair of sacs imbedded in the posterior part of the cerebral ganglion, separated by a membrane but connected by a nerve proximally, and opening by means ...
retrocession
n. [L. retro, back; cedere, to go] The act of retroceding; to move backward.
retrocurrent
see opisthocline.
retrofection
see autoinfection.
retroflected
adj. [L. retro, backwards; flectere, to bend] Bending in different directions; bent or turned backwards.
retrogressive development
Developmental trend in evolution resulting in simplification of an organism, usually through the complete or partial loss of one or more structures; regressive development.
retrorse
adj. [L. retrorsus, turned or bent backwards] Turned, bent, or directed backward; backward projecting; see antrorse, detrorse.
retrovesicular ganglion
(NEMATA) The largest ganglion, usually posterior to the excretory pore.
retuse
adj. [L. retusus, blunt] Terminating in a round end or apex with a slight depression.
reunion
n. [L. re, back; unire, to make one] Rejoining of broken chromosomes with structural changes.
reverse mutation
Heritable mutation in a gene that returns it to its original function.
reversed
adj. [L. reversare, to turn about] 1. Contrary to the usual. 2. (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Deflexed wings; margins of hind wings projecting beyond those of the fore wings. 3. ...
reversion
n. [L. re, back; vertere, to turn] A genotypic or phenotypic return to the wild-type of a mutant, may be either partial or complete; revertant adj..
reviviscence
n. [L. re, back; vivere, to live] The act of reviving; awakening from hibernation, torpor or dessication; reviviscent adj..
revolute
adj. [L. re, back; volutus, turn around] Curled or rolled backwards, or downwards; see involute.
revolving
adj. [L. re, back; volutus, turn around] 1. To come around again. 2. (MOLLUSCA) Spiral lines on a shell that run parallel with the sutures.
rhabd
n. [Gr. rhabdos, rod] (PORIFERA) A megasclere triaene with an odd, generally straight ray.
rhabdiferous cell
(PORIFERA) A cell that secretes mucopolysaccharide.
rhabdion
n. [Gr. rhabdos, rod] (NEMATA) That cuticularized portion of the wall of the stoma; see cheilorhabdions, prorhabdion, mesorhabdions, metarhabdions, telorhabdions.
rhabdites
n. pl. [Gr. rhabdos, rod] 1. Rod or blade-like processes projecting from the epidermis. 2. (PLATYHELMINTHES: Turbellaria) Straight or slightly curved rods in the epidermis ...
rhabditiform
adj. [Gr. rhabdos, rod; L. forma, shape] Having the shape of a rod.
rhabditoid
adj. [Gr. rhabdos, rod] (NEMATODA: Secernentea) Having characters of free-living bacterial feeding nematodes in the genus Rhabditis.
rhabditoid larva
(NEMATA) A bacterial feeding larva among free-living or parasitoid forms, in which the esophagus is divided into corpus, isthmus and a posterior valved bulb.
rhabdocrepid
adj. [Gr. rhabdos, rod; krepis, boot] (PORIFERA) A desma deposited on a diactinal monaxon.
rhabdoid
n. [Gr. rhabdos, rod; eidos, like] 1. Rod-like; any rod-shaped body. 2. (CNIDARIA) Nematocysts that open at the tip with a definite cylindrical hempe. 3. (PLATYHELMINTHES: ...
rhabdom
n. [Gr. rhabdos, rod] (ARTHROPODA) A rodlike light-sensitive structure formed by rhabdomeres in the ommatidium of a compound eye.
rhabdome
n. [Gr. rhabdos, rod] (PORIFERA) A greatly elongated ray of a tetraxon spicule.
rhabdomere
n. [Gr. rhabdos, rod; meros, part] (ARTHROPODA) The receptive area of a retina cell.
rhabdus
see diactinal monaxon.
rhachidian
see rachidian.
rhachiglossate
see rachiglossate.
rhacidian
adj. [Gr. rhachis, backbone] (MOLLUSCA) The median or central tooth on the radula; the rachidian tooth.
rhagon
n. [Gr. rhax, grape] (PORIFERA) A larval stage of a sponge, conical in shape and tapering from a broad base to the summit bearing the single osculum.
rhammites
n. pl. [Gr. rhamma, thread] (PLATYHELMINTHES: Turbellaria) Long, slender, sometimes sinuous rhabdoids, longer than the thickness of the epithelium.
