Слова на букву 1.00-amph (375) Dictionary of molecular biology
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Слова на букву 1.00-amph (375)

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1.003Tst
Gene found as part of a 15.2 kb genetic element in some strains of Staphylococcus aureus ; codes for toxic shock syndrome toxin-1.
1.083SCAMP
(= secretory carrier membrane protein) Integral membrane proteins of secretory and transport vesicles.
1.109SLAM
(= signalling lymphocyte-activation molecule; CDw150) Glycosylated type-I transmembrane protein (70 kD) present on T- and B-cell surfaces that is a high-affinity self-ligand. ...
1.111pUC9
E. coli phagemid vector, derived from pUC19 and M13MP9.
1.162wee
Cell cycle checkpoint genes found in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Mutants in wee-1 and wee-2 have normal growth rate but divide earlier so cells are smaller.
1.165SDS
(= sodium dodecyl sulphate; sodium lauryl sulphate) Anionic detergent that at millimolar concentrations will bind to and denature proteins, forming an SDS-protein complex. The ...
1.168SMARC
(= BRG-1-associated factors) The SWI/SNF complex-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulators of chromatin (SMARC), also called BRG1-associated factors, are components ...
1.17HCG
(= hCG; human chorionic gonadotrophin) See chorionic gonadotrophin.
1.17MAD
Protein involved in Dpp signalling (Dpp is TGF b -related). MAD ( mothers against dpp S contains a specific DNA-binding activity that activates an enhancer in a Drosophila ...
1.1pyrophosphate
Two phosphate groups linked by esterification. Released in many of the synthetic steps involving nucleotide triphosphates (eg. protein and nucleic acid elongation). Rapid ...
1.222SRBC
Sheep red blood cells.
1.332SOCS
(= suppressor of cytokine signalling) Family of proteins (SOCS 1-3 and CIS; 211 amino acids) rapidly induced in response to IL-6 and other cytokines, thought to act as ...
1.34MOM
(= mitochondrial outer membrane) It is used particularly for mitochondrial outer membrane proteins, in conjunction with the molecular mass in kiloDaltons eg. MOM19 and MOM72, ...
1.445VCAM
(= vascular cell adhesion molecule; CD106) Cell adhesion molecule (90-110 kD) of the immunoglobulin superfamily expressed on endothelial cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, ...
1.555VSCC
See voltage-sensitive calcium channel.
1.663Syp
(= PTP1D; Shp-2) An adaptor molecule mediating GRB-2/ras signalling. See Shp.
1.67CMV
See cytomegalovirus.
1.84CMC
(= cell-mediated cytotoxicity) The term is applied to T-lymphocytes that react to antigen by mitogenesis and develop into clones of specific T-effector cells.
14-3-3 proteins
Family of adapter proteins able to interact with a range of signalling molecules including c-Raf, Bcr, PI-3-kinase, polyoma middle T-antigen. Bind to phosphorylated serine ...
1CSAT
Monoclonal antibody defining integral membrane protein of chick fibroblasts. Originally thought to recognize a trimeric complex, now thought to recognize two different b1 ...
1DAG
See diacylglycerol and phosphatidyl inositol.
1ECG
(= electrocardiograph; electrocardiogram) A recording of the electrical activity of the heart.
1EMA
(1) Epithelial membrane antigen; see episialin. (2) E2F-binding site modulating activity: transcriptional repressor (272 residues, 34 kD) that has some similarity with E2F but ...
1MBP
See myelin basic protein.
2.004WBC
(= white blood cell) Term includes neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes.
464.1
Human macrophage inflammatory protein 1b (MIP1b).
744
See 464.1.
9E3
(= pCEF-4) An avian cytokine produced by chicken cells infected with Rous sarcoma virus.
a
(= alpha) Entry pre-fix is given as ‘alpha’; alternatively look for main portion of word.
A cells
(= a cells) Cell of the endocrine pancreas (Islets of Langerhans) that form approximately 20% of the population; their opaque spherical granules may contain glucagon. See ...
a-1-antitrypsin
Better named a-1-antiprotease (a-1-protease inhibitor). A (54 kD) major protein of blood plasma (3mgs/ml in human), part of the a-globulin fraction, and able to inhibit a wide ...
A-band
That portion of the sarcomere in which the thick myosin filaments are located. It is anisotropic in polarized light.
A-chain
Shorter of the two polypeptide chains of insulin (21 residues compared to 30 in the B chain). Many other heterodimeric proteins have their smaller chain designated the A chain, ...
