Слова на букву frin-helm (732) Dictionary of invertebrate zoology
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Слова на букву frin-helm (732)

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graft
n. [OF. greffe, graft] Act of grafting, or joining a part of an organism with another.
grained
adj. [L. granum, grain] Dotted with small tubercules.
graminaceous
adj. [L. gramen, grass] Grass-colored.
graminicolous
adj. [L. gramen, grass; colere, to dwell] Living on grasses.
graminivorous
adj. [L. gramen, grass; vorare, to devour] Grass-eating.
granose
adj. [L. granum, grain] Like a string of grains; moniliform.
granular eosinophilic cell
see granular hemocyte.
granular hemocyte
Hemocytes that vary in size and shape, phagocytic in function, characterized by possession of acidophilic granules in the cytoplasm; see granulocyte.
granular leucocyte
see granular hemocyte.
granular spheres
see granulocyte.
granulated
adj. [L. dim. granum, grain] Covered with grains or small tubercles.
granule
n. [L. dim. granum, grain] 1. A very small or minute elevation. 2. (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Grain-like, short, thick, dark seta of beetles.
granulocyte
n. [L. dim. granum, grain; Gr. kytos, container] A hemocyte variable in size and shape, granular contents of sulfated, periodate-reactive sialomucin and other glycoproteins or ...
granulose
adj. [L. dim. granum, grain] Roughened with granules, or grain-like elevations.
granum tinctorium
see kermes.
graphiohexaster
n. [Gr. graphe, writing; hex, six; aster, star] (PORIFERA) A six-rayed spicule with long filamentous processes from four of the rays.
graptolite
n. [Gr. graptos, painted; lithos, stone] A fossil group of pelagic, colonial animals with chitinous exoskeletons, consisting of simple or branched stems (rhabdosomes) ...
grasping spines
(CHAETOGNATHA) Chitinous spines on the posterior part of the head used for food catching; prehensile spines; seizing jaws.
gravid
n. [L. gravidus, pregnant] Containing an egg or eggs, as a gravid pinworm, or gravid proglottid of a tapeworm.
gray cell
(PORIFERA) A cell with spherical basiphilic granules and many glycogen rosettes.
greater ocellars
see ocellar bristles.
green gland
(ARTHROPODA: Crustacea) Excretory glands on the antennae of crayfish and other Malacostraca; antennal gland.
green pigments
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) A synthesized pigment that gives a green color to the blood and epidermal cells, even without chlorophyll; see insectoverdin.
gregaria
n. [L. grex, flock] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) The high density phase of locusts and some caterpillars during which they are gregarious and/or migratory; see solitaria.
gregarious
adj. [L. grex, flock] Habitually associating in groups or colonies.
grege
См. greige.
greige
see silk.
gres
see sericin.
gressorial
adj. [L. gressus, step] Adapted for walking.
gribble
n. (ARTHROPODA: Chelicerata) A small wood-boring isopod of the Limnoriidae.
griseous
adj. [ML. griseus, gray] A white color mottled with black or brown; light gray; bluish gray.
grooming
n. [OF. gromet, servant] To make neat; the cleaning of an animal by itself or others.
group
n. [F. groupe] A number of related taxa; a series of closely related species within a genus; see complex.
group effect
Alteration in behavior within a species or group by nondirected signals.
group predation
Hunting and securing prey by groups of cooperating animals, i.e., army ants.
growing tip or point
(BRYOZOA) Proliferating distal extremities of the colony.
growing-molt
A molt that results in a larger size, but no changes in characters or form.
growth
n. [A.S. growan] 1. The development of an organism by assimilation. 2. A morbid formation, as a tumor.
growth hormone
Any of various growth promoting hormones.
growth lines
(MOLLUSCA: Gastropoda) Surface marking of the shell, denoting a former position of the outer lip.
growth period
In germ cell development, the period in which they increase greatly in size and during which synapsis occurs and the tetrads are formed.
growth ring
see annotinate.
growth rugae
(MOLLUSCA) Irregular ridges or undulations on the shell surface determined by former positions of the outer lip which show slowed or stopped growth; see growth lines.
growth squamae
(MOLLUSCA: Bivalvia) Scaly extensions of the shell surface parallel to the growth lines.
growth stage
The intermitotic growth stage of a cell; resting stage; resting cell.
growth thread
(MOLLUSCA: Bivalvia) A threadlike growth line.
growth welt
(MOLLUSCA: Bivalvia) An elongate shell elevation parallel to the growth lines.
grub
n. [ME. grubben, dig] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) A legless larva; certain U- or C-shaped larvae generally found among the Coleoptera and Hymenoptera.
