Слова на букву macu-mucu (375) Dictionary of molecular biology
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Слова на букву macu-mucu (375)

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macula adherens
Spot desmosome: see desmosome.
macule
A spot: only commonly met in the construct "immaculate" meaning unspotted.
mad
Basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor (28 kD).
Madin-Darby canine kidney
(= MDCK) Line of canine epithelial cells that grow readily in culture and form confluent monolayers with relatively low trans-monolayer permeability (varies between clones). ...
MADS
Superfamily of transcription factors. See MAD as example.
MAF
See macrophage activating factor. A lymphokine.
MAG protein
Myelin-associated glycoprotein; one of the immunoglobulin superfamily.
magainins
Peptides of about 20 amino acid residues with antimicrobial activity, found in amphibian skin. Probably have membrane insertion and lytic properties. Sequence related to ...
magnesium
An essential divalent cation. The major role is as the chelated ion in ATP and presumably other triphosphonucleotides. The Mg2+ /ATP complex is the sole biologically active form ...
magnetic resonance imaging
Non-invasive imaging technique that uses nuclear magnetic resonance to look at intact tissues in the body. Particularly valuable for studies on brain and soft tissues.
magnetosome
Enveloped compartment in magnetotactic bacteria containing magnetite particles. By using this organelle to detect the vertical component of the Earth\'s magnetic field, the ...
magnetotaxis
Tactic response to magnetic field; in magnetotactic bacteria the Earth\'s magnetic field is used as a guide to "up" and "down" in deep sediment.
magnocellular neuron
A neuron in the magnocellular region of the brain. Perhaps the first class of neuron from the central nervous system shown to be sensitive to nerve growth factor (that had ...
maitotoxin
Toxin from dinoflagellates. Activates L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) and mobilizes intracellular calcium stores.
major histocompatibility antigen
A set of plasmalemmal glycoprotein antigens involved in rapid (eg. 7 days in the mouse) graft rejection and other immune phenomena. The minor histocompatibility antigens are ...
major histocompatibility complex
The set of gene loci specifying major histocompatibility antigens, eg. HLA in man, H-2 in mice, RLA in rabbits, RT-1 in rats, DLA in dogs, SLA in pigs, etc.
major intrinsic protein
Family of structurally related proteins with 6 transmembrane segments, associated with gap junctions or vacuoles. MIP is found in lens fibre gap junctions. Other members: ...
malabsorption syndrome
A variety of conditions in which digestion and absorption in the small intestine are impaired. Multiple causes including lymphoma, amyloid and other infiltrations, Crohn\'s ...
malaria
In humans, the set of diseases caused by infection by protozoans of the genus Plasmodium. P. vivax causes the tertian type, P. malariae the quartan type and P. falciparum the ...
Malassez cells
Cells found in the periodontal ligament as ‘epithelial rests of Malassez’. Malassez cells retain the major characteristics of epithelial cells throughout their ...
malate
The ion from malic acid, a component of the citric acid cycle.
maleate
The ion from maleic acid, often used in biological buffers.
malignant
As applied to tumours means that the primary tumour has the capacity to show metastatic spread (metastasise). Implies loss of both growth controland positional control.
Mallory&’s one-step stain
A modified trichrome method that can give good tissue differentiation using a relatively brief procedure.
malonate
The ion from malonic acid, HOOC.CH2COOH. Malonate is a competitive inhibitor for succinate dehydrogenase in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Malonyl-SCoA is an important ...
Malpighian tubule
Blind-ending tubule opening into the lower intestine of insects and responsible for fluid excretion - the arthropod equivalent of the kidney.
maltase
Enzyme that hydrolyzes maltose (and the glucose trimer maltotriose) to glucose, during the enzymic breakdown of starch.
maltose
Disaccharide intermediate of the breakdown of starch, glucose- a (1-4) -glucose. Fermentable substrate in brewing.
maltose-binding protein
Protein of the bacterial ( E. coli ) surface that links with MCP-II and is involved in the chemotactic response to maltose; probably derived from a similar protein that links ...
mammalian expression vector
In molecular biology, a vector that will produce large amounts of eukaryotic protein (taxonomy notwithstanding, not necessarily a protein from a mammal).
mammamodulin
Protein (52-55 kD) expressed by hormone-independent mammary tumour cells. Affects morphology, motility, growth and hormone-receptor expression.
mammary gland
Milk-producing gland of female mammals. An adapted sweat gland, it is made up of milk-producing alveolar cells, surrounded by contractile myoepithelial cells, together with ...
mammary tumour virus
(= Bittner agent) Retrovirus that induces mammary carcinoma in mice. Isolated from highly inbred strains that had very high incidence of the tumours, after the discovery that ...
mammary-derived growth inhibitor
(= MDGI) Fatty acid binding protein that inhibits proliferation of mammary carcinoma cells.