A-channel
Type of potassium-selective ion channel that is activated by depolarization but only after a preceding hyperpolarization, ie. they are inactivated at rest. Important for ...
A-DNA
Right-handed double-helical DNA with approximately 11 residues per turn. Planes of base-pairs in the helix are tilted 20° away from perpendicular to the axis of the helix. ...
A-kinase
cAMP-regulated protein kinase, sometimes abbreviated PKA to contrast with PKC.
A-layer
S layer in Aeromonas sp.
A-site
Site on the ribosome to which aminoacyl tRNA attaches during the process of peptide synthesis. See also P-site.
A-type particles
Retrovirus-like particles found in cells. Non-infectious. The mouse genome contains around 1000 copies of homologous sequences.
A23187
A monocarboxylic acid extracted from Streptomyces chartreusensis that acts as a mobile-carrier calcium ionophore.
A4 protein
See amyloidogenic glycoprotein.
A9 cells
Established line of heteroploid mouse fibroblasts that are deficient in HGPRT.
AA-tRNA
See aminoacyl tRNA.
Ab
Common abbreviation for antibody. See immunoglobulins.
AB toxin
Multi-subunit toxin in which there are two major components, an active (A) portion and a portion that is involved in binding (B) to the target cell. The A portion can be ...
abaecins
Proline-rich basic antibacterial peptides (4 kD) found in the haemolymph of the honeybee. See apidaecins.
ABC
(1) Antigen binding cell or antigen binding capacity. (2) Avidin-biotin peroxidase complex. Used in visualizing antigen. Primary (antigen-specific) antibody is bound first, a ...
ABC proteins
Membrane proteins involved in active transport or regulation of ion channel function and having an ATP binding cassette. Most examples are prokaryotic, but important ...
ABC-exonuclease
(= ABC-excinuclease) Enzyme complex, product of uvrA, uvrB and uvrC genes from E. coli that mediates incision and excision steps of DNA excision-repair. Enzyme has the ability ...
Abelson leukaemia virus
A replication-defective virus originating from the Moloney murine leukemia virus by acquisition of c-abl. The virus induces B-cell lymphoid leukemias within a few weeks. The ...
abenzyme
See catalytic antibody.
aberration
Departure from normal; in microscopy two common forms of optical aberration cause problems, spherical aberration in which there is distortion of the image of the magnified ...
abetalipoproteinaemia
Autosomal recessive defect in which there is total absence of apoprotein B (a component of LDL, VLDL and chylomicrons). Characteristic feature is presence of acanthocytes; ...
abiogenesis
Spontaneous generation of life from non-living material.
ABL
An oncogene, identified in a mouse leukemia, encoding a tyrosine protein kinase. See also ABLV.
ABLV
The Abelson murine leukaemia virus, a mammalian retrovirus. Its transforming gene, abl, encodes a protein with tyrosine kinase activity closely related to src.
ABM paper
Aminobenzyloxy methylcellulose paper: paper to which single-stranded nucleic acid can be covalently coupled.
ABO blood group system
Probably the best known of the blood group systems, involves a single gene locus that codes for a fucosyl transferase. If the H-gene is expressed then fucose is added to the ...
abortive infection
Viral infection of a cell in which the virus fails to replicate fully, or produces defective progeny. Since part of the viral replicative cycle occurs, its effect on the host can ...
abortive transformation
Temporary transformation of a cell by a virus that fails to integrate into the host DNA.
ABP
See actin binding proteins.
ABP-120
Actin binding protein (857 amino acids; 92 kD) from Dictyostelium. A small rod-shaped molecule (35-40nm long), dimeric, capable of cross-linking filaments. Has strong sequence ...
ABP-280
Actin binding protein (2647 amino acids; 280 kD) from Dictyostelium, but very similar to filamin from other sources. A long rod-shaped molecule (80nm long), dimeric, with the ...
ABP-50
Actin binding protein (50 kD) from Dictyostelium that crosslinks actin filaments into tight bundles. Identical to elongation factor EF-1a. Calcium insensitive; localized near ...