gryphaeate
adj. (MOLLUSCA: Bivalvia) Shell with left valve strongly convex with its dorsal part incurved and the right valve flat, as in the genus Gryphea ; gryphaeiform; ...
guanine
n. [Ab.Am. huanu, dung] A purine base present in DNA and RNA, found in fish scales, animals, plants and excreta.
gubernaculum
n.; pl. -la [L. dim. gubernare, to guide] 1. (CNIDARIA: Hydrozoa) Hydroida, protoplasmic strands connecting the blastostyle and internal marsupium to the gonothecal wall; ...
guest
n. [A.S. gaest] Animal living within the nest or den of others; a social symbiont.
gula
n. [L. gula, gullet] 1. (ARTHROPODA: Diplopoda) The reduced sternite of the first trunk segment forming the posterior part of the gnathochilarium; the hypostoma. 2. ...
gulacava
see gular pit.
gulamental plate
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) The basal labial plate formed by fusion of the gula and submental regions.
gulamentum
n. [L. gula, gullet; mentum, chin] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) The plate formed by the fusion of the gula and submentum.
gular
adj. [L. gula, gullet] 1. Pertaining to the throat or gula. 2. (MOLLUSCA) Pertaining to the innermost part of the shell aperture.
gular pit
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) The infolding of a posterior arm of the tentorium.
gular suture
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) 1. Longitudinal sutures on each side of the gula or middle piece of the throat. 2. In Coleoptera, marking the inflection of the posterior arms of the ...
gullet
n. [L. gula, gullet] The esophagus.
gustatory
adj. [L. gustus, taste] Pertaining to the sense of taste; see chemoreceptor.
gut
n. [A.S. gut] The intestinal tract; the alimentary canal, or part of.
gut sinus
(ANNELIDA: Polychaeta) In some species, a thin-walled chamber around the gut filled with blood.
gutta
n. [L. gutta, a drop or spot] A roundish spot or marking of color; guttate adj..
gutter
n. [OF. gutiere, a gutter] (MOLLUSCA: Gastropoda) An elongate projection beyond the mouth.
guttiform
adj. [L. gutta, a drop or spot; forma, shape] Dropshaped.
gymnoblastic
adj. [Gr. gymnos, bare; blastos, bud] (CNIDARIA: Hydrozoa) Lacking hydrothecae and gonothecae, as some colonial forms.
gymnocephalous cercaria
(PLATYHELMINTHES: Trematoda) Cercaria without ornamentation, lacking spines or stylets on the anterior end or in the oral sucker; with equal sized oral and ventral ...
gymnocoel
n. [Gr. gymnos, bare; koilos, hollow] A body cavity possessing no special lining cells other than tissue bordering cavities such as epidermis or gastrodermis.
gymnocyst
n. [Gr. gymnos, bare; kystis, bladder] 1. (BRYOZOA) A simple type of wall morphology that adds exterior walls to the ends of interior walls, thereby separating adjacent ...
gymnocystidean
n. [Gr. gymnos, bare; kystis, bladder] (BRYOZOA: Gymnolaemata) An Ascophora cheilostomate with autozooids having gymnocysts as frontal shields.
gymnocyte
n. [Gr. gymnos, bare; kytos, container] A cell with no cell wall; see lepocyte.
gymnodomous
adj. [Gr. gymnos, bare; L. domus, house] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Pertaining to nests, especially of social wasps lacking an envelope; see calyptodomous.
gymnogastra
n. [Gr. gymnos, bare; gaster, stomach] Having the venter or belly visible; see cryptogastra.
Gymnolaemata
См. gymnolaemates.
gymnolaemates
n.; n. pl. [Gr. gymnos, bare; laimos, throat] Largest class of mainly marine Bryozoa primatively cylindrical, but most commonly flattened and lozenge-shaped, with a circular ...
gymnoparia
n.; pl. -ariae [Gr. gymnos, bare; pareion, cheek] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In scarabaeoid larvae, that part of the paria without bristles posterior to the acroparia and ...
gymnopterous
adj. [Gr. gymnos, bare; pteron, wing] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Lacking scales on wings.
gynaecaner
n. [Gr. gynaiko, womanly; aner, male] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, a male ant of certain parasitic and workerless genera that resembles a female rather than a ...
gynaecoid
see gynecoid.
gynaecomorphic male
see gynecaner.
gynaecophoral canal
(PLATYHELMINTHES: Trematoda) A longitudinal infolded groove in the ventral surface of male schistosome flukes where the female usually resides.
gynaecotelic type
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) One of the two groups of social insects in which the queen manifests the prototype female, with all the primary instincts, including those of the ...
