Слова на букву macu-mucu (375) Dictionary of molecular biology
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Слова на букву macu-mucu (375)

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miniature end plate potential
(= MEPP) Small fluctuations (typically 0.5 mV) in the resting potential of postsynaptic cells. They are the same shape as, but much smaller than, the end plate potentials caused ...
minicell
Spherical fragment of a bacterium produced by abnormal fission and not containing a bacterial chromosome.
minichromosome
(1) Certain viruses complex with the histones of the host eukaryote cells they have infected to form a chromatin structure resembling a small chromosome. (2) A plasmid that ...
minimal medium
(= minimal essential medium) The simplest tissue culture medium that will support the proliferation of normal cells.
minimyosin
Form of myosin isolated from Acanthamoeba ; only 180 kD, but capable of binding to actin.
miniprep
Slang, denoting a small scale purification of plasmid from a bacterial culture. Usually used to describe preparations from 1-10ml culture. See also midiprep, maxiprep, ...
minisatellite
(= variable number tandem repeat; VNTR) Class of highly repetitive satellite DNA, comprising variable (typically 10-20) repeats of short (eg. 64 bases) DNA sequences. The high ...
minisegregant cells
Human cells with small amounts of DNA and few chromosomes; obtained experimentally by perturbing cell division. Can readily be fused with whole cells.
minK
Widely expressed protein (15 kD) that forms potassium channels by aggregation with other membrane proteins. A variety of channels have been shown to have minK associated with ...
minutemutant
A class of recessive lethal mutants of Drosophila The heterozygotes grow more slowly, are smaller and less fertile than the wild type flies. There are about 40 loci that ...
MIP
See major intrinsic protein or macrophage inflammatory protein. Macrophage inflammatory protein is known to have various subclasses, MIP-1 a, MIP-1 b, MIP-2.
miranda
Drosophila gene, the product of which (830 residues) co-localises with Prospero in mitotic neuroblasts and apparently directs Prospero exclusively to the ganglion mother cell ...
mismatch repair
A DNA repair system that detects and replaces wrongly paired, mismatched, bases in newly replicated DNA. E. coli has a mismatch correction enzyme coded for by three genes ...
missense mutation
A mutation that alters a codon for a particular amino acid to one specifying a different amino acid.
mitochondrial diseases
Illnesses, frequently neurological, which can be ascribed to defects in mitochondrial function. If the defect is in the mitochondrial rather than the nuclear genome unusual ...
mitochondrion
Highly pleiomorphic organelle of eukaryotic cells that varies from short rod-like structures present in high number to long branched structures. Contains DNA and ...
mitogenesis
The process of stimulating transit through the cell cycle especially as applied to lymphocytes. Concanavalin A is a mitogen for T-lymphocytes; the best mitogen for ...
mitogenic
Causing re-entry of cells into the cell cycle, not just into mitosis.
mitogillin
Toxin (149 residues) produced by Aspergillus restrictus. One of the aspergillins; see alpha-sarcin.
mitomycin C
Aziridine antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces caespitosus. Inhibits DNA synthesis by cross-linking the strands and is used as an anti-neoplastic agent. Most active in late ...
mitoplasts
Isolated mitochondria without their outer membranes. They have finger-like processes, and retain the capacity for oxidative phosphorylation.
mitoribosomes
Mitochondrial ribosomes; these more closely resemble prokaryotic ribosomes than cytoplasmic ribosomes of the cells in which they are found, though they are even smaller and have ...
mitosis
The usual process of nuclear division in the somatic cells of eukaryotes. Mitosis is classically divided into four stages. The chromosomes are actually replicated prior to ...
mitotic apparatus
See spindle.
mitotic death
Cells fatally damaged by ionizing radiation may not die until the next mitosis, at which point the radiation damage to the DNA becomes evident, particularly when there is ...
mitotic index
The fraction of cells in a sample that are in mitosis. It is a measure of the relative length of the mitotic phase of the cell cycle.
mitotic recombination
Somatic crossing-over. Crossing-over can occur between homologous chromosomes during mitosis, but is very rare because the chromosomes do not normally pair. When it occurs it ...
mitotic segregation
See mitotic recombination.
mitotic shake-off method
A method of collecting cells in mitosis, so that the chromosomes can be examined and the karyotype determined. Many cultured cells round up during mitosis and so become less ...
mitotic spindle
See spindle and mitosis.
mix
Homeobox genes ( mix1, mix2 ), expressed in prospective mesoderm and endoderm after mid-blastula stage, that respond to TGF- b (transforming growth factor- b) superfamily ...
mixed lymphocyte reaction
Reaction of mitogenesis produced in T-lymphocytes when allogeneic (ie. mixed) lymphocytes are brought together, provided they are mismatched in histocompatibility loci. Once ...