Manduca sexta
A species of Lepidopteran insect, also known as the tobacco hornworm moth. The caterpillars, which are very large, are used in studies of ion transport, moulting, and as a system ...
manganese
An essential trace element. Present in cells as concentrations of around 0.01mM. Activates a wide range of enzymes eg. pyruvate carboxylase and one family of superoxide ...
mannan
Mannose-containing polysaccharides found in plants as storage material, in association with cellulose as hemicellulose. In yeasts a wall constituent.
mannan-binding lectin
(= MBL; formerly mannan-binding protein, MBP) Plasma protein (32 kD) structurally related to complement C1, that binds specific carbohydrates (mannans) on the surface of ...
mannitol
(= D-mannitol) Hexitol related to D-mannose. Found in plants, particularly fungi and seaweeds.
mannose
(= D-mannose) Hexose identical to D-glucose except that the orientation of the -H and -OH on carbon 2 are interchanged (ie. the 2-epimer of glucose). Found as constituent of ...
mannose-6-phosphate
Mannose derivative, formed by phosphorylation in the Golgi complex, of certain mannose residues on N-glycan chains of lysosomal enzymes. Believed to function as targeting ...
mannosidase
Enzyme catalysing hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond between mannose residues and a variety of hydroxyl-containing groups. Alpha-mannosidases in rough endoplasmic reticulum and ...
Mantoux test
Test for tuberculin reactivity in which tuberculin PPD (purified protein derivative) is injected intracutaneously. The injection site is examined after 2-3 days, a positive ...
MAP kinase
(= mitogen-activated protein kinase; externally regulated kinase, ERK) Serine-threonine kinases that are activated when quiescent cells are treated with mitogens, and that ...
MAP1C
Microtubule associated protein (2 heavy chains of 410 kD associated with 6 or 7 light chains of about 50-70 kD), now considered to be the two-headed cytoplasmic equivalent of ...
MAPKK
MAP kinase kinase.
MAPs
(= microtubule-associated proteins) May form part of the electron-lucent zone around a microtubule. MAP1A and 1B (approximately 350 kD) from brain, form projections from ...
MAPTAM
(= 1,2-bis-(2-amino-5-methylphenoxy) ethane tetraacetic acid tetraacetoxymethyl ester) Compound that readily enters cells where it is converted to 5-methyl BAPTA, an indicator ...
marasmus
Wasting of the body due to a deficiency in energy-giving food, as opposed to protein deficiency (kwashiokor).
Marburg virus
A filovirus that causes Marburg disease, a severe haemorrhagic fever developed in many people who work with African green monkeys.
MARCKS
(= myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C-substrate) Membrane associated (through the myristoyl residue) calmodulin- and actin-binding protein that cycles between membrane ...
Marek's disease
Infectious cancer of the lymphoid system (lymphomatosis) in chickens, caused by a contagious Herpesvirus. An effective vaccine is now available.
Marfan syndrome
Dominant disorder of connective tissue in which limbs are excessively long and loose-jointed. Probably a collagen fibril-assembly disorder since it can be mimicked in mice by ...
mariner
Group of transposons with broad phylogenetic distribution (arthropods, nematodes, planaria, humans). Mariner elements consist of a transposase gene flanked by short inverted ...
marker gene
Gene that confers some readily-detectable phenotype on cells carrying the gene, either in culture, or in transgenic or chimeric organisms. Gene could be an enzymic reporter ...
Markov process
A stochastic process in which the probability of an event in the future is not affected by the past history of events.
Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI; deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme arylsulphatase B; resembles Hurler\'s disease in some respects.
MARPS
(= microtubule repetitive proteins MARP-1 and MARP-2) Heat-stable high molecular weight proteins (ca 320 kD) with many 38 residue repeats. Isolated from membrane skeleton of ...
mas
Oncogene from brain that encodes a receptor coupled to a G protein and to PIP2 turnover. Ligand was originally thought to be angiotensin II, but this is now less certain.
masked messenger RNA
Long-lived and stable mRNA found originally in the oocytes of echinoderms and constituting a store of maternal information for protein synthesis that is unmasked (derepressed) ...