gynander
see gynandromorph.
gynandrarchy
n. [Gr. gyne, woman; aner, male; archon, leader] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Social organization among insects differing from gynarchy in that the male takes part in establishing ...
gynandromorph
n. [Gr. gyne, woman; aner, male; morphe, form] An individual in which male and female somatic characters exist; bilateral gynandromorphs, with the left and right halves of ...
gynandromorphism
n. [Gr. gyne, woman; aner, male; morphe, form] The condition of being a gynandromorph; gynandromorphic adj..
gynandry
n. [Gr. gyne, woman; aner, male] Hermaphroditism; also, the condition of a female approximating to the male type of physique.
gynarchy
n. [Gr. gyne, woman; archon, leader] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In social insects, a colony organization in which a female initiates and dominates.
gynecaner
См. gynaecaner.
gynecoid
n. [Gr. gynaiko, womanly; eidos, like] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, a large egg laying worker ant.
gynecophore
see gynaecophoral canal.
gynergate
n. [Gr. gyne, woman; ergate, worker] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) A female containing patches of tissue of both the queen and worker castes.
gynes
n. pl. [Gr. gyne, woman] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) 1. In bees, a potential or actual queen. 2. Especially potential queens of honeybees. 3. Certain halictid bees that are ...
gynetype
n. [Gr. gyne, woman; typos, type] A designated female type specimen.
gynocophoral canal
see gynaecophoral canal.
gynogenesis
n. [Gr. gyne, woman; genesis, descent] Female parthenogenesis; pseudogamy; development of a haploid individual possessing only the maternal chromosome set; see ...
gynomerogony
n. [Gr. gyne, woman; meros, part; gonos, seed] Development of an egg fragment containing only the female nucleus (maternal chromosomes).
gynosynhesmia
n. [Gr. gyne, woman; syn, together; hesmos, swarm] A group of females gathering together during mating season; see androsynhesmia, synhesmia.
gynozooid
n. [Gr. gone, that which produces seed; zoon, animal; eidos, form] n. [Gr. gyne, woman; zoon, animal] A female gonozooid. 1. (BRYOZOA) A zooid modified as a brood ...
gyral
adj. [L. gyrare, to turn about] Circular or spiral movement; curved.
gyrate
См. gyral.
gyration
n. [L. gyrare, to turn about] 1. Rotating or whirling movement. 2. (MOLLUSCA) One of the whorls on a spiral shell.
gyratory
adj. [L. gyrare, to turn about] Moving in a circle; circular or rotary motion.
gyre
n. [L. gyrare, to turn about] Coiling; chromosome coiling.
gyri-cerebrales
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Esophageal ganglion lobes in embryos.
H-band
The region in the center of the A-band of a sarcomere characterized by myosin filaments and absence of actin filaments.
H-zone
see H-band.
habitat
n. [L. habitare, to dwell] The particular kind of environment where a race, species or individual lives.
habitat selection
The capability of a dispersing individual to select a particular (species-specific) environment.
habitat type
The ecotype.
habitude
n. [L. habitus, condition] General appearance or conformation of an animal.
habroderes
n. pl. [Gr. habros, graceful; deire, neck] (KINORHYNCHA) In Echinoderidae, the fourth juvenile stage to adulthood in which the midterminal spine is missing, and a series of ...
hackled band
(ARTHROPODA: Chelicerata) In cribellate spiders, composite threads spun by the cribellum and combed by the calamistrum setae.
haem
- for words not found here see hemhaemocoele see hemocoel.
haematodocha
n. [Gr. haima, blood; doche, receptacle] (ARTHROPODA: Chelicerata) A fibro-elastic sac at the base of the palpus of certain male spiders that fills with hemolymph and ...
haemocoele
n. [Gr. haima, blood; koilos, hollow] 1. (ARTHROPODA) The main body cavity, the embryonic development of which differs from that of a true coelom, but which includes a ...
haemocoelous
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) A form of viviparity in which development occurs in the hemocoel.
haemocyte
see hemocyte.
haemolymph
see hemolymph.
haemolysis
see hemolysis.
haemostatic diaphragm or membrane
(ARTHROPODA) In some arthropods, an obstruction device between femur and trochanter preventing fluid loss after autotomy; an occlusive diaphragm.
haemoxanthine
n. [Gr. haima, blood; xanthos, yellow] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) An albuminoid protein in the hemolymph, providing oxygen and nutritive materials.
haft organ
see frontal organ.
hair
n. [A.S. haer, hairy] Seta; chaeta; trichome; see pubescence.
hair pads
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) 1. A group of sensory hairs combined to form pads near joints together with internal proprioceptors that are involved in the normal bearing of the ...
hair plates
see hair pads.
haliotoid
adj. [Gr. hals, salt, sea; otos, ear; eidos, like] Earshaped.