ABP-67
Homologue of fimbrin. In yeast encoded by SAC6 gene, mutations in which lead to disruption of the actin cytoskeleton.
abrin
Toxic lectin from seeds of Abrus precatorius that has a binding site for galactose and related residues in carbohydrate but, because it is monovalent, is not an agglutinin for ...
abscess
A cavity within a tissue occupied by pus (chiefly composed of degenerating inflammatory cells), generally caused by bacteria that resist killing by phagocytes.
abscisic acid
A growth-inhibiting plant hormone found in vascular plants. Originally believed to be important in abscission (leaf fall), now known to be involved in a number of growth and ...
absorption coefficient
Any of four different coefficients that indicate the ability of a substance to absorb electromagnetic radiation. Absorbance is defined as the logarithm of the ratio of incident ...
absorption spectrum
Spectrum of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation (usually visible and UV light) absorbed by substance. Absorption is determined by existence of atoms that can be excited from ...
Acanthamoeba
Soil amoebae 20-30 mm in diameter that can be grown under axenic conditions and have been extensively used in biochemical studies of cell motility. They have been isolated from ...
acanthocyte
Cell with projecting spikes; most commonly applied to erythrocytes where the condition may be caused naturally by abetalipoproteinaemia or experimentally by manipulating the ...
acanthocytosis
Condition in which red cells of the blood show spiky deformation; symptomatic of abetalipoproteinaemia.
acanthosome
(1) Spinous membranous organelle found in skin fibroblasts from nude mice as a result of chronic ultraviolet irradiation. (2) Sometimes used as a synonym for coated vesicle ...
Acanthus
Genus of spiny-leaved Mediterranean plants
acapnia
Medical condition in which there is a low concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood.
ACC
(= 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) Immediate precursor of the plant hormone ethylene in most vascular plants. Synthesized from S-adenosyl methionine by ACC synthase. ...
ACC synthase
(= ACC methylthioadenosine lyase) Enzyme (65 kD; EC 4.1.1.14) that catalyses conversion of S-adenosylmethionine to ACC, first step in production of the plant hormone ethylene.
accelerin
Activated Blood Factor V which acts on prothrombin to generate thrombin during blood coagulation.
accessory cells
Cells that interact, usually by physical contact, with T-lymphocytes and that are necessary for induction of an immune response. Include antigen presenting cells, antigen ...
accessory pigments
In photosynthesis, pigments that collect light at different wavelengths and transfer the energy to the primary system.
ACE
See angiotensin.
acellular
Not made of cells; commonest use is in reference to slime moulds such as Physarum that are multinucleate syncytia.
acellular slime moulds
Protozoa of the Order Eumycetozoida (also termed true slime moulds). Have a multinucleate plasmodial phase in the life cycle.
acentric
Descriptive of pieces of chromosome that lack a centromere.
Acetabularia
Giant single-celled alga of the Order Dasycycladaceae. The plant is 3-5cm long when mature and consists of rhizoids at the base of a stalk, at the other end of which is a cap ...
Acetobacter
Genus of aerobic bacilli that will use ethanol as a substrate to produce acetic acid - thus will convert wine to vinegar.
acetyl CoA
Acetylated form of coenzyme A that is a carrier for acyl groups, particularly in the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
acetylation
Addition, either chemically or enzymically, of acetyl groups.
acetylcholine
Acetyl ester of choline. Perhaps the best characterized neurotransmitter, particularly at neuromuscular junctions. ACh can be either excitatory or inhibitory, and its ...
acetylcholine esterase
An enzyme, found in the synaptic clefts of cholinergic synapses, that cleaves the neurotransmitter acetylcholine into its constituents, acetate and choline, thus limiting the ...
acetylcholine receptor
See nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.
achondroplasia
Failure of endochondral ossification responsible for a form of dwarfism; caused by an autosomal dominant mutation. Relatively high incidence (1: 20,000 live births), mostly ...
Achyla
Genus of aquatic fungi with a branched coenocytic mycelium.
acid hydrolases
Hydrolytic enzymes that have a low pH optimum. The name usually refers to the phosphatases, glycosidases, nucleases and lipases found in the lysosome. They are secreted during ...
acid phosphatase
Enzyme (EC 3.1.3.2) with acidic pH optimum, that catalyses cleavage of inorganic phosphate from a variety of substrates. Found particularly in lysosomes and secretory vesicles. ...
acid protease
Proteolytic enzyme with an acid pH optimum, characteristically found in lysosomes. See proteases.
acid secreting cells
Large specialized cells of the epithelial lining of the stomach (parietal or oxyntic cells) that secrete 0.1N HCl, by means of H+ antiport ATPases on the luminal cell surface.
acid-citrate-dextrose
Citric acid/sodium citrate buffered glucose solution used as an anticoagulant for blood (citrate complexes calcium).
acidic FGF
See fibroblast growth factor.