MASP
(= MBL-associated serine protease) Proteases (ca 76 kD) in the complement system, activated by the binding of mannan to mannan-binding lectin (MBL), (formerly ...
maspin
Serpin (42 kD) expressed in normal mammary epithelium but reduced in mammary tumours.
Masson&’s trichrome stain
Trichrome stains are used particularly for connective tissue. Masson&’s trichrome method uses haemalum, acid fuchsin and methyl blue and has the effect of staining nuclei ...
mast cell
Resident cell of connective tissue that contains many granules rich in histamine and heparan sulphate. Release of histamine from mast cells is responsible for the immediate ...
mastigonemes
Lateral projections from eukaryotic flagella. May be stiff and alter the hydrodynamics of flagellar propulsion, or flexible and alter the effective diameter of the flagellum ...
mastocytoma
Neoplastic mast cells.
mastoparans
Basic peptides from wasp venoms. Analogous to melittin in honey bee venom they can act as phospholipase A2 activators, but their relevance to the toxic action of the venoms is ...
maternal antibody
Any antibody transferred from a mammalian mother transplacentally into the foetus. See IgG.
maternal inheritance
Inheritance through the maternal cell line, eg. through the oocyte and eggs. Mitochondrial genes are maternally inherited and various other non-Mendelian forms of inheritance ...
maternal mRNA
Messenger RNA found in oocytes and early embryos that is derived from the maternal genome during oogenesis. See masked messenger RNA.
maternal-effect gene
Gene, usually required for early embryonic development, whose product is secreted into the egg by the mother. The phenotype is thus determined by the mother\'s, rather than the ...
mating-type genes
Genes that, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, specify into which of the two mating types (a and a S a particular cell falls. Only unlike mating type haploids will fuse. The interest ...
Matrigel
Proprietary name for gel-forming matrix material derived from EHS cells. Cells grown on Matrigel often show morphological characteristics distinct from those seen on a solid ...
matrix
Ground substance in which things are embedded or that fills a space (as for example the space within the mitochondrion). Most common usage is for a loose meshwork within which ...
matrix metalloproteinases
Proteolytic enzymes that degrade extracellular matrix. Include collagenases and elastases. Inhibitors are predicted to have benefits in arthritis and metastasis though this ...
matrix proteins
Proteins of the outer layer of the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria.
Mauthner neuron
Large neuron in the mesencephalon of fishes and amphibians. A rare example of an individually identifiable neuron in a vertebrate nervous system.
Max
Transcription factor: forms homodimers which then interact with CACGTG motif of DNA repressively, but will form heterodimers with Myc protein that bind the same motif with ...
Maxam-Gilbert method
A method of DNA sequencing, based on the controlled degradation of a DNA fragment in a set of independent, nucleotide-specific reactions. The resulting fragments have ...
maxiprep
Slang, denoting a large scale purification of plasmid from a bacterial culture. Usually used to describe preparations from 100-500ml culture. See also miniprep, midiprep, ...
MBL
See mannan-binding lectin.
MCAF
See monocyte chemotactic and activating factor.
McArdle's disease
Glycogen storage-disease in which the defective enzyme is muscle phosphorylase.
MCP-1
See monocyte chemoattractant protein-1.
MCPs
(= methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins) Proteins of the inner cytoplasmic face of the bacterial plasma membane with which the receptors of the outer face interact. Four ...
MCS
See polycloning site.
MCSF
(= CSF-1; macrophage colony-stimulating factor) A 40-76 kD glycoprotein that plays an important role in the activation and proliferation of microglial cells both in vitro ...
MDGI
See mammary-derived growth inhibitor.
Mdm2
(1) Oncoprotein that inhibits p53 by binding to the transcriptional activator domain of p53 preventing it from regulating its target genes. Mdm2 expression is activated by ...
Mdr
See multidrug transporter.
Mdx mouse
Mouse mutant deficient in dystrophin and thus a good model system for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
measles virus
Paramyxovirus that causes the childhood disease measles and is responsible for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.
media
Avascular middle layer of the artery wall, composed of alternating layers of elastic fibres and smooth muscle cells.
medium
Shorthand for culture medium or growth medium, the nutrient solution in which cells or organs are grown.
medulla oblongata
Region of the brain where the spinal cord tapers into the brain stem. Neurons in this region regulate some very basic functions such as respiration.