rhamphoid
adj. [Gr. rhamphos, beak; eidos, form] Beakshaped.
rhaphe
n. [Gr. rhapis, rod] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) A sclerotic bar on the dorsal surface of the silk press of caterpillars.
rhegmatocyte
see spherule cell.
rhegmatocytoid
see spherule cell.
rheogameon
n. [Gr. rheein, to flow; gamos, marriage; on, being] Rassenkreis; polytypic species.
rheophile
adj. [Gr. rheein, to flow; philos, loving] Living in rivers and streams; reophilic. rheophily n.
rheoreceptor
n. [Gr. rheein, to flow; L. recipere, to receive] A sensory structure that signals the presence or strength of water currents.
rheotaxis
n.; pl. -taxes [Gr. rheein, to flow; taxis, arrangement] Tactic response due to stimulation from moving fluid; rheotropism. a. Positive rheotaxis: migrating against the ...
rhinarium
n.; pl. -ia [Gr. rhinos, nose; -arium, place] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Hemiptera, usually round or oval, sometimes transversely elongate secondary sense organs on antennae ...
rhinophores
n. pl. [Gr. rhinos, nose; phorein, to bear] (MOLLUSCA: Gastropoda) 1. In Opisthobranchia, the second pair of modified tentacles commonly surrounded at the base by a collarlike ...
rhipidoglossate
adj. [Gr. rhipis, fan; glossa, tongue] (MOLLUSCA: Gastropoda) Having a radula with each transverse row furnished with numerous long, narrow, hooked marginal teeth ...
rhizocaul
См. rhizocaulome.
rhizocaulome
see hydrocaulus.
rhizoclad
n. [Gr. rhiza, root; klados, branch] (PORIFERA) A megasclere desma with rootlike processes; rhizoclone.
rhizoid
n. [Gr. rhiza, root; eidos, like] (BRYOZOA) A rootlike structure composed of one or more kenozooids.
rhizoid spines
(BRACHIOPODA) Spines that serve to attach the animal, either by entanglement or by cementing themselves to a foreign surface.
rhizome
n. [Gr. rhiza, root] (CNIDARIA: Hydrozoa) The stolon; the hydrorhiza.
rhizomorphous
adj. [Gr. rhiza, root; morphos, form] Root-like.
rhizophagous
adj. [Gr. rhiza, root; phagein, to eat] Root-eating.
rhodopsin
n. [Gr. rhodon, rose; ops, eye] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) A visual pigment of the rhabdomeric microvilli, on which the primary photoreceptor process depends.
rhombogen
n. [Gr. rhombos, revolve; gennaein, to produce] (MESOZOA: Rhombozoa) A stage in the life cycle in the adult in a sexually mature host; stage follows the nematogen phase ...
Rhombozoa
См. rhombozoans.
rhombozoans
n.; n. pl. [Gr. rhombos, revolve; zoon, animal] A class of Mesozoa; minute parasitic animals in the renal organs of Cephalopoda.
rhombus
n. [Gr. rhombos, revolve] A parallelogram with oblique angles; rhomboidal adj..
rhopalium
n.; pl. -lia [Gr. rhopalon, club] (CNIDARIA) A hollow tentacle or sense organ with endodermal statoliths and rarely ocelli, that lay in each notch between the lappets at ...
rhopalocercous cercaria
(PLATYHELMINTHES: Trematoda) Cercaria possessing a tail as wide as, or wider than, the body.
rhopaloneme
n. [Gr. rhopalon, club; nema, thread] (CNIDARIA: Anthozoa) A nematocyst with the tube consisting of an elongate sac and a club-shaped thread with an adhesive nature.
rhopalostyle
n. [Gr. rhopalon, club; stylos, pillar] (PORIFERA) A lumpy megasclere spicule with a bifurcate head.
rhynchocoel
n. [Gr. rhynchos, snout; koilos, hollow] (NEMERTEA) A dorsal fluid-filled tubular chamber that houses the eversible muscular proboscis.
rhynchocoel villus
(NEMERTEA) A blood vessel running in the midventral line of the rhynchocoel.