acidophilia
Having an affinity for acidic dyes, particularly eosin; may be applied either to tissues or bacteria.
acidophils
One class of cells found in the pars distalis of the adenohypophysis.
acidosome
Non-lysosomal vesicle in which receptor-ligand complexes dissociate because of the acid pH.
acinar cells
Epithelial secretory cells arranged as a ball of cells around the lumen of a gland (as in the pancreas).
acinus
Small sac or cavity surrounded by secretory cells.
acoelomate
Animal without a coelom. The Acoelomate Phyla include sponges, coelenterates and lower worms such as nematodes and platyhelminths.
aconitase
Enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid cycle that catalyses isomerisation of citrate/isocitrate. Isoforms are found both in mitochondrial matrix and cytoplasm.
acquired immunity
Classically, the reaction of an organism to a new antigenic challenge and the retention of a memory of this, as opposed to innate immunity. In modern terms, the clonal ...
acrasiales
See Acrasidae
Acrasidae
Order of Protozoa also known as the cellular slime moulds. They normally exist as free-living phagocytic soil amoebae (vegetative cells), but when bacterial prey become scarce, ...
acrasin
Name originally given to the chemotactic factor produced by cellular slime moulds (Acrasidae) : now known to be cAMP for Dictyostelium discoideum.
acridine orange
A fluorescent vital dye, that intercalates into nucleic acids. The nuclei of stained cells fluoresce green; cytoplasmic RNA fluoresces orange. Acridine orange also stains acid ...
acridines
Heterocyclic compounds with a pyridine nucleus. Usually fluorescent and reactive with double stranded DNA as intercalating agents at very low concentrations. Hence dsDNA can be ...
acrocentric
See metacentric.
acromegaly
Enlargement of the extremities of the body as a result of the overproduction of growth hormone (somatotropin), eg. by a pituitary tumour.
acrosin
Serine protease stored in the acrosome of a sperm as an inactive precursor.
acrosomal process
A long process actively protruded from the acrosomal region of the spermatozoon following contact with the egg and that assists penetration of the gelatinous capsule.
acrosome
Vesicle at the extreme anterior end of the spermatozoan, derived from the lysosome.
Act-2
Human macrophage inflammatory protein 1b.
ACT1
См. ACT2.
ACT2
Actin genes from yeast; ACT1 is the essential (conventional) actin, 89% homologous in sequence with mouse cytoplasmic actin; ACT2 encodes a 44 kD protein 47% identical to ...
ActA
Major surface protein (90 kD) of Listeria monocytogenes that acts as the nucleating site for actin polymerization at one pole of the bacterial cell; assembly of the bundle of ...
ACTH
See adrenocorticotrophin.
actin
A protein of 42 kD, very abundant in eukaryotic cells (8-14% total cell protein) and one of the major components of the actomyosin motor and the cortical microfilament ...
actin binding proteins
A diverse group of proteins that bind to actin and that may stabilize F-actin filaments, nucleate filament formation, cross-link filaments, lead to bundle formation etc.
actin meshwork
Microfilaments inserted proximally into the plasma membrane and cross-linked by actin binding proteins to form a mechanically resistive network that may support protrusions ...
actin-RPV
Vertebrate actin-related protein; 42 kD with 54% sequence homology with muscle actin and 69% similarity with cytoplasmic actin - more similar to conventional actin than to ...
Actinia equina
Common beadlet anemone; a coelenterate. See equinatoxins.
actinic keratosis
Thickened area of skin as a result of excessive exposure to sunlight - particularly common in those with very fair skin.
actinogelin
Protein (115 kD) from Erlich ascites cells that gelates and bundles microfilaments.
Actinomycetales
Order of Gram positive bacteria, widespread in soil, compost, and aquatic habitats. Most are saprophytic, but there are a few pathogens; some produce important antibiotics. ...
actinomycin C
A mixture of antibiotics, actinomycins C1, C2 and actinomycin D elaborated by a species of Streptomyces.
actinomycin D
Antibiotic from Streptomyces spp. that by binding to DNA blocks the movement of RNA polymerase and prevents RNA synthesis in both pro- and eukaryotes.
Actinophrys sol
Species of Heliozoa often used in studies on microtubule stability: the axopodia are supported by a bundle of cross-linked microtubules arranged in a complex double-spiral ...