MEF2
(= myocyte-enhancer factor 2) Group of transcription factors of the MADS superfamily. MEF2C is expressed in skeletal muscle, spleen, brain and various myeloid cells. In ...
megakaryocyte
Giant polyploid cell of bone marrow that gives rise to 3-4,000 platelets.
megalin
(= gp330) Epithelial endocytic receptor that internalises various ligands including apolipoproteins E and B. Major antigen against which there is autoimmune response in Heymann ...
megaprep
Slang, denoting a medium scale purification of plasmid from a bacterial culture. Usually used to describe preparations from over 500ml culture. See also miniprep, midiprep, ...
megaspore
Haploid spore produced by a plant sporophyte, that develops into a female gametophyte.
meiocytes
Cell that will undergo meiosis; a little-used term.
meiosis
A specialized form of nuclear division in which there are two successive nuclear divisions (meiosis I and II) without any chromosome replication between them. Each division can ...
meiospore
Haploid spore formed after meiotic division.
meiotic spindle
The meiotic equivalent of the mitotic spindle.
mek
(= MAPK / ERK kinase) Mitogen activated protein kinase (Mek1, 45 kD; Mek2, 46 kD).
Mel-14
Antibody that reacts with L-selectin (CD62L). Blocks lymphocyte binding to HEV both in vitro and in vivo.
melanin
Pigments largely of animal origin. High molecular weight polymers of indole quinone. Colours include black/brown, yellow, red and violet. Found in feathers, cuttle ink, human ...
melanocyte
Cells that synthesize melanin pigments. The pigments are stored in melanosomes (chromatophores) that can be redistributed in the cytoplasm to change pigment patterns in fish and ...
melanocyte-stimulating hormone
A releasing hormone produced in the mammalian hypophysis and related structures in lower vertebrates. Made up of a -MSH (1665 D), the same as amino acids 1-13 of ACTH, and b ...
melanoma
Neoplasia derived from melanocytes; benign forms are moles, but often are highly malignant. Generally the cells contain melanin granules and for this reason they have been used ...
melanoma growth-stimulatory activity
(= MGSA, neutrophil-activating protein 3, NAP-3, "gro", KC, N51, CINC) Chemokine of the C-X-C subfamily. Potent mitogen. Activates, and is chemotactic for, neutrophils. ...
melanophore
Cell type found in skin of lower vertebrates (amphibian skin, fish scales) that contains granules of the black pigment melanin. The granules can be rapidly redeployed between a ...
melanosome
Membrane-bounded organelle found in melanocytes; when melanin synthesis is active internal structure is characteristic, containing melanofilaments that have a periodicity of ...
melatonin
(= N-acetyl 5-methoxytryptamine) A hormone secreted by the pineal gland. In lower vertebrates causes aggregation of pigment in melanophores, and thus lightens skin. In humans ...
melioidosis
Fatal bacterial disease of rodents in the tropics, caused by Pseudomonas pseudomallei. Affects lymph nodes and viscera.
melittin
The major component of bee venom, responsible for the pain of the sting. A 26-amino acid peptide, that has a hydrophobic and a positively-charged region. Can lyse cell membranes ...
mellitose
See raffinose.
memantine
(= 1-amino-3,5, dimethyl adamantane) Relatively low affinity non-competitive NMDA antagonist used in the treatment of Parkinsonism and some other brain disorders.
membrane
Generally, a sheet or skin. In cell biology the term is usually taken to mean a modified lipid bilayer with integral and peripheral proteins, as forms the plasma membrane. ...
membrane attack complex
See complement.
membrane capacitance
The electrical capacitance of a membrane. Plasma membranes are excellent insulators and dielectrics: capacitance is the measure of the quantity of charge that must be moved ...
membrane depolarization
See depolarization.
membrane fluidity
Biological membranes are viscous 2-dimensional fluids within their physiological temperature range.
membrane fracture
See freeze fracture.
membrane potential
More correctly, transmembrane potential difference: the electrical potential difference across a plasma membrane. See resting potential, action potential.
membrane protein
A protein with regions permanently attached to a membrane (peripheral membrane protein), or inserted into a membrane (integral membrane protein). Insertion into a membrane ...
membrane recycling
The process whereby membrane is internalised, fuses with an internal membranous compartment, and is then re-incorporated into the plasma membrane. In cells that are actively ...
membrane transport
The transfer of a substance from one side of a plasma membrane to the other, in a specific direction, and at a rate faster than diffusion alone. See active transport.
membrane vesicles
Closed unilamellar shells formed from membranes either in physiological transport processes or else when membranes are mechanically disrupted. They form spontaneously when ...
membrane zippering
See zippering.
memory cells
Cells of the immune system that "remember" the first encounter with an antigen and facilitate the more rapid secondary response when the antigen is encountered on a subsequent ...
menadione
(= vitamin K3; 2-methyl-1,4-naphthalene dione.) Synthetic naphthoquinone derivative with properties similar to those of Vitamin K.
