Слова на букву root-spir (732) Dictionary of invertebrate zoology
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Слова на букву root-spir (732)

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slit
n. [A.S. slutan, to tear] 1. A long cut or incision. 2. (MOLLUSCA) a. In Polyplacophora, an abrupt indentation in the insertion plate. b. In Gastropoda, a shallow incision ...
slit band
see selenizone.
slit ray
(MOLLUSCA: Polyplacophora) A shallow groove or row of pores or pits beginning at a slit and extending to the apex of the valve on the ventral side.
slit sense organs
see lyriform organs.
slit sensilla
(ARTHROPODA: Crustacea) In Decapoda, small pits lying just distal to the walking leg joints; insertions of the dendrites of the joint proprioceptors of Homarus.
slope-faced
(MOLLUSCA: Bivalvia) Referring to the face of the shell, i.e., central, anterior or posterior slope.
snout
n. [ME. snoute, snout] (MOLLUSCA: Gastropoda) In Prosobranchia, a non-retractable, short, mobile eminence at the anterior end on which the mouth is formed.
social facilitation
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) An increase of activity from seeing or hearing others engaged in the same activity.
social hierarchy
see hierarchy.
social homeostasis
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) The steady state maintenance either by control of microclimate in the nest, or the control of population density, behavior and physiology of the ...
social hormones
see pheromones.
social insects
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) 1. The ants, termites and some bees and wasps in which individuals of the same species cooperate in caring for the young, a reproductive division of ...
social interaction
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Relationships among individuals of a colony in which the behavior of one or a few indivduals influences others in the colony; social facilitation and ...
social parasite
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) A symbiont found in the nests of social insects, that feeds upon the food stores of the colony.
social parasitic castration
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Pertaining to a Formicidae colony becoming parasitic on another colony of a different species and eliminating the reproductives of it\'s host colony.
social parasitism
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) The coexistence of two species of social insects in the same nest, in which one is parasitically dependent on the other; see symphile.
society
n. [L. socius, companion] An organized cooperative group of individuals of the same species; communication between members is implied.
socii
n. pl.; sing. -us [L. socius, companion] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In male Lepidoptera, lightly sclerotized, paired, hairy pads on the caudal margin of the tegumen near the ...
sociobiology
n. [L. socius, companion; bios, life; logos, discourse] The study of all aspects of communication and social organization.
sociotomy
see colony fission.
socket
n. [OF. soket, plowshare] (MOLLUSCA: Bivalvia) A cavity in the hinge to receive the tooth of the opposite valve.
sodium pump
A mechanism of neurones to move sodium ions out of the cell during the recovery phase.
soft-part polymorph
(BRYOZOA: Gymnolaemata) In Cheilostomata, a zooid with sexual features, brood chamber, or elongate tentacles to produce exhalant currents with no increased skeletal ...
soldiers
n. [L. solidus, a coin solider\'s pay] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Isoptera, members of a worker subcaste specialized for colony defense.
solenia
n. pl.; sing. -ium [Gr. solen, pipe] (CNIDARIA: Anthozoa) Endodermal tubes connecting polyps in some colonies.
solenidion
n.; pl. -ia [Gr. dim. solen, pipe] (ARTHROPODA: Chelicerata) In Acari, a hollow, microcephalic, pili-, baculi- or claviform, seta-like formation of the tegument with thin ...
soleniform
adj. [Gr. solen, pipe; L. forma, form] Shaped like a razor handle.
solenocyte
n. [Gr. solen, pipe; kytos, container] Specially modified tubular, ciliated or flagellated cells occurring in protonephridia and nephridia of some invertebrates and lower ...
solenomerite
n. [Gr. solen, pipe; meros, part] (ARTHROPODA: Diplopoda) In Julida, the tubular part of the opisthomerite with the sperm channel and flagellum channel or groove.
solenophage
n. [Gr. solen, pipe; phagein, to feed] (ARTHROPODA) A blood-feeder whose mouthparts pierce directly into a blood vessel to feed.
solid ramose colony
see dendroid.
solitaria
n. [L. solus, alone] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) The low density phase of locusts and some caterpillars; see gregaria, kentromorphism.
solitary
n. [L. solus, alone] Living alone or in pairs, not in colonies or groups.
solute
n. [L. solvere, to loosen] 1. In a solution; a substance dissolved in another. 2. Wholly separate; free; see adnate.
soma
n. [Gr. soma, body] The body of an animal, with the exception of the germ cells; somatic adj..
somatic cells
Any cells of the body of an individual, except the germ cells.
somatic chaetae
see somatic setae.