Actinosphaerium
Species of Heliozoathat is multinucleate. Remarkable for its long radial protruding axopodia that contain complex double spiral arrangements of many microtubules. It catches prey ...
actinotrichia
(= actinotrichium (singular) )
action potential
An electrical pulse that passes along the membranes of excitable cells, such as neurons, muscle cells, fertilized eggs and certain plant cells. The precise shape of action ...
action spectrum
The relationship between the frequency (wavelength) of a form of radiation, and its effectiveness in inducing a specific chemical or biological effect.
activated macrophage
A macrophage (mononuclear phagocyte) that has been stimulated by lymphokines and that has greatly enhanced cytotoxic and bactericidal potential
activation
(of egg) Normally brought about by contact between spermatozoon and egg membrane. Activation is the first stage in development and occurs independently of nuclear fusion. The ...
activation energy
The energy required to bring a system from the ground state to the level at which a reaction will proceed.
active immunity
Immunity resulting from the normal response to antigen. Only really used to contrast with passive immunity in which antibodies or sensitised lymphocytes are transferred from ...
active site
The region of a protein that binds to substrate molecule(s) and facilitates a specific chemical conversion. Produced by juxtaposition of amino acid residues as a consequence of ...
active transport
Often defined as transport up an electrochemical gradient. More precisely defined as unidirectional or vectorial transport produced within a membrane-bound protein complex by ...
active zone
Site of transmitter release on presynaptic terminal at chemical synapses. At the neuromuscular junction active zones are located directly across the synaptic cleft from ...
activin
b subunits of inhibin (which is an ab heterodimer) ; since there are two isoforms, A and B, there are three forms of activin, AA, BB and AB. Receptor has serine/threonine ...
activin-response factor
Induced in early Xenopus blastomeres by activin, Vg-1 and TGF b, binds to activin-response element in the mix-2 homeobox gene. The ARF complex contains XMAD2, a Xenopus ...
actobindin
Protein, 9.7 kD from Acanthamoeba castellani. Potent inhibitor of actin polymerization under certain conditions, possibly by binding to actin oligomers rendering them ...
actolinkin
Monomeric protein (20 kD) from echinoderm eggs. Seems to link actin filaments to inner surface of plasma membrane by their barbed ends.
actomere
Site of actin filament nucleation in sperm of some echinoderms in which the acrosomal process is protruded by rapid assembly of a parallel microfilament bundle.
actomyosin
Generally: a motor system that is thought to be based on actin and myosin. The essence of the motor system is that myosin makes transient contact with the actin filaments ...
actophorin
An actin depolymerizing factor (ADF) (13-15 kD) from protozoa ( Toxoplasma gondii, Acanthamoeba castellanii ) that will sever actin filaments and sequester G actin. Binds ...
acumentin
Protein (65 kD) originally thought to cap pointed end of microfilaments, isolated from vertebrate macrophages.
acute
(1) Sharp or pointed. (2) Of diseases; coming rapidly to a crisis - not persistent (chronic).
acute inflammation
Response of vertebrate body to insult or infection; characterized by redness (rubor), heat (calor), swelling (tumor), pain (dolor), and sometimes loss of function. Changes occur ...
acute phase protein
Proteins found in the serum of organisms showing acute inflammation. In particular C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A protein.
acute phase reaction
Response to acute inflammation involving the increased synthesis of various plasma proteins (acute phase proteins).
acutely transforming virus
Retrovirus that rapidly transforms cells, by virtue of possessing one or more oncogenes. Archetype: Rous sarcoma virus.
ACV
(1) acyclovir. (2) alpha-aminoadipylcysteinyl-valine, precursor for isopenicillin synthesis.
ACV synthase
(= alpha-aminoadipylcysteinyl-valine synthase) Enzyme responsible for an early step in cephalosporin synthesis. ACV is acted upon by isopenicillin N synthase to produce ...
acyclovir
(= ACV; 2-(hydroxyethoxy) methyl guanine) Antiviral agent that is an analogue of guanosine and inhibits DNA replication of viruses. Particularly successful against herpes ...
acylation
Introduction of an acyl (RCO-) group into a molecule: for example the formation of an ester between glycerol and fatty acid to form mono-, di-, or tri-acylglycerol, or the ...
adaptation
A change in sensory or excitable cells upon repeated stimulation, that reduces their sensitivity to continued stimulation. Those cells that show rapid adaptation are known as ...
adaptins
Proteins of 100-110 kD found as part of the adaptorcomplex.
adaptor
A protein complex associated with coated vesicles. Adaptors have been shown to promote the in vitro assembly of clathrin cages and to bind to the cytoplasmic domains of ...