Mendelian inheritance
Inheritance of characters according to the classical laws formulated by Gregor Mendel, which give the classic ratios of segregation in the F2 generation. In sexually-reproducing ...
meninges
Three layers of tissue surrounding the brain: See dura mater, pia mater and arachnoid layer.
meningitis
Inflammation of the meninges of the brain and spinal cord. It can be caused by viral infections, by lymphocytic infiltrations and by various bacteria, but the most serious form ...
meningococcus
Neisseria meningitidis; Gram negative non-motile pyogenic coccus that is responsible for epidemic bacterial meningitis.
Menke&’s disease
Genetically determined human defect in copper metabolism probably because of an inability to absorb copper from the gut.
mepacrine
(= quinacrine) Prophylactic antimalarial drug.
mercaptoethanol
A pungent water-soluble thiol, not of biological origin. Used in biochemistry to cleave disulphide bonds in proteins or to protect sulphydryl groups from oxidation.
meristem
Group of actively dividing plant cells, found as apical meristems at the tips of roots and shoots and as lateral meristems in vascular tissue (vascular cambium) and in cork ...
MeroCaM
Calcium-sensitive fluorophore that can be used to measure calcium levels within live cells.
merocrine
Commonest mode of secretion in which a secretory vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and releases its contents to the exterior.
meromyosin
Fragments of myosin formed by trypsin digestion. Heavy meromyosin (HMM) has the hinge region and ATPase activity, light meromyosin (LMM) is mostly a -helical and is the ...
merosin
See laminin.
merotomy
Partial cutting: used in reference to experiments in which protozoa are enucleated and the behaviour of the residual cytoplasm is studied.
merozoite
Stage in the life-cycle of the malaria parasite (Plasmodium ) : formed during the asexual division of the schizont. Merozoites are released and invade other cells.
merozygote
A bacterium that is in part haploid and in part diploid because it has acquired exogenous genetic material eg. during transduction or conjugation.
mesangial cells
Cells found within the glomerular lobules of mammalian kidney, where they serve as structural supports, may regulate blood flow, are phagocytic, and may act as accessory cells, ...
mesencephalon
Region of the brain below the thalamus and above the pons developed from the middle of the three cerebral vesicles of the embryonic nervous system. Includes the superior and ...
mesenchyme
Embryonic tissue of mesodermal origin.
Mesocricetus auratus
Syrian golden hamster. See Cricetulus griseus.
mesoderm
Middle of the three germ layers; gives rise to the musculo-skeletal, blood vascular, and urinogenital systems, to connective tissue (including that of dermis) and contributes ...
mesokaryotic
Those organisms with a cellular organization intermediate between pro- and eukaryotes.
mesophase
(= smectic mesophase) Arrangement of phospholipids in water where the liquid-crystalline phospholipids form multi-layered parallel-plate structures, each layer being a bilayer, ...
mesophile
Organism that thrives at moderate temperatures (between, say, 20-40°C).
mesophyll
Tissue found in the interior of leaves, made up of photosynthetic (parenchyma) cells, also called chlorenchyma cells. Consists of relatively large, highly vacuolated cells, with ...
mesosecrin
Glycoprotein (46 kD) secreted by mesothelial cells (including endothelium). In culture, forms a fine coating on the substratum.
mesosome
Invagination of the plasma membrane in some bacterial cells, sometimes with additional membranous lamellae inside. May have respiratory or photosynthetic functions.
mesothelioma
Malignant tumour of the mesothelium, usually of lung; frequently caused by exposure to asbestos fibres, particularly those of crocidolite, the fibres of which are thin and ...
mesothelium
Simple squamous epithelium of mesodermal origin. It lines the peritoneal, pericardial and pleural cavities and the synovial space of joints. The cells may be phagocytic.
mesotocin
Peptide hormone secreted by posterior lobe of pituitary; structure and function similar to oxytocin.
