Слова на букву muel-nucl (375) Dictionary of molecular biology
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Слова на букву muel-nucl (375)

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nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
(= nAChR) Integral membrane protein of the postsynaptic membrane to which acetylcholine binds. The receptor contains an integral ion channel; as a result of binding of ...
nicotinic acid
(= pyridine 3-carboxylic acid) A precursor of NAD, that is a product of the oxidation of nicotine.
NIDDM
(= non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.) Type II, maturity (adult) onset diabetes. Can usually be treated by regulating sugar intake.
nidogen
See entactin.
Niemann-Pick disease
Severe lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency in sphingomyelinase; excess sphingomyelin is stored in ‘foam’ cells (macrophages) in spleen, bone-marrow and lymphoid ...
nif genes
The complex of genes in nitrogen fixing bacteria that code for the proteins required for nitrogen fixation, particularly the nitrogenase. Present as an operon in Klebsiella ...
nifedipine
(= BAYa1041; Nifedin; Procardia) A calcium channel blocker (346 D) used experimentally and as a coronary vasodilator.
niflumic acid
(= (2,(3-(trifluoromethyl) -anilino) nicotinic acid) ) A rather nonspecific inhibitor of chloride channels.
nigericin
An ionophore capable of acting as a carrier for K+ or Rb+ or as an exchange carrier for H+ with K+. Originally used as an antibiotic. Has been used in investigating ...
NIH 3T3 cells
Very widely used mouse fibroblast cell line; 3T3 cells have been derived from different mouse strains and it is therefore important to define the particular cell line. NIH ...
Nijmegen breakage syndrome
Autosomal recessive chromosomal instability syndrome characterized by microencephaly, growth retardation, immunodeficiency, and predisposition to tumours. Cells from patients ...
ninhydrin
(= triketohydrindene hydrate.) Pale yellow substance used to detect amino acids and proteins (compounds containing free amino or imino groups) with which it forms a deeply ...
Nissl granules
Discrete clumps of material seen by phase contrast microscopy in the perikaryon of some neurons, particularly motor neurons. They are basophilic and contain much RNA, and are ...
Nitella
Characean alga that has giant, multinucleate internodal cells. These show cytoplasmic streaming at rates of up to 100 m m/sec and have been used as models for motile phenomena ...
nitric oxide
(= endothelium-derived relaxation factor;EDRF; NO) Gas produced from L-arginine by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase. Acts as an intracellular and intercellular messenger in a ...
nitric oxide synthase
(= NO synthase) Enzyme that produces the vasorelaxant nitric oxide (endothelium-derived relaxation factor) from L-arginine. There are two isoforms, one constitutive and ...
nitroblue tetrazolium reduction
Nitroblue tetrazolium, a yellow dye, is taken up by phagocytosing neutrophils and reduced to insoluble formazan, which is deep-blue, if the metabolic burst is normal. Reduction ...
nitrocellulose paper
Paper with a high nonspecific absorbing power for biological macromolecules. Very important as a receptor in blot-transfer methods. Bands are transferred from a chromatogram or ...
nitrogen fixation
The incorporation of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia by various bacteria, catalysed by nitrogenase. This is an essential stage in the nitrogen cycle and is the ultimate source ...
nitrogen mustards
A series of tertiary amine compounds having vesicant properties similar to those of mustard gas. They have the general formula RN(CH2CH2Cl) 2. They can alkylate compounds such as ...
nitrogenase
Nitrogenases are enzymes found in nitrogen-fixing bacteria that reduce nitrogen to ammonia (also ethylene to acetylene).
nitrosamines
These molecules contain the N-N=O group (N-nitrosamines) : many are carcinogens or suspected carcinogens.
NK cells
(= natural killer cell) See null cell.
NMDA
(= N-methyl-D-aspartic acid) A powerful agonist for a class of receptor NMDA receptor)found on some vertebrate nerve cells involved in synaptic transmission.
NMDA receptor
Glutamate receptor subtype (see excitatory amino acids. NMDA channels seem to be potentiated by intracellular arachidonic acid.
NO
See nitric oxide.
NO synthase
See nitric oxide synthase.
Nocardia
Genus of Gram positive bacteria that form a mycelium that may fragment into rod- or coccoid-shaped cells. They are very common saprophytes in soil but some are opportunistic ...
nociception
Detection of pain. See capsaicin.
nociceptor
Pain receptor. Many nociceptors respond to capsaicin.
nocodazole
Microtubule blocker - binds to tubulin heterodimer rendering it assembly-incompetent.
Noctiluca
A bioluminescent dinoflagellate. Responsible for many instances of marine phosphorescence.
NOD mice
(= non-obese diabetic mice) Have unique histocompatibility antigens; pancreatic B cells are destroyed by an autoimmune response.
node
A point in a plant stem at which one or more leaves are attached.
node
A point in a plant stem at which one or more leaves are attached.
node of Ranvier
A region of exposed neuronal plasma membrane in a myelinated axon. Nodes contain very high concentrations of voltage-gated ion channels, and are the site of propagation of ...
nodulin
Plant protein. Soybean nodulin-24 is closely related to major intrinsic protein.
noggin
Dorsalising factor (26 kD) from Spemann&’s organizerregion of amphibian embryo.
nojirimycin
Antibiotic produced by Streptomyces strains; inhibits a -glucosidases and prevents normal glycosylation of proteins by interfering with the early pruning down to the core ...