Addison's disease
Chronic insufficiency of the adrenal cortex as a result of tuberculosis or, specific autoimmune destruction of the ACTH-secreting cells.
addressins
Cell surface molecules, particularly on endothelial cells believed to be involved in controlling the location of migrating cells, especially in lymphocyte homing. Probably act ...
adducin
Calmodulin-binding protein associated with the membrane skeleton of erythrocytes. A substrate for protein kinase C, it binds to spectrin-actin complexes (but only weakly to ...
adductor muscle
Large muscle of bivalve molluscs that is responsible for holding the two halves of the shell closed. Its unusual feature is its ability to maintain high tension with low energy ...
adenine
(= 6-aminopurine) One of the bases found in nucleic acids and nucleotides. In DNA, it pairs with thymine.
adeno-
Prefix indicating association with, or similarity to, glandular tissue.
adenocarcinoma
Malignant neoplasia of a glandular epithelium, or carcinoma showing gland-like organization of cells.
adenohypophysis
Anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; responsible for secreting a number of hormones and containing a comparable number of cell types.
adenoma
Benign tumour of glandular epithelium.
adenomatous polyposis coli
See polyposis coli.
adenosine
(= 9-b-D-ribofuranosyladenine) The nucleoside formed by linking adenine to ribose.
adenosine receptors
Four adenosine receptors have been identified, A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. All are seven membrane-spanning G-protein coupled. There is considerable difference in properties of ...
adenosquamous
Benign tumour of epithelial origin (adenoma) in which cells have flattened morphology as opposed to cuboidal or columnar.
Adenoviridae
Large group of viruses first isolated from cultures of adenoids. The capsid is an icosahedron of 240 hexons and 12 pentons and is in the form of a base and a fibre with a ...
adenylate cyclase
Enzyme that produces cAMP (cyclic AMP) from ATP and acts as a signal-transducer coupling hormone binding to change of cytoplasmic cAMP levels. The name strictly refers to ...
ADF
(1) Actin Depolymerizing Factor (19 kD) ; regulates actin polymerization in developing chick skeletal muscle. Has the ability to depolymerize microfilaments and bind ...
ADF-H domain
(= ADF-homology domain) An actin-binding module found in an extensive family of proteins with three phylogenetically distinct classes, ADF/cofilins, twinfilins and drebin/ABP-1s.
adherens junction
Specialized cell-cell junction into which are inserted microfilaments (in which case also known as zonula adherens), or intermediate filaments (macula adherens or spot ...
adhesins
General term for molecules involved in adhesion, but its use is restricted in Microbiology where it refers to bacterial surface components.
adhesion plaque
Another term for a focal adhesion, a discrete area of close contact between a cell and a non-cellular substratum, with cytoplasmic insertion of microfilaments and considerable ...
adhesion site
(1) In Gram negative bacteria, a region where the outer membrane and the plasmalemma appear to fuse. May be important in export of proteins or viral entry. (2) Used rather ...
Adiantum capillus-veneris
A species of fern, the source of a number of drugs.
adipocyte
Mesenchymal cell in fat tissue that has large lipid-filled vesicles. There may be distinct types in white and brown fat. 3T3-L1 cells are often used as a model system; they can ...
adipofibroblast
Adipocytes from subcutaneous fat lose fat globules and develop a fibroblastic appearance when grown in culture. Unlike skin fibroblasts they will take up fat from serum taken ...
adipose tissue
Fibrous connective tissue with large numbers of fat-storing cells, adipocytes.
adipsin
A serine protease with complement factor D activity. Synthesized by adipocytes. Altered levels are characteristic of some genetic and acquired obesity syndromes.
adjuvant
Additional components added to a system to affect action of its main component, typically to increase immune response to an antigen. See Freund\'s adjuvant.
adocia-sulphate-2
(= AS-2) Inhibitor of kinesin, isolated from sponge ( Haliclona spp.). Binds to motor domain of kinesin, mimicking tubulin.
adoptive immunity
Immunity acquired as a result of the transfer of lymphocytes from another animal.
ADP
Adenosine diphosphate. Unless otherwise specified is the nucleotide 5\'ADP, adenosine bearing a diphosphate (pyrophosphate) group in ribose-O-phosphate ester linkage at ...
ADP-ribosylation
A form of post-translational modification of protein structure involving the transfer to protein of the ADP-ribosyl moiety of NAD. Believed to play a part in normal cellular ...