messenger RNA
(= mRNA) Single-stranded RNA molecule that specifies the amino acid sequence of one or more polypeptide chains. This information is translated during protein synthesis when ...
met
An oncogene, identified in mouse osteosarcoma.
met repressor-operator complex
Repressor protein, 104 residues, product of the metJ gene, which regulates methionine biosynthesis in E. coli. Dimeric molecules bind to adjacent sites 8 base-pairs apart on ...
met-enkephalin
(= YGGFM) See enkephalins.
metabolic burst
(= respiratory burst) Response of phagocytes to particles (particularly if opsonized), and to agonists such as formyl peptides and phorbol esters; an enhanced uptake of oxygen ...
metabolic cooperation
Transfer between tissue cells in contact of low molecular weight metabolites such as nucleotides and amino acids. Transfer is via channels constituted by the connexons of gap ...
metabolic coupling
The same as metabolic cooperation.
metabolism
Sum of the chemical changes that occur in living organisms.
metacentric
Descriptive of a chromosome that has its centromere (kinetochore) at or near the middle of the chromosome, as opposed to acrocentric with the centromere near one end.
metachromasia
(= metachromatic staining) The situation where a stain when applied to cells or tissues gives a colour different from that of the stain solution.
metachronal rhythm
See metachronism.
metachronism
(= metachronal rhythm) Type of synchrony found in the beating of cilia. A metachronal process is one that happens at a later time, and the synchronization is such that the ...
metafemales
Human females in which there are four X chromosomes in addition to 44 autosomes.
metagon
RNA particle found in Paramecium, where it behaves as mRNA, and that can behave like a virus if ingested by the protozoan Didinium.
metalloenzyme
An enzyme that contains a bound metal ion as part of its structure. The metal may be required for enzymic activity, either participating directly in catalysis, or stabilizing the ...
metalloprotein
A protein that contains a bound metal ion as part of its structure.
metalloproteinase
(= metalloendopeptidase, EC 3.4.24; metallocarboxypeptidase, EC3.4.17) Proteolytic enzymes in which a divalent cation is part of the catalytic mechanism. See matrix ...
metallothioneins
Small cysteine-rich metal-binding proteins found in the cytoplasm of many eukaryotes. Synthesis can be induced by heavy metals such as zinc, cadmium, copper and mercury, and ...
metamere
Unit of segmentation or metamerism.
metameric
Chem: having two or more constitutional isomers. Biol: having a segmented body form (metamerism).
metamorphosis
Change of body form, for example in the development of the adult frog from the tadpole or the butterfly from the caterpillar.
metaphase
Classically the second phase of mitosis or one of the divisions of meiosis. In this phase the chromosomes are well condensed and aligned along the metaphase plate, making it ...
metaphase plate
The plane of the spindle approximately equidistant from the two poles along which the chromosomes are lined up during mitosis or meiosis. Also termed the equator.
metaplasia
Change from one differentiated phenotype to another, for example the change of simple or transitional epithelium to a stratified squamous form as a result of chronic damage. ...
metastasis
Development of secondary tumour(s) at a site remote from the primary; a hallmark of malignant cells.
metastatic spread
Process of development of secondary tumours. Involves local invasion (in most cases), passive transport, lodgement, and proliferation at a remote site.
metavinculin
Splice variant of vinculinfound in smooth and cardiac muscle; has an additional exon 19 that encodes 68 amino acids. In cardiac muscle connects microfilaments to the ...
methaemoglobin
An oxidized form of haemoglobin containing ferric iron that is produced by the action of oxidizing poisons. Non-functional.
Methanobacterium
A genus of strictly anaerobic bacteria that reduce CO using molecular hydrogen, H2, to give methane. They show a number of features that distinguish them from other bacteria, ...
methanochondrion
A structure of involuted plasma membrane found in many methanogenic bacteria and thought to be an organelle of methane formation.
methicillin
Penicillinase-resistant penicillin antibiotic.
methionine
(= met; M; 149D) Contains the -SCH3 group that can act as a methyl donor (see S-adenosyl methionine). Common in proteins but at low frequency. The met-x linkage is subject to ...
methionine puddle
A term used to describe a region of a protein surface composed of a cluster of methionine side chains. Proposed as the active hydrophobic site of calmodulin and also of signal ...
methisazone
(= N-methylisatin; b-thiosemi-carbazone) Drug that specifically blocks the translation of late viral mRNA in poxvirus infection, and was used prophylactically for smallpox.
methotrexate
Analogue of dihydrofolate. Inhibits dihydrofolate reductase and kills rapidly growing cells. Therapeutic agent for leukaemias, but has a low therapeutic ratio.
methyl-
(= -CH3) Specific reference to the methyl group is made when macromolecules are modified after synthesis by enzymic addition of methyl groups. The group is transferred to ...
methylcholanthrene
(= 3-methylcholanthrene) Carcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbon. One of many such substances formed during incomplete combustion of organic material.
methyldopa
An antihypertensive drug, preferred in pregnant patients.