Nomarski differential interference contrast
See differential interference contrast.
non-coding DNA
DNA that does not code for part of a polypeptide chain or RNA.This includes introns and pseudogenes. In eukaryotes the majority of the DNA is non-coding. Non-coding strand ...
non-competitive inhibitor
Reversible inhibition of an enzyme by a compound that binds at a site other than the substrate-binding site.
non-cyclic photophosphorylation
Process by which light energy absorbed by photosystems I and II in chloroplasts is used to generate ATP (and also NADPH). Involves photolysis of water by photosystem II, ...
non-disjunction
Failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate at meiosis or mitosis respectively. It results in aneuploid cells. Non-disjunction of the X chromosome in ...
non-equivalence
Term used in cell determination for cells that will give rise to the same sorts of differentiated tissues but that have different positional values (eg. cells of fore-limb and ...
non-histone chromosomal proteins
Chromatin consists of DNA, histones and a very heterogeneous group of other proteins, that include DNA polymerases, regulator proteins, etc. They are often generically referred ...
non-ionic detergent
Detergent in which the hydrophilic head-group is uncharged. In practice hydrophilicity is usually conferred by -OH groups. Examples are the polyoxyethylene p-t-octyl phenols ...
non-Mendelian inheritance
In eukaryotes, patterns of gene transmission not explicable in terms of segregation, independent assortment and linkage. May be due to cytoplasmic inheritance, gene ...
non-Newtonian fluid
A fluid in which the viscosity varies depending upon the shear stress. The effect can arise because of alignment of non-spherical molecules as flow is established or because of ...
non-reciprocal contact inhibition
Collision behaviour between different cell types in which one cell shows contact inhibition of locomotion, and the other does not. An example is the interaction between sarcoma ...
non-spiking neuron
A neuron that can convey information without generating action potentials. As passive electrical potentials are attenuated over distances greater than the space constant for a ...
Nonidet
Trade name for non-ionic detergents, usually octyl or nonyl-phenoxy-polyethoxy-ethanols.
nonpermissive cell
Originally a cell of a tissue type or species that does not permit replication of a particular virus. Early stages of the virus cycle may be possible in such a cell, that in the ...
nonpolar group
(= hydrophobic group) Group in which the electronic charge density is essentially uniform, and that cannot therefore interact with other groups by forming hydrogen bonds, or by ...
nonsense codon
(= nonsense triplet) The three codons, UAA (known as ochre), UAG (amber) and UGA (opal), that do not code for an amino acid but act as signals for the termination of protein ...
nonsense mutation
Mutation in coding DNA that prevents the protein from being synthesized.
nonsense strand
See non-coding DNA.
nopaline
(= N-alpha-(1,3-dicarboxypropyl) -L-arginine) An opine. The gene for nopaline synthase is carried on the T-DNA of the Ti plasmid.
noradrenaline
(= norepinephrine; arterenol) Catecholamine neurohormone, the neurotransmitter of most of the sympathetic nervous system (of so-called adrenergic neurons) : binds more ...
norepinephrine
See noradrenaline.
norleucine
(= Ahx; Nle; 2-aminohexanoic acid) Non-protein amino acid. Formyl-Norleucyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine has been used as a substitute for fMLP in studies on neutrophil chemotaxis ...
normoblast
Nucleated cell of the myeloid cell series found in bone marrow, that give rise to red blood cells. See erythroblast.
normocyte
Erythrocyte of normal size and shape.
Northern blot
An electroblotting method in which RNA is transferred to a filter and detected by hybridization to32 P-labelled RNA or DNA. See blots.
Northwestern blot
Technique for identifying protein/RNA interactions in which protein is run on a gel, blotted, and probed with a labelled RNA of interest. Interactions are detected as hot-spots ...
Norwalk virus
Unclassified single-stranded RNA virus causing common acute infectious gastroenteritis.
nosocomial infections
Hospital-acquired infections: commonest are due to Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, and Proteus mirabilis. ...
Notch
Family of large transmembrane receptor proteins (350 kD) that mediate developmental cell-fate decisions; Notch contains 36 repeats of the EGF-like domain. Mammalian Notch gene ...
notexins
Notexins Np and Ns are phospholipase A2 isoforms found in the venom of Notexis scutatus scutatus. Block acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junction.
Notexis scutatus scutatus
Tiger snake. Venom contains a range of toxins including notexins.
notochord
An axial mesodermal tissue found in embryonic stages of all chordates and protochordates, often regressing as maturity is approached. Typically a rod-shaped mass of vacuolated ...
notoplate
Region of the neural plate overlying the notochord.
noxiustoxin
Charybdotoxin-related peptide toxin (39 residues) from scorpion Centruroides noxius. Blocks mammalian voltage-gated potassium channels and high-conductance calcium-activated ...