somatic crossing-over
Reciprocal chromatin exchange between homologous chromosomes during somatic mitosis.
somatic hybrid
Non-sexual or vegetative hybrid.
somatic layer
The external layer of the mesoderm.
somatic musculature
1. Muscles of the body. 2. (NEMATA) Longitudinally oriented muscle cells, usually spindleshaped, containing a noncontractile portion and a contractile portion that control ...
somatic mutation
Mutation in any cell other than a germ cell or its precursor.
somatic setae
1. Any setae on the body. 2. (ANNELIDA) Setae of the somatic segments that function in locomotion.
somato-esophageal muscles
Muscles common to the esophageal region.
somato-intestinal muscles
Muscles found in the region of the intestine, extending from the body wall.
somatoblast
n. [Gr. soma, body; blastos, bud] A cell that gives rise to somatic cells.
somatocoel
n. [Gr. soma, body; koilos, hollow] (ECHINODERMATA) The posterior of the three regions of coelomic sacs of the embryonic coelom, anterior (axocoel), and middle ...
somatocyst
n. [Gr. soma, body; kystis, bladder] (CNIDARIA: Hydrozoa) In Siphonophora, the beginning of the stem gastrovascular canal that may contain an oil droplet.
somatoderm
n. [Gr. soma, body; derma, skin] (MESOZOA) The outer rings of cells around the body; jacket cells.
somatome
n. [Gr. soma, body; tome, cutting] A somite.
somatoplasm
n. [Gr. soma, body; plasma, formed or molded] The body-tissues.
somatopleure
n. [Gr. soma, body; pleura, side] The somatic layer.
somatotheca
n. [Gr. soma, body; theke, case] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Area of pupa covering the abdominal rings; see gasterotheca.
somite
n. [Gr. soma, body] A division of the body; a body segment of a metamerically segmented animal; a somatome.
sonication
n. [L. sonus, sound] The disruption of cells by sound waves.
sonifaction
n. [L. sonus, sound; facere, to make] The production of sound; sonorific.
sordid
adj. [L. sorditus, dirty] Of a dirty or muddy color; dull.
sorotrochous
adj. [Gr. soros, heap; trochos, wheel] (ROTIFERA) Bearing a compound wheel organ or trochal disc.
spadix
n. [L. spadix, palm frond] 1. (CNIDARIA: Hydrozoa) A central core on which the sex cells ripen on the blastostyle. 2. (MOLLUSCA: Cephalopoda) In male Nautilus sp., ...
spado
n. [Gr. spadon, a eunuch] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In hymenopteran bees and ants, a worker or neuter individual.
spanandry
n. [Gr. spanios, rare; andros, male] Progressive decrease in number of males.
spanogamy
n. [Gr. spanios, rare; gamos, wife] Progressive decrease in females.
spanogyny
n. [Gr. spanios, rare; gyne, female] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) The disappearance of mosquito colonies requiring blood meals when maintained on a plant food source.
sparganum
n. [Gr. sparganon, swaddling band] (PLATYHELMINTHES: Cestoda) A second stage larva of Pseudophyllidea, with an elongated shape and lack of cystic cavity; a plerocercoid.
spat
n. [A.S. spaetan, to spit] (MOLLUSCA: Bivalvia) A microscopic larval stage.
spatfall
n. [A.S. spaetan, to spit; A.S. feallan, fall] (MOLLUSCA: Bivalvia) The en masse settlement of larva.
spatha
n. [Gr. spathe, blade] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, a dorsal lobe of the aedeagus.
spathulate
see spatulate.
spatulate
adj. [L. spatula, spoon] Spatula-like in form; flattened, while broad apically and narrowed basally.
spear
see stylet.
specialization
n. [L. specialis, special] An animal or structure that has adapted to a habitat or condition during the course of evolution.
speciation
n. [L. species, kind] The division of a phyletic line; the process of species multiplication; the origin of discontinuities between populations resulting from the development ...
species
n.; sing. & pl. [L. species, kind] A group of interbreeding (or potentially interbreeding) natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups; see ...
species group
A group of closely related species, usually with partially overlapping ranges.
species inquirenda
A species of doubtful status due to inadequate description and lack of preserved specimens.
species name
1. A scientific name of a taxon at the rank of species. 2. A binomen, the combination of a generic name and a specific name.
species nova
New species; sp. nov.; sp. n.
specific character
A common feature or structure in all individuals of a species.
specific density
see economic density.
specific epithet
see specific name.
specific name
The second name in a binomen and in a trinomen.
specificity
n. [L. species, kind] Condition of an individual or group of organisms being specific to a host, locale, etc; see host specificity.