Methylene Blue
(= Swiss blue; Basic Blue 9; tetramethythionine chloride) Water-soluble dye that can be reduced to a colourless form and can be oxidized by atmospheric oxygen. Used as a stain in ...
methylotroph
Yeasts, like Hansenula polymorpha, that utilize methanol as an energy source.
methyltransferase
Enzyme that transfers a methyl group from S-adenosyl methionine to a substrate. Most commonly encountered in bacterial chemotaxis where the methyl-accepting chemotaxis ...
methylxanthines
Naturally occurring purine alkaloids such as theobromine, theophylline and caffeine (trimethyl-xanthine). They inhibit cAMP phosphodiesterase and thus cause an increase in ...
metJ
Gene for the repressor of methionine biosynthetic operon. Protein product (12 kD) binds to DNA.
metorphamide
Amidated opioid octapeptide from bovine brain. Derived by proteolytic cleavage from proenkephalin.
metrizoate
(= 3-acetimido-5-(N-methyl-acetamido) -triiodobenzoate) Sodium salt of metrizoate is used to produce solutions with high densities suitable for cell density gradient ...
metronidazole
Antiprotozoal and antibacterial drug.
mevalonic acid
Key intermediate in polyprenyl biosynthesis and thus cholesterol synthesis. Derived from hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) - a reaction inhibited by mevastatin.
mevinolin
Intermediate in terpene synthesis; an analogue of compactin, a fungal metabolite that is used to lower plasma low density lipoprotein levels. It acts as an inhibitor of ...
MGSA
See melanoma growth stimulatory activity protein.
MHC
See major histocompatibility complex.
MHC restriction
Restriction on interaction between cells of the immune system because of the requirement to recognize foreign antigen in association with MHC antigens (major histocompatibility ...
micelle
One of the possible ways in which amphipathic molecules may be arranged; a spherical structure in which all the hydrophobic portions of the molecules are inwardly directed, ...
Michaelis-Menten equation
Equation derived from a simple kinetic model of enzyme action that successfully accounts for the hyperbolic (adsorption-isotherm) relationship between substrate concentration S ...
microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia
(= m. hemolytic anemia (USA) ) Consequence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) : fragments of red blood cells, damaged by being forced through a fibrin meshwork, ...
microbody
See peroxisome.
microcarrier
Microcarriers are small solid or in some cases immiscible liquid spheres, on which cells may be grown in suspension culture. They provide a means of obtaining large yields of ...
microcentrum
Obsolete name for the pericentriolar region.
microcinematography
The making of films using a microscope and cine camera.
Micrococcus
Genus of Gram positive aerobic bacteria, cells around 1-2 m m in diameter. M. lysodeikticus (now M. luteus) was commonly used as the source of bacterial cell wall suspension on ...
microcolliculi
Broad swellings (0.5 m m) on the dorsal surface of a moving epidermal cell in culture, that move rearward as the cell moves forward (as do ruffles on fibroblasts).
microcytes
Abnormally small red blood cells, found in some types of anaemia.
microdialysis
Dialysis on a small scale, giving microlitre range samples. Used for example in studies of in vivorelease of transmitters in brain tissue.
microelectrode
An electrode, with tip dimensions small enough (less than 1 m m) to allow non-destructive puncturing of the plasma membrane. This allows the intracellular recording of resting ...
microfibril
Basic structural unit of the plant cell wall, made of cellulose in higher plants and most algae, chitin in some fungi, and mannan or xylanin a few algae. Higher plant ...
microfilament
Cytoplasmic filament, 5-7nm thick, of F-actin that can be decorated with HMM; may be laterally associated with other proteins (tropomyosin, a -actinin) in some cases, and may ...
microglial cell
Small glial cells of mesodermal origin, with scanty cytoplasm and small spiny processes. Distributed throughout grey and white matter. Derive from monocytes and invade neural ...
microglobulin
Any small globular plasma protein. See beta-2-microglobulin.