ADP-ribosylation factor
Ubiquitous GTP-binding protein, approximately 20 kD, N-myristoylated, stimulates cholera toxin ADP-ribosylation. Mediates binding of non-clathrin coated vesicles and AP1 ...
adrenal
Endocrine gland adjacent to the kidney. Distinct regions (cortex and medulla) produce different ranges of hormones.
adrenaline
(= epinephrine) A hormone secreted (with noradrenaline) by the medulla of the adrenal gland, and by neurons of the sympathetic nervous system, in response to stress. The ...
adrenergic neuron
A neuron is adrenergic if it secretes adrenaline at its terminals. Many neurons of the sympathetic nervous systemare adrenergic.
adrenergic receptors
Receptors for noradrenaline and adrenaline. All are seven membrane spanning G-protein coupled receptors linked variously either to adenylate cyclase or phosphoinositide ...
adrenocorticotrophin
(= ACTH) A peptide hormone produced by the pituitary gland in response to stress (mediated by corticotrophin releasing factor, a 41 residue peptide, from the hypothalamus). ...
adrenoleucodystrophy
(= X-linked Schilder&’s disease) Demyelinating disease with childhood onset.
adrenomedullin
One of the calcitonin family peptides.
adriamycin
An antibiotic that intercalates into RNA and DNA. Related to daunomycin.
adseverin
Actin regulating protein (74 kD) isolated from adrenal medulla. Has severing, nucleating and capping activities similar to those of gelsolin, but does not crossreact ...
adsorption coefficient
A constant, under defined conditions, that relates the binding of a molecule to a matrix as a function of the weight of matrix, for example in a column.
adult respiratory distress syndrome
(= acute respiratory distress syndrome; ARDS) See septic shock.
adventitia
Outer coat of the wall of vein or artery, composed of loose connective tissue that is vascularized. Generally used to mean outer covering of an organ.
Aedes
Genus of mosquitos, several of which transmit diseases of man. A. aegypti is the vector of Yellow Fever.
Aequorea victoria
Hydrozoan jellyfish (a coelenterate) from which green fluorescent protein (GFP) was isolated. Aequorin can be isolated from A. victoria and A. forskaolea.
aequorin
Protein (30 kD) extracted from jellyfish ( Aequorea aequorea ) that emits light in proportion to the concentration of calcium ions. Used to measure calcium concentrations, but ...
aerenchyma
Form of parenchyma with large air spaces that gives buoyancy to aquatic plants.
aerobes
Organisms that rely on oxygen.
aerobic respiration
Controlled process by which carbohydrate is oxidized to carbon dioxide and water, using atmospheric oxygen, to yield energy.
aerolysin
Channel-forming bacterial exotoxin produced by Aeromonas hydrophila as a 50 kD protoxin that later has a 43 residue C-terminal peptide cleaved off to generate the active toxin. ...
Aeromonas
Genus of Gram negative bacteria some species of which are pathogenic. A. salmonicida causes furunculosis in fish.
aerotaxis
A taxis in response to oxygen (air).
AF2
(1) Activation function domain 2 of steroid receptors. (2) Antiflammin-2, a synthetic peptide inhibitor of PLA2.
afferent
Leading towards; afferent nerves lead towards the central nervous system, afferent lymphatics towards the lymph node. The opposite of efferent.
affinity
An expression of the strength of interaction between two entities, eg. between receptor and ligand or between enzyme and substrate. The affinity is usually characterized by the ...
affinity chromatography
Chromatography in which the immobile phase (bed material) has a specific biological affinity for the substance to be separated or isolated, such as the affinity of an antibody ...
affinity labelling
Labelling of the active site of an enzyme or the binding site of a receptor by means of a reactive substance that forms a covalent linkage once having bound. Linkage is often ...
aflatoxins
A group of highly toxic substances produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, and other species of Aspergillus, in stored grain or mouldy peanuts. They cause enlargement and ...
Agalenopsis aperta
American funnel web spider. See agatoxins.
agammaglobulinaemia
Sex-linked genetic defect that leads to the complete absence of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, and IgA) in the plasma as a result of the failure of pre-B cells to differentiate. ...
agar
A polysaccharide complex extracted from seaweed (Rhodophyceae) and used as an inert support for the growth of cells, particularly bacteria and some cancer cell lines (eg. ...
agarose
A galactan polymer purified from agar that forms a rigid gel with high free water content. Primarily used as an electrophoretic support for separation of macromolecules. ...
agatoxins
Toxins from the American funnel web spider, Agalenopsis aperta. The m -toxins are 36-38 residue peptides that act on insect but not vertebrate voltage-sensitive sodium channels. ...