Rhynchocoela
n. [Gr. rhynchos, snout; koilos, hollow] Formerly used in place of Nemertea.
rhynchodaeum
n. [Gr. rhynchos, snout; demas, body] 1. (ANNELIDA: Hirudinoidea) A cavity at the anterior end of the digestive tract. 2. (NEMERTEA) A tubular chamber anterior to the ...
rhynchostome
n. [Gr. rhynchos, snout; stoma, mouth] (NEMERTEA) The proboscis pore.
rhynchoteuthis stage
(MOLLUSCA: Cephalopoda) In Ommastrephidae, a juvenile form with tentacles fused into a rostrum or trunklike proboscis; the tentacles separate later.
rhypophagous
adj. [Gr. rhypos, dirt; phagein, to eat] Eating dirt or filth.
rhythm
n. [Gr. rhythmos, measured motion] Regular periodic changes; see circadian, diurnal.
rib
n. [A.S. ribb, a rib] 1. In Gastropoda and Brachiopoda shells, a long and narrow ridge; a costa. 2. (MOLLUSCA: Bivalvia) A broad and prominent elevation of the shell ...
Ribaga's organ
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In some female Hemiptera, pouches on various places of the nongenital abdomen; hemocoelic fecundation instead of by means of the customary ducts; ...
ribbon
n. [OF. ribon] (MOLLUSCA: Gastropoda) A flat spiral surface elevation.
riblet
n. [A.S. dim. ribb, rib] A small or rudimentary rib; costella.
riboflavin
n. [L. alteration of arabinose; flavus, yellow] 6,7- dimethyl-9-D-ribitylisoallozazine, a water-soluble yellow pigment, generally occurring in animal tissues in a form in ...
ribonucleic acid
(RNA) Long chain polymers of ribose and certain organic bases; differing from DNA in using the base uracil and usually single stranded.
ribose
n. [L. alteration of arabinose] Pentose sugar which with certain organic bases makes up RNA and DNA polymers.
ribosome
n. [L. alteration of arabinose; Gr. soma, body] Aggregations of RNA and proteins that act in synthesis of proteins.
ridge
n. [A.S. hrycg] Any raised line or strip on a surface.
right valve
(MOLLUSCA: Bivalvia) When holding the bivalve shell with the hinge up and the apex or umbo pointed away from and pallial sinus toward the holder, then the right valve is ...
rimate
adj. [L. rima, fissure] 1. Provided with a very narrow cavity; a very small hole or crack. 2. (MOLLUSCA: Gastropoda) Referring usually to the umbilicus.
rimose
adj. [L. rima, fissure] Having many clefts or excavations.
rind cells
The layer of nerve cell bodies on the surface of invertebrate ganglia, consisting of perikaryon, glial and neuron cells; not nerve endings or synapses.
ring
n. [A.S. hring, ring] 1. A circle or annulus; circinate. 2. (ARTHROPODA: Diplopoda) A non-systematic and colloquial term for the trunk segments; avoids the need to ...
ring canal
1. (CNIDARIA: Hydrozoa) A circular canal around the margin of the umbrella into which the radial canal join as part of the gastrovascular system. 2. (ECHINODERMATA) A ...
ring gland
1. (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In higher Diptera, a glandular organ surrounding the aorta just above the brain, formed by the combining of the corpora cardiaca and the corpora ...
ring nerve
see nerve ring.
ring segments
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Ring-like basal segment(s) of the flagellum, much smaller than the segments following.
ring septum
(BRYOZOA: Stenolaemata) The centrally perforated skeletal diaphragm in the living chamber of a zooid.
ring vein
see ambient vein.
ring vessel
see ring canal.
ring wall
see anellus.
ringed gland
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Hemiptera, a gland, sometimes paired, situated dorsally or ventrally on the vagina, or on the vaginal pouch; sometimes ringed by annual ...
ringent
adj. [L. ringens, gaping] (MOLLUSCA: Bivalvia) Gaping, as some valves.
Ringer's solution
Used as a physiological saline for vertebrates and invertebrates.
riparian
См. ripicolous.
ripicolous
adj. [L. ripa, bank] Frequenting rivers or streams.
rivose
adj. [L. rivus, groove] Marked with irregular furrows; nonparallel furrows or canals.
RNA
Ribonucleic acid.
robust
adj. [L. robustus, hardy] Short, stout, robust.
rod border
see brush border.
rod-shaped organ
see organ of Bellonci.
root stalk
(CNIDARIA: Hydrozoa) Hydrorhiza or stolon; horizontal root of a colony.

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