Nramp
(= natural resistance associated macrophage protein; Nramp1, Nramp2) Nramp1 codes for an integral membrane protein (65 kD) expressed only in macrophages/monocytes and PMNs. ...
NSAID
(= non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) Range of anti-inflammatory drugs that include aspirin, ibuprofen and a wide range of derivatives. Mostly act on the production of early ...
NSF
(= N-ethyl-maleimide sensitive factor) Homotetrameric protein (76 kD) involved, together with three SNAPs, in mediating vesicle traffic between medial and trans -Golgi ...
NSO cells
Murine myeloma cell line (plasmacytoma).
Ntk
Protein tyrosine kinase (56 kD) similar to Cskbut found in nervous tissue and T-cells. Has SH2 and SH3 domains but lacks consensus tyrosine phosphorylation and myristoylation ...
nuclear actin binding protein
Nuclear protein, dimer of 34 kD subunits. Binds actin with Kd of around 25 m M.
nuclear envelope
Membrane system that surrounds the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Consists of inner and outer membranes separated by perinuclear space and perforated by nuclear pores. The term ...
nuclear lamina
A fibrous protein network lining the inner surface of the nuclear envelope. The extent to which this system also provides a scaffold within the nucleus is controversial. ...
nuclear localization signal
In eukaryotes, peptide signal sequence that identifies a protein as being destined for the nucleus (see importins. Frequently the signal sequence is a collection of basic ...
nuclear magnetic resonance
Biophysical technique which allows the spectroscopy or imaging of molecules containing at least one paramagnetic atom (eg. 13C, 31P). Although non-invasive, the scale of the ...
nuclear matrix
Protein latticework filling the nucleus that anchors DNA replication and transcription complexes.
nuclear membrane
See nuclear envelope.
nuclear pore
Openings in the nuclear envelope, diameter about 10nm, through which molecules such as nuclear proteins (synthesized in the cytoplasm) and mRNA must pass. Pores are generated ...
nuclear receptor
Receptor for a diffusible signal molecule that can enter the nucleus, particularly receptors for steroid hormones.
nuclear RNA
The nucleus contains RNA that has just been synthesized, but in addition there is some that seems not to be released, or is only released after further processing, the ...
nuclear run-on
(= nuclear run-off) Strictly different, the two terms tend to be used interchangeably. A nuclear run-on assay is intended to identify the genes that were being transcribed at a ...
nuclear transplantation
Experimental approach in study of nucleo-cytoplasmic interactions, in which a nucleus is transferred from one cell to the cytoplasm (which may be anucleate) of a second.
nuclear transport
Passage of molecules in and out of the nucleus, presumably via nuclear pores. Passage of proteins into the nucleus may depend on possession of a nuclear location sequence ...
nuclease
An enzyme capable of cleaving the phosphodiester bonds between nucleotide subunits of nucleic acids.
nucleation
A general term used in polymerization or assembly reactions where the first steps are energetically less favoured than the continuation of growth. Polymerization is much faster ...
nucleic acids
Linear polymers of nucleotides, linked by 3\',5\' phosphodiester linkages. In DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, the sugar group is deoxyribose, and the bases of the nucleotides ...
nucleocapsid
The coat (capsid) of a virus plus the enclosed nucleic acid genome.
nucleocytoplasmic transport
Transport of molecules from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
nucleoid
Region of cell in a bacterium that contains the DNA.
nucleolar organizer
Loop of DNA that has multiple copies of rRNA genes. See nucleolus.
nucleolin
A major nucleolar protein (100 kD) that functions as a shuttle protein between nucleus and cytoplasm and is also found on the cell surface. Nucleolin binds midkine and ...
nucleolus
A small dense body (sub-organelle) within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells, visible by phase contrast and interference microscopy in live cells throughout interphase. Contains ...
nucleoplasm
By analogy with cytoplasm, that part of the nuclear contents other than the nucleolus.
nucleoplasmin
First protein to be described as a molecular chaperone; major function seems to be in assembly of nucleosomes.
Nucleopore filter
Filter of defined pore size made by etching a polycarbonate filter that has been bombarded by neutrons, the extent of etching determining the pore size. Very thin, with neat ...
nucleoporins
Proteins that make up the nuclear pore complex that regulates the traffic of proteins and nucleic acids into and out of the nucleus. Many contain N-acetyl-glucosamine ...
nucleoproteins
Structures containing both nucleic acid and protein. Examples are chromatin, ribosomes, certain virus particles.
nucleoside
Purine or pyrimidine base linked glycosidically to ribose or deoxyribose, but lacking the phosphate residues that would make it a nucleotide. Ribonucleosides are adenosine, ...
nucleoskeletal DNA
DNA that is proposed to exist mostly to maintain nuclear volume and not for coding protein.
nucleosome
Repeating units of organization of chromatin fibres in chromosomes, consisting of around 200 base pairs, and two molecules each of the histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. Most of the ...

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