Haller's organ
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) A complex sensory setal field within one or more pits, on the dorsal aspect of tarsus I of ticks and mites, providing sites for contact or olfactory ...
halmatometamorphosis
n. [Gr. halmatos, leap; metamorphosis, transform, change] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) The process of degeneration of larval structures and development of specialized structures ...
halocline
n. [Gr. hals, salt, sea; klinein, to slope] That area of sharp vertical salinity change in the ocean or other saline water.
halophile
n. [Gr. hals, salt, sea; philos, love] An organism adapted to living in a salty environment.
halter
n.; pl. halteres [Gr. halter, balancer] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Diptera, sense organs consisting of a basal lobe, a stalk and an end knob on each side of the metathorax, ...
hamabiosis
see neutralism.
hamate
См. hamiform.
hamatype
n. [Gr. hama, together; typos, type] Obs. A specimen from the type lot of a species, not specified as a holotype or paratype; a special group of topotypes.
hamiform
adj. [L. hamus, hook] Hooked; bent at the end resembling a hook; aduncate.
hammock
n. [Sp. hamaca, swinging couch] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Has been used to describe the hammock-like covering of a caterpillar.
hampe
n. [F. shank, stalk] (CNIDARIA) The basal tube portion of the nematocyst; the butt.
hamula
n. [L. hamulus, little hook] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) A trigger- like hook securing the springing organ (furcula) of springtails; a retinaculum.
hamular hook
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In some male Odonata, a curved hook receiving the end of the basal lobe of the posterior hamuli.
hamulohalterae
n. pl. [L. hamulus, little hook; Gr. halter, balancer] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Homoptera, giant mealybug halters developed from the metathoracic wing-buds furnished with ...
hamulus
n., pl. -li [L. hamulus, little hook] 1. A hook or hooklike process. 2. (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) a. In certain Hymenoptera, a row of minute hooks along the costal margin of ...
hamus
n.; pl. hami [L., hook] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) 1. In Heteroptera, an abrupt spur-like vein in the hind wings. 2. In Lepidoptera, the retinaculum.
Hancock's glands
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Orthoptera, large, glandular, sex-attractant pits of male tree crickets that secrete a fluid which the female ingests during the mating act.
Hancock`s organ
(MOLLUSCA: Gastropoda) A succession of parallel folds on each side of the mouth in the groove between the cephalic shield and the foot in some Opisthobranchia; lateral ...
hapaloderes
n. pl. [Gr. hapalos, tender; deire, neck] (KINORHYNCHA) The first three juvenile stages of Echinoderidae in which a midterminal, lateral and middorsal spines are present; ...
haplo-diploidy
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) A normal reduction division occurring in the oocyte, fertilized eggs developing into females, unfertilized eggs into males; characteristic of Hymenoptera ...
haplobiont
n. [Gr. haplos, simple; bios, life] An organism characterized by one morphological distinct generation.
haploid
adj. [Gr. haplos, single] Having one set of chromosomes; gametes are usually haploid; see diploid.
haplometrosis
n. [Gr. haplos, single; metros, mother] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Hymenoptera, the founding of a new colony by a single fertilized, egg laying queen; monometrosis.
haplometrotic
a; see temporary haplometrosis, pleometrosis.
haploneme
adj. [Gr. haplos, single; nema, thread] (CNIDARIA) Bearing threads of uniform diameter or slightly dilated at the base, but without a hampe; nematocysts, anisorhizas and ...
haploneural
adj. [Gr. haplos, single; neuron, nerve] Supplied with one simple nerve.
haplont
n. [Gr. haplos, simple; -on, individual] An organism with haploid somatic nuclei; monoplont.
haplophase
n. [Gr. haplos, single; phasis, look] The haploid phase or generation of the life cycle (meiosis to fertilization); gamophase; see diplophase.
haplosis
n. [Gr. haplos, single; -sis, act of] Meiotic reduction.
haptolachus
n. [Gr. haptos, fasten or join; lachos, part] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In scarbaeoid larvae, that part of the posterior epipharynx behind the pedium, usually below the crepis, ...
haptomerum
n.; pl. haptomeri [Gr. haptos, fasten or join; meron, a part] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) The medio-anterior region of the epipharynx of scarbaeoid larvae composed generally of ...
haptor
n. [Gr. haptos, fasten or join] 1. Organ of attachment; an acetabulum. 2. (PLATYHELMINTHES: Trematoda) The pre-oral, oral or ventral sucker.