microinjection
The insertion of a substance into a cell through a microelectrode. Typical applications include the injection of drugs, histochemical markers (such as horseradish peroxidase or ...
micronucleus
The smaller nucleus in ciliate protozoans, fully active in inheritance and passed after meiosis to conjugating pairs. Gives rise to the macronucleus or macronuclei. Genes in ...
microperoxidase
Part of a cytochrome c molecule that retains haem group and has peroxidase activity.
microperoxisome
Small peroxisomesof 150-250nm diameter found in most cells.
micropinocytosis
Pinocytosis of small vesicles (around 100nm in diameter). Not blocked by cytochalasins.
micropore filters
Filters made of a meshwork of cellulose acetate or nitrate and with defined pore size. They can be autoclaved, and the smaller pore sizes (0.22 m m, 0.45 m m) are used for ...
microprobe
See electron microprobe.
micropyle
(1) Small hole or aperture in the protective tissue surrounding a plant ovule, through which the pollen tube enters at fertilization. Develops into a small hole in the seed coat ...
microsatellites
Short sequences of di- or trinucleotide repeats of very variable length distributed widely throughout the genome. Using PCR primers to the unique sequences upstream and ...
microsequencing
Sequencing of very small amounts of protein - often a prelude to producing an oligonucleotide probe, screening a cDNA library and cloning.
microsomal fraction
See microsomes.
microsomes
Heterogenous set of vesicles 20-200nm in diameter formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted.
microspikes
Projections from the leading edge of some cells, particularly, but not exclusively, nerve growth cones. They are usually about 100nm diameter, 5-10 m m long, and are supported by ...
microspore
A haploid spore produced by a plant sporophyte that develops into a male gametophyte. In seed plants, it corresponds to the developing pollen grain at the uninucleate stage. ...
microtome
A device used for cutting sections from an embedded specimen, either for light- or electron-microscopy.
microtrabecular network
Complex network arrangement seen using the high-voltage electron microscope to look at the cytoplasm of cells prepared by very rapid freezing. The suggestion was that most ...
microtubule
Cytoplasmic tubule, 25nm outside diameter with a 5nm thick wall. Made of tubulin heterodimers packed in a three-start helix (or of 13 protofilaments looked at another way), and ...
microtubule organizing centres
(= MTOC) Rather amorphous region of cytoplasm from which microtubules radiate. The pattern and number of microtubules is determined by the MTOC. The pericentriolar region is ...
Microtus
Genus of voles and meadow mice.
microvillus
(= microvilli (plural) ) Projection from the apical surface of an epithelial cell that is supported by a central core of microfilaments associated with bundling proteins such as ...
Microviridae
A diverse group of ssDNA bacteriophages, also known as fX phage group or isometric ssDNA phages.
midbody
Dense structure formed during cytokinesis at the cleavage furrow. It consists of remnants of spindle fibres and other amorphous material and disappears before cell division ...
middle-lamella
First part of the plant cell wall to be formed, laid down in the phragmoplast during cell division as the cell plate. Subsequently makes up the central part of the double ...
midiprep
Slang, denoting a medium scale purification of plasmid from a bacterial culture. Usually used to describe preparations from 10-100ml culture. See also miniprep, maxiprep, ...
midkine
Heparin-binding growth factor (13 kD) of the TGF- b ; superfamily; has 50% sequence identity with heparin-binding growth-associated molecule (HB-GAM). Structurally unrelated to ...
MIF
See macrophage inhibition factor, or migration inhibitory factor.
Mig
(= m119) Mouse protein induced by IFN g ( interferon g). See also cytokines.
migration inhibitory factor
Factor that inhibits macrophage movement. Originally defined on basis of inhibition of emigration of mononuclear cells from capillary (haematocrit) tubes; more recently a 13 kD ...
mil
An oncogene, identified in bird and mouse sarcomas, encoding a serine/threonine protein kinase.
Millipore filter
Trade name for a well-known brand of micropore filters.
Mimosa pudica
The "sensitive plant" whose leaflets fold inwards very rapidly when touched. A more vigorous stimulus causes the whole leaf to droop, and the stimulus can be transmitted to ...
mimotope
Compound that mimics the structure of a conformational epitope and that will elicit an identical antibody response (whereas a mimetic would not have the same antigenicity). ...
mineralocorticoid
Natural or synthetic corticosteroid that acts on water and electrolyte balance by promoting retention of sodium ions and excretion of potassium ions in the kidney. Aldosterone ...

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