MLCK
See myosin light chain kinase.
MLEE
(= multi-locus enzyme electrophoresis) Form of two-dimensional electrophoresis used to distinguish polymorphisms between strains or populations.
MMTV
Mouse mammary tumour virus.
MN blood group antigens
A pair of blood group antigens governed by genes that segregate independently of the ABO locus. The alleles are co-dominant and there are three types MM, NN, and MN. ...
Mnt
Protein that interacts with Max and functions as a transcriptional repressor. Not a member of the Myc or Mad families. Binds to same site on Max as does Sin3.
Mo-1
s aM b2 integrin of leucocytes (CD11b/CD18).
mobile genetic elements
See transposons.
mobile ion carrier
See ionophore.
modification enzyme
Enzyme that introduces minor bases into DNA or RNA or that alters bases already incorporated. Serves to alter the sequence so that restriction enzymes will not damage the strand.
modulation
See neuromodulation.
moesin
(= membrane-organising extension spike protein.) Isolated from placenta, a member of the ezrin, band 4.1, talin family of cytoskeleton-membrane link proteins.
molecular clock
This term has two separate uses. In one sense it means the rate of fixation of mutations in DNA and thus times the rate of genetic diversification. In the second sense it means ...
molluscan catch muscle
Muscle responsible for holding closed the two halves of the shell of bivalves. Specialized to maintain tension with low expenditure of ATP. Rich in paramyosin.
molluscum bodies
Intracellular inclusions of poxviruses found in cells of human epidermis; harmless, but contagious, skin lesions (molluscum contagiosum).
Moloney murine leukaemia virus
(= Moloney murine leukemia virus (USA) ) Replication-competent retrovirus (Oncovirinae) that causes leukaemia in mice, isolated by Moloney from cell-free extracts made from a ...
Moloney murine sarcoma virus
Replication-defective retrovirus, source of the oncogene v-mos, responsible for inducing fibrosarcomas in vivo, and transforming cells in culture.
Moloney test
Skin test for immunity to diphtheria in which active toxin is injected into one site and toxoid into another. This is to control for pseudopositive reactions to the toxin.
MOLT-4 cells
Suspension culture derived from human male with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. A stable T-cell leukaemia line.
monellin
Basic non-glycosylated heterodimeric protein (44 and 50 residue protomers) that has intensely sweet taste.
monensin
A sodium ionophore (671D) from Streptomyces cinnamonensis. Has antibiotic properties, and is used as a feed additive in chickens. Also used in ion-selective electrodes.
Monera
Kingdom that contains all prokaryotic organisms (bacteria and cyanobacteria) in the Five Kingdom scheme.
monoamine neurotransmitters
See biogenic amines.
monoamine oxidase
Enzyme catalysing breakdown of several biogenic amines, such as serotonin, adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine.
monocentric chromosome
Chromosome with a single centromere, ie. most chromosomes.
monocistronic RNA
A messenger RNA that gives a single polypeptide chain when translated. All eukaryote mRNAs are monocistronic, but some bacterial mRNAs are polycistronic especially those ...
monoclonal
Used of a cell line whether within the body or in culture to indicate that it has a single clonal origin. Monoclonal antibodies are produced by a single clone of hybridoma ...
monocotyledonous
(= monocot) Plants in which the developing plant has only one cotyledon. Grasses are perhaps the commonest examples of the Class (which also contains palms, lilies and orchids).
monocyte
Mononuclear phagocyte circulating in blood that will later emigrate into tissue and differentiate into a macrophage.
monocyte chemoattractant protein-1
See monocyte chemotactic and activating factor.
monocyte chemotactic and activating factor
(= MCAF; JE; monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; MCP-1) Cytokine of the C-C subfamily, co-induced with interleukin-8 on stimulation of endothelial cells, fibroblasts or ...
monokines
Soluble factors, derived from macrophages, that act on other cells (eg. interleukin-1). Term becoming unusual - all monokines are cytokines and that term is more commonly used.
monolayer
A single layer of any molecule, but most commonly applied to polar lipids. Can be formed at an air/water interface in experimental systems. The term should not be used to ...
monolayering of cells
Tendency of animal tissue cells growing on solid surfaces to cover the surface with a complete layer only one cell thick, before growing on top of each other. This non-random ...
mononuclear phagocytes
Monocytes and their differentiated products, macrophages. "Mononuclear cells" are leucocytes other than polymorphonuclear cells and include lymphocytes.
monopodial
Adjective describing an amoeba that has only one pseudopod(as opposed to polypodial forms).
monosaccharide
A simple sugar that cannot be hydrolyzed to smaller units. Empirical formula is (CH2 O) n and range in size from trioses (n=3) to heptoses (n=7).
monosome
(1) A single ribosome attached to a strand of mRNA. (2) A ribosome that has dissociated from a polysome. (3) Chromosome in an aneuploid set that does not have a homologue. ...
monosomy
Situation in a normally diploid cell or organism in which one or more of the homologous chromosome pairs is represented by only one chromosome of the pair. For example, sex ...