specophile
see sphecophile.
spectrum
n.; pl. spectra [L. spectrum, appearance] A statistical survey of species distribution.
specular membrane
see mirror.
speculum
n.; pl. -ula, ums [L. dim. specere, to look at] 1. An ocellus; see eyespots. 2. (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) a. In Lepidoptera, the brilliant metallic markings, or transparent ...
sperm
n.; pl. & sing. [Gr. sperma, seed] Any male gamete; spermatozoid; spermatozoa.
sperm bladders
См. sperm bulbs.
sperm bulbs
see spermatangium.
sperm cell
A small, usually motile gamete.
sperm conceptacles
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Hemiptera, paired enlargements of the wall of the common oviduct of female Cimicidae.
sperm cyst
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) A cellular capsule within the testis containing the spermatocytes.
sperm duct
(ANNELIDA) Ducts or tubes conveying sperm from the male funnels towards the exterior; see spermaduct, vas deferens.
sperm induction
(ARTHROPODA: Chelicerata) In Arachnida, the passage of spermatozoa from the genital orifice beneath the base of the abdomen into the receptacle in the male palpus.
sperm sacs
1. (ANNELIDA) Seminal vesicles or testis sacs or spermathecae. 2. (MOLLUSCA: Cephalopoda) see spermatangium.
sperm web
(ARTHROPODA: Chelicerata) In Arachnida, a web on which male spiders deposit the semen before taking it into the palpus.
spermaduct
n. [Gr. sperma, seed; L. ducere, to lead] Any duct for carrying sperm; spermiduct; sperm duct; vas deferens.
spermagonium
n.; pl. -ia [Gr. sperma, seed; gonos, offspring] (NEMATA) The sperm-producing structure of a digonic female.
spermalege
see ectospermalege, mesospermalege, Ribaga\'s organ.
spermarium
n. [Gr. sperma, seed] The male gonad, in which the sperm cells are produced.
spermary
См. spermarium.
spermatangium
n. [Gr. sperma, seed; angon, jar] (MOLLUSCA: Cephalopoda) Evaginated spermatophores ready to release sperm; sperm sacs; sperm bladders; sperm bulbs.
spermateleosis
n. [Gr. sperma, seed; teleiosis, completion] Spermiogenesis.
spermatheca
n.; pl. -ae [Gr. sperma, seed; theke, case] A saccate genital structure in female invertebrates in which sperm from the male is received and may or may not be stored; ...
spermathecal chaeta
(ANNELIDA: Oligochaeta) In tubificids, chaeta (seta) usually in ventral fascicles on segment x; shape is usually different from somatic chaeta.
spermathecal gland
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) A special gland opening into the duct of the spermatheca, or near the junction of the latter with the vagina.
spermatid
n. [Gr. sperma, seed] One of four haploid cells of the male after the meiotic divisions; an immature spermatozoon.
spermatocyst
n. [Gr. sperma, seed; kystis, bladder] (MOLLUSCA: Gastropoda) In some Opisthobranchiates, a sperm storage sac proximal to the bursa copulatrix.
spermatocyte
n. [Gr. sperma, seed; kytos, container] An auxocyte of males that give rise to the spermatids.
spermatodactyl
n. [Gr. sperma, seed; dactylos, finger] (ARTHROPODA: Chelicerata) In Acari, modification of the chelicera in order for sperm transfer from the male\'s gonopore to the ...
spermatogenesis
n. [Gr. sperma, seed; genesis, beginning] The formation and development of spermatozoa.
spermatogonial cyst
see sperm cyst.
spermatogonium
n.; pl. -ia [Gr. sperma, seed; gonos, offspring] The gonads of male animals that give rise to the spermatocytes.
spermatolophis
n. [Gr. sperma, seed; lophos, crest] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In certain Thysanura, sperm packets thought to be formed in the nongranular portion of the vas deferens.
spermatophore
n. [Gr. sperma, seed; pherein, to bear] A packet or capsule of spermatozoa for transfer from male to female.
spermatophore cup
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In some Orthoptera and Neuroptera, a cup-like cavity at the anterior end of the ejaculatory duct; in recent literature called a mold.
spermatophore sac
1. (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) a. In male Caelifera, the sac into which the gonopore opens. b. For Ensifera see endophallic cavity. 2. (MOLLUSCA: Gastropoda) In Prosobranchia, ...
spermatophoric sac
see Needam\'s sac/organ.
spermatophory
n. [Gr. sperma, seed; pherein, to carry] A type of fertilization in which stalked spermatophores are placed on the substrate for the females to take up into her genital ...