Hardy-Weinberg law
The law stating that the frequency of genes in a large randomly mating population remains constant in the absence of mutation, migration and selection.
harmonic growth
see Przibram\'s rule.
harmonic mean
Reciprocal of the arithmatic mean.
harmosis
n. [Gr. harmosis, adapting] Total response of an organism to a stimulus; includes reaction and adaptation.
harpagones
n. pl.; sing. harpago [Gr. harpage, grappling hook] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) 1. Moveable periphallic processes of males located on the ninth abdominal segment usually having a ...
harpes
n. pl. [Gr. harpes, sickle] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Lepidoptera, a part of the male genitalia being one or more processes; clasper.
harpoon seta
(ANNELIDA) A stout pointed seta with recurved barbs near the apex.
hastate
adj. [L. hasta, spear] 1. Triangular or spear-shaped with the base diverging on each side into an acute lobe. 2. (PORIFERA) Pertaining to spicules of uniform diameter ...
hastisetae
n. pl. [L. hasta, spear; seta, bristle] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) Spear-headed setae found especially in tufts on tergites of the caudal segments of some larval dermestid ...
hatching
n. [ME. hacchen] Emergence from an egg shell.
hatching membrane
The embryonic cuticle between the larval cuticle and the chorion that is shed during hatching or shortly afterward.
hatching spines
См. hatching tooth.
hatching tooth
see egg burster.
haustellate
adj. [L. dim. haustus, sucking] For sucking; possessing a haustellum.
haustellum
n. [L. dim. haustus, sucking] A part of a beak or proboscis; mouthparts specialized for sucking.
haustrulum
n. [L. dim. haustrum, pump] (NEMATODA: Secernentea) The cavity of the valvular apparatus in the posterior bulb of rhabditid esophagi.
Hautkorper
see skin bodies.
Hayes' plate
См. Hayes’ sense cone.
head
n. [A.S. haefod] 1. The anterior body region. 2. (ANNELIDA: Polychaeta) The prostomium and peristomium. 3. (ARTHROPODA) Bearing the eyes, antennae and mouth parts. 4. ...
head apodeme
(ARTHROPODA: Crustacea) In crayfish, fused endopleurite and endosternite forming an area for muscle attachment at the anterior end of the skeleton.
head bulb
see ballonets.
head gland
(PLATYHELMINTHES: Trematoda) Glands of circaria which produce a secretion emitted into the matrix of the tegument that is thought to function in the postpenetration ...
head valve
(MOLLUSCA: Polyplacophora) The anterior valve of chitons.
head-fans
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Diptera, fan-like rays on the main part of the torma of mature larva of Simuliidae that function as filtering organs in running water, or a raking ...
heart
n. [A.S. heorte] Sometimes used to describe the pulsating dorsal blood vessel.
heart chamber
(ARTHROPODA: Insecta) One of the segmental swellings of the dorsal blood vessel; ventricle.
heautotype
n. [Gr. heautou, of itself; typos, image] A specimen used by the original describer as an illustration of his species and compared with the type or cotype; a hypotype.
hectocotylus
См. heterocotylus.
heel
n. [A.S. hela, heel] (ARTHROPODA: Insecta) In Hymenoptera larvae, padlike prolongation of the base of the tarsungulus opposing the claw.
height
n. [A.S. hiehthu, height] 1. (MOLLUSCA: Gastropoda) The length parallel to the shell axis through the columella. 2. (MOLLUSCA: Bivalvia) The greatest vertical dimension ...
heli
pl. of helus.
helical
adj. [Gr. helix, a spiral] Spirally coiled; heliciform.
helicocone
adj. [Gr. helix, a spiral; konos, cone-like] (MOLLUSCA: Gastropoda) An expanding cone-like spiral tube that is the form of most shells.
heliophil
См. heliophilous.
heliophilic
См. heliophilous.
heliophilous
adj. [Gr. helios, sun; philein, to love] Thriving in a high intensity of light.
heliophobic
n. [Gr. helios, sun; phobos, fear] Shade loving.
heliotaxis
n. [Gr. helios, sun; taxis, arrangement] Taxis with sunlight as the stimulus; see phototaxis.
heliotropism
n. [Gr. helios, sun; trope, a turning] Tropism with sunlight as the stimulus.
helix
n.; pl. helices [Gr. helix, a spiral] Having a spiral form.
helmet
n. [OF. helme] (NEMATA) An internal thickening in the cephalic region, often setoff by a groove, and denoted by a lack of ornamentation of the anterior exterior cuticle; ...

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