MOPS
(= morpholino-propane sulphonic acid) A ‘biological’ buffer; a synthetic zwitterionic compound with a pKa of 7.2, that is non-toxic and has a low temperature coefficient. ...
Morbilli virus
Genus of viruses (of the Paramyxoviridae). Type species is measles virus; other species include canine distemper virus and the related seal virus.
morphallaxis
Regenerative process in which part of an organism is transformed directly into a new organism without replication at the cut surface.
morphine
An opioid alkaloid, isolated from opium, with a complex ring structure. It is a powerful analgesic with important medical uses, but is highly addictive. Functions by occupying ...
morphogen
Diffusible substance that carries information relating, for example, to position in the embryo, and thus determines the differentiation that cells perceiving this information ...
morphogenesis
The process of "shape formation": the processes that are responsible for producing the complex shapes of adults from the simple ball of cells that derives from division of the ...
morphogenetic movements
Movements of cells or of groups of cells in the course of development. Thus the invagination of cells in gastrulation is one of the most dramatic of morphogenetic movements; ...
morphometry
Method that involves measurement of shape. A variety of methods exist to enable one to examine, for example, the distribution of objects in a 2-D section of a cell and then to ...
mortalin
(= 75kD glucose regulated protein; GRP75; MOT-1; MOT-2) Member of the HSP70 family - functions as a mortality marker in fibroblasts. Mortal fibroblasts have MOT-1 uniformly ...
morula
Stage of development in holoblastic embryos. The morula stage is usually likened to a spherical raspberry, a cluster of blastomeres without a cavity.
mos
An oncogene, identified in mouse sarcoma, encoding a serine/threonine protein kinase.
mosaic egg
At one time a distinction was drawn between those organisms in which the egg seemed to have a firmly committed fate map built in and "regulating" embryos. In the former, after ...
motif
A small structural element that is recognisable in several proteins, eg. alpha-helix.
motilin
Peptide (22 residues) found in duodenum, pituitary and pineal that stimulates intestinal motility.
motogen
Term proposed for substances that stimulate cell motility - by analogy with those that stimulate cell division (mitogens). Scatter factor (hepatocyte growth factor) is an ...
motoneuron
A neuron that connects functionally to a muscle fibre.
motor end plate
Synonym for neuromuscular junction.
motor neuron
Synonym for motoneuron.
motor neuron disease
(= amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) Degenerative disease of unknown cause that affects predominantly motor neurons of spinal cord, cranial nerve nuclei and motor cortex. There ...
motor protein
Proteins that bind ATP and are able to move on a suitable substrate with concomitant ATP hydrolysis. Most eukaryotic motor proteins move by binding to a specific site on ...
Mott cells
Plasma cells containing large eosinophilic inclusions; found in the brain in cases of African trypanosomiasis.
Mounier-Kuhn syndrome
Tracheobronchomegaly, a rare disorder of the lower respiratory tract. May be a connective tissue disease.
moxonidine
See clonidine.
MPF
See cyclin.
MRC-5 cells
Cell line established from normal human male foetal lung tissue. Will double 50 to 60 times before showing senescence. Often used as ‘normal’ cells.
MRF-4
(= myf-6) Member of the MyoD family of muscle regulatory proteins.
mRNA
See messenger RNA.
MRP
See calgranulins.
MRSA
(= multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) An increasing problem, particularly in hospitals, suggesting that bacteria are beginning to win the arms race against antibiotics. ...
msh
Multigene family coding for proteins involved in mismatch repair. Homologous to S. cerevisiae MutS. Included in family are MSH1, MSH2, hMSH2, hMLH1, hPMS1, hPMS2 and probably ...
MSS4
Ubiquitous protein that binds to a subgroup of rab proteins.
MTOC
See microtubule organizing centre.
MUC-1
See episialin.
mucilage
Sticky mixture of carbohydrates in plants.
mucocyst
Small membrane-bounded vesicular organelle in pellicle of ciliate protozoans that will discharge a mucus-like secretion.
mucopeptide
Synonym for peptidoglycan.
mucopolysaccharide
The polysaccharide components of proteoglycans, now more usually known as glycosaminoglycans.
mucopolysaccharidosis
(= mucopolysaccharidoses (plural) ) Inherited diseases in humans resulting from inability to break down glycosaminoglycans. Hunter syndrome and Hurler\'s disease, for example, ...
mucous gland
A type of merocrine gland that produces a thick (mucopolysaccharide-rich) secretion (as opposed to a serous gland).
mucus
Viscous solution secreted by various membranes; rich in glycoprotein.

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