spermatophragma
see sphragis.
spermatopositor
n. [Gr. sperma, seed; ponere, to place] (ARTHROPODA: Chelicerata) In Acari, a small evaginable male organ for depositing spermatophores; penis.
spermatotheca
see spermatheca.
spermatozeugma
n. [Gr. sperma, seed; zeugma, join] United by fusion of two or more spermatozoa.
spermatozoon
n.; pl. -zoa [Gr. sperma, seed; zoon, animal] The matured and functional male sperm cell.
spermiducal glands
1. Glands associated with the sperm ducts of many invertebrates. 2. (ANNELIDA) see prostate glands.
spermiducts
n.pl [Gr. sperma, seed; L. ducere, to lead] The male gonoducts; spermaducts; spermoducts; vas deferens; sperm ducts.
spermiogenesis
n. [Gr. sperma, seed; genesis, beginning] The formation of spermatozoa from the spermatids produced during the meiotic divisions of spermatocytes; spermateleosis.
spermoduct
see sperm duct.
spermora
n. [Gr. sperma, seed; L. os, mouth] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Isoptera, the external opening of the spermathecal duct.
sphaeridium
n.; pl. -idia [Gr. dim. sphaira, ball] (ECHINODERMATA) Minute, spherical bodies covered by ciliated epidermis, usually lodged in pits in the test or almost completely ...
sphaeroclone
n. [Gr. dim. sphaira, ball; klon, twig] (PORIFERA) A megasclere spicule with a subglobular desma produced by swelling of the centrum.
sphecology
n. [Gr. sphex, wasp; logos, discourse] The study of wasps.
sphecophile
n. [Gr. sphex, wasp; philos, love] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) A symbiont of wasps; any organism that must spend at least a portion of its life cycle in a wasp colony.
sphenoid
adj. [Gr. sphen, wedge; eidos, like] Wedge shaped; cuneate; cuneiform.
spherasters
n. [Gr. sphaira, ball; aster, star] (PORIFERA) A largecentered spicule with many definite rays.
spheres
n. pl. [Gr. sphaira, ball] 1. Any globular body. 2. (PORIFERA) Rounded bodies in which growth is concentric around a center.
spherocyte
see spherule cell.
spheroidocyte
n. [Gr. sphaira, ball; eidos, form; kytos, container] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Round hemocytes with fat-like droplets, granular and other inclusions and occasionally crystals.
spherula
n. [Gr. dim. sphaira, ball] A small sphere.
spherular cell
see spherule cell.
spherulate
adj. [Gr. dim. sphaira, ball] Having one or more rows of minute tubercles.
spherule cell
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Hemocytes, varying in shape, that possess few to many, acidophilic inclusions, that may fill the whole cell; see spherulocyte.
spherulocyte
n. [Gr. dim. sphaira, ball; kytos, hollow] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Ovoid or round hemocytes, variable in size, containing spherules reported to contain neutral or acid ...
spherulous cell
(PORIFERA) Cells with multiple, large vesicles containing coarse granular material.
sphincter
n. [Gr. sphinkter, binder] Any ring-like muscle that contracts, constricts, or closes an orifice.
sphingiform larva
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) A larva with a cylindrical body with short or no setae, and a mediodorsal horn or button on the 8th abdominal segment.
sphragis
n. [Gr. spragis, seal] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In some Lepidoptera, a structure formed by male glandular secretions or actual male genital parts remaining in the female after ...
spicate
adj. [L. spica, spike] Spike-shaped; possessing spikes.
spiciform
adj. [L. spica, spike; forma, form] Spike-shaped, as some setae.
spicula
pl. of speculum.
spicular muscles
(NEMATA) Muscles for the protraction and retraction of the spicules.
spicular pouch
(NEMATA) A cuticular lined pouch that contains the spicules and is formed from the spicular primordia.
spicular sheath
(NEMATA) A conical or tubular extension of the cuticle distally sheathing the spicules beyond the body profile.
spicule
n. [L. spicula, small spike] 1. Any minute pointed spine or process. 2. (MOLLUSCA: Polyplacorphora) The dorsal girdle decorations of various size, shape and frequency. ...
spicule hair
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Lepidoptera, irritative hair usually formed by one or more trichogen cells; size, shape, internal cell components, and body arrangement are ...
spiculiferous
adj. [L. spicula, small spike; fero, bear] Provided with spicules.
spiculiform
adj. [L. spicula, small spike; forma, shape] Spiculeshaped.
spiculose
adj. [L. spicula, small spike] Bearing spicules.