agglutination
The formation of adhesions by particles or cells to build up multicomponent aggregates, otherwise termed agglutinates or flocs. Distinguished from aggregation by the fact that ...
agglutinins
Agents causing agglutination, eg. antibodies, lectins, polylysine.
agglutinogen
The antigen (in the case of antibody) or ligand (in the case of lectin) with which an agglutinin reacts.
aggrecan
The major structural proteoglycan of cartilage. It is a very large and complex macromolecule, comprising a core protein of 210 kD to which are linked around 100 chondroitin ...
aggregation
The process of forming adhesions between particles such as cells. Aggregation is usually distinguished from agglutination by the slow nature of the process in that not every ...
aginactin
Agonist-regulated actin-filament barbed-end capping protein (70 kD) that inhibits microfilament polymerization, isolated from Dictyostelium. Interestingly it is regulated by ...
agitoxins
Scorpion toxins (peptides) that inhibit potassium channels. Closely related to kaliotoxin.
agmatinase
Enzyme that degrades agmatine to putrescine.
agmatine
(= 1-amino-4-guanidobutane) A metabolite of arginine via arginine decarboxylase, is metabolized to putrescine by agmatinase. Suppresses polyamine biosynthesis and ...
agonist
(1) In neurobiology, of a neuron or muscle; one that aids the action of another. If the two effects oppose each other, then they are known as antagonistic. (2) In ...
agorins
Major structural proteins of the membrane matrix, constituting approximately 15% of total plasma membrane proteins of P815 mastocytoma cells. They form large ...
agouti
Central American rodent that has given its name to a grey flecked coat coloration in mice caused by alternate light and dark bands on individual hairs. The gene codes for a 131 ...
AGP
(= arabinoglycan-protein) A class of extracellular proteoglycan, found in many higher-plant tissues, and secreted by many suspension-cultured plant cells. Contains 90-98% ...
agranular vesicles
Synaptic vesicles that do not have a granular appearance in EM; 40-50nm in diameter, with membrane only 4-5nm thick. Characteristic of peripheral cholinergic synapses; (see also ...
agranulocytosis
Severe acute deficiency of granulocytes in blood.
agretope
Portion of antigen that interacts with an MHC molecule.
agrin
Secreted protein (200 kD) isolated from the synapse-rich electric organ of Torpedo californica that induces the formation of synaptic specializations on myotubes in culture. ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens
A Gram negative, rod-shaped flagellated bacterium responsible for crown gall tumour in plants. Following infection the T1 plasmid from the bacterium becomes integrated into the ...
Ah receptor
Cytoplasmic receptor for aryl hydrocarbons: once ligand is bound it translocates to the nucleus and binds to xenobiotic response element. Contains basic helix-turn-helix ...
AIDS
(= Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) Disease caused by infection with HIV (also called LAV or HTLV-3 in the early literature) virus, resulting in a deficiency of T-helper ...
air-lift fermenter
A fermenter in which circulation of the culture medium and aeration is achieved by injection of air into some lower part of the fermenter. Usually not suitable for animal cell ...
AKAP79
(= A kinase anchoring protein) Scaffold protein from mammalian cells to which Protein Kinase A (PKA), calcineurin and Protein Kinase C(PKC) all bind. PKC apparently binds at ...
Akt
Product of the normal gene homologue of v- akt, the transforming oncogene of AKT8 virus. A serine/threonine kinase (58 kD) with SH2 and PH domains, activated by PI3kinase ...
AKV
A replication competent murine leukemia virus occurring endogenously in some mouse strains.
ALA synthase
Enzyme responsible for the synthesis of 5-aminolevulinic acid. Defects in the enzyme cause microcytic anaemia because activity is essential for haem formation.
alamethicin
A polyene pore-forming ionophore that forms relatively nonspecific anion or cation transporting pores in plasma membranes or artificial lipid membranes. These pores may be ...
alanine
Normally refers to L-a-alanine, the aliphatic amino acid found in proteins. The isomer b-alanine is a component of the vitamin pantothenic acid and thus also of coenzyme A.
alarmone
A small signal molecule in bacteria that induces an alteration of metabolism as a response to stress. Many metabolic responses may be altered by a single alarmone.
albinism
Condition in which no melanin (or other pigment) is present.
albino
Organism deficient in melanin biosynthesis. Hair and skin are unpigmented and the retinal pigmented epithelium is transparent, making the eyes appear red.

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