spiculum
n.; pl. spicula [L. spicula, small spike] Spicular structures, as the spines of echinoderms and dart of certain snails.
spigots
n. pl. [L. spica, spike] (ARTHROPODA: Chelicerata) In Arachnida, conical spinning tubes on the spinnerets.
spiked-tail stage
(NEMATODA: Secernentea) In Heteroderidae, the pointed tail of the second stage larval cuticle retained during initial expansion of the vermiform body.
spina
n.; pl. spinae [L. spina, thorn] 1. A spine. 2. (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) a. The medium apodemal process of the spinasternum. b. The medium apodeme.
spinasternum
n. [L. spina, thorn; sternum, breast plate] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) An instersegmental sclerite of the thoracic venter bearing a spina, associated with or united with the ...
spinate
adj. [L. spina, thorn] Bearing spines; spiniform.
spination
n. [L. spina, thorn] The development or arrangement of spines.
spindle
n. [A.S. spinnal, to spin] 1. Fusiform; tapering gradually at both ends. 2. (PORIFERA) A straight monaxial spicule.
spindle cell
see plasmatocytes.
spine
n. [L. spina, thorn] A pointed process or outgrowth; thorn-like.
spine base
(BRYOZOA) A collar-like skeletal inflation at the base of a spine.
spine hairs
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Poisonous weapons of many caterpillars, usually of multicellular origin and provided with pointed tips, that upon penetration into human skin are ...
spiniform
adj. [L. spina, thorn] Resembling a spine in shape.
spiniger
n. [L. spina, thorn; gerere, to carry] (ANNELIDA: Polychaeta) Composite seta with terminal blades tapering to fine tips; spines.
spinigerous
adj. [L. spina, thorn; gerere, to carry] Spine-bearing.
spinneret
n. [A.S. spinnan, to spin] 1. (ARTHROPODA: Chelicerata) In spiders, three pairs of glands at the subcaudal end of the abdomen, covered with minute tubes; see fusula ...
spinning bristle
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Embioptera, hollow, seta-like silk ejectors on the ventral surface of the fore tarsus.
spinning glands
1. (ARTHROPODA) Glands that secrete a silky material; silk glands. 2. (ANNELIDA: Polychaeta) Glands of the parapodia that secrete the tube forming material.
spinose
См. spinous.
spinous
adj. [L. spina, thorn] Full of spines; beset with spines; armed with sharp spines.
spinulate
adj. [L. dim. spina, thorn] Having very small spines.
spinule
n. [L. dim. spina, thorn] A minute spine.
spinulifer
n. [L. dim. spina, thorn; ferre, to bear] (BRACHIOPODA) A radulifer with laterally compressed crura.
spinulose
См. spinulous.
spinulous
adj. [L. dim. spina, thorn] Having small spines.
spiracle
n. [L. spirare, to breathe] (ARTHROPODA) A breathing pore or orifice leading to the tracheal or respiratory system; stigma; spiracular adj..
spiracular area
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, the first pleural area.
spiracular atrium
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) A cavity from which the trachea extend into the body.
spiracular cleft
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In some larvae, spiracles found in a closed or open cleft; in closed cleft, one or two liplike structures are usually present; stigmatic cleft.
spiracular depressions
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Coccoidea, usually found on the margin at the base of the spiracular setae.
spiracular disk
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Diptera, a flat area on the caudal segment containing the spiracular openings of aquatic larvae.
spiracular gills
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In some aquatic pupae, the long processes formed by the peritreme and atrial regions of one or more pairs of spiracles; adapted both for aquatic and ...
spiracular grooves
see spiracular cleft.
spiracular line
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) The colored or pigmented line adjacent to or coinciding with the line of the spiracles of caterpillars.
spiracular muscles
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) The occlusor and dilator.
spiracular plate
see peritreme.
spiracular processes
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In some Scarabaeoidea, dendriform trabeculae that form the filter apparatus.
spiracular sclerite
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Diptera, a sclerite of the metapleuron below the metathoracic spiracle.
spiracular setae
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Coccoidea, setae of various shapes and sizes terminating each spiracular pore band.
spiracular sieve plate
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) A platelike sclerite covering the spiracle that functions to exclude entry of dust or water into the tracheal system.
spiracular spines
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Coccoidea, large seta usually associated with each spiracular pore cluster.
spiraculate
adj. [L. spirare, to breathe] With spiracles.
spiraculiform
adj. [L. spirare, to breathe; forma, shape] Spiracle-shaped.
spiral
n. [L. spira, coil] A curved line or surface extending outward with continuously increasing radius of curvature.

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