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Слова на букву nucl-pers (375)

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nucleotidase
(= 5&’-nucleotidase) Enzyme that cleaves the 5\' monoester linkage of nucleotides, and thus converts them to the corresponding nucleoside.
nucleotide
Phosphate esters of nucleosides. The metabolic precursors of nucleic acids are monoesters with phosphate on carbon 5 of the pentose (known as 5\' to distinguish sugar from base ...
nucleotide binding fold
Protein motif consisting of a fold or pocket with certain conserved residues, required for the binding of nucleotides.
nucleus
The major organelle of eukaryotic cells, in which the chromosomes are separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear envelope.
nude mice
Strains of athymic mice bearing the recessive allele nu/nu which are largely hairless and lack all or most of the T-cell population. Show no rejection of either allografts or ...
null cell
Lymphocytes lacking typical markers of T- or B-cells capable of lysing a variety of tumour or virus-infected cells without obvious antigenic stimulation, also effect ...
null mutant
Mutation in which there is no gene product.
numerical aperture
(= N.A.) For a lens the resolving power depends upon the wavelength of light being used and inversely upon the numerical aperture. The N.A. is the product of the refractive ...
nurse cells
Cells accessory to egg and/or sperm formation in a wide variety of organisms. Usually thought to synthesize special substances and to export these to the developing gamete.
nystatin
A polyene antibiotic active against fungi. The name is derived from ‘New York State Health Department’ where it was discovered as a product of Streptomyces noursei.
O-2A progenitor
Bipotential progenitor cells in rat optic nerve that give rise initially to oligodendrocytes and then to type-2 astrocytes. Production of type-2 astrocytes from O-2A progenitor ...
O-antigens
Tetra- and penta-saccharide repeat units of the cell walls of Gram negative bacteria. They are a component of lipopolysaccharide.
oat cell carcinoma
Form of carcinoma of the lung in which the cells are small, spindle-shaped and dark-staining. May derive from argyrophilic APUD cells of the mucosa and certainly tends to be ...
occludens junction
Tight junction. See zonula occludens.
ochre codon
The codon UAA, one of the three that causes termination of protein synthesis. The most frequent termination codon in E. coli genes.
ochre mutation
Mutation that changes any codon to the termination codon UAA.
ochre suppressor
A gene that codes for an altered tRNA so that its anticodon can recognize the ochre codon and thus allows the continuation of protein synthesis. A suppressor of an ochre ...
ochronosis
Deposition of dark brown pigment in cartilage, joint capsules and other tissues, usually as a result of alkaptonuria.
oct
Family of genes for transcription factors that act as RNA Polymerae II promoters. Protein products contain a POU domain and are leucine zipper proteins that bind to octamer ...
octamer
(1) Eight-base sequence motif common in eukaryotic promoters. Consensus is ATTTGCAT; binds various transcription factors. (2) Assembly of eight histone proteins (2 each of H2A, ...
octamer binding protein
Transcription factor that binds to the octamer motif. Examples: mammalian proteins Oct-1, Oct-2.
octamer motif
A DNA motif found in certain promoters that can produce B-cell specific gene expression. Sequence: ATGCAAAT.
octopaline
(= N-alpha-(D-1-carboxyethyl) -L-arginine) An opine.
octopamine
A biogenic amine found in both vertebrates and invertebrates (identified first in the salivary gland of Octopus ). Octopamine can have properties both of a hormone and a ...
octyl glucoside
A biological detergent characterized by its ease of removal from hydrophobic proteins. Used to solubilize membrane proteins.
odontoblasts
Columnar cells derived from the dental papilla after ameloblasts have differentiated, and that give rise to the dentine matrix that underlies the enamel of a tooth.
odontogenic epithelial cells
Epithelial layer that will give rise to teeth.
oedema
(= edema (USA) ) Swelling of tissue: can result from increased permeability of vascular endothelium.
oestradiol
(= estradiol (USA) ; follicular hormone) A hormone (272 D) synthesized mainly in the ovary, but also in the placenta, testis, and possibly adrenal cortex. A potent ...
oestrogen
(= estrogen (USA) ) A type of hormone that induces oestrus (‘heat’) in female animals. It controls changes in the uterus that precede ovulation, and is responsible for ...
OFAGE
(= orthogonal field alternation gel electrophoresis) Electrophoresis in which macromolecules are electrophoresed in a gel using electric fields applied alternately at ...
okadaic acid
Derived from a dinoflagellate toxin. This compound is a powerful inhibitor of serine-threonine-specific protein phosphatases 1 and 2A. Also can act as a tumour promoter.
Okazaki fragments
Short fragments of newly synthesised DNA strands produced during DNA replication. All the known DNA polymerases can only synthesis DNA in one direction, the 5\' to 3\' ...
oleic acid
See fatty acids.
oleosome
Plant spherosome rich in lipid that serves as a storage granule in seeds and fruits. There are none of the enzymes characteristic of lysosomes.
olfactory epithelium
The epithelium lining the nose. Has the diverse G-protein coupled receptors responsible for the sense of smell.
olfactory neuron
Sensory neuron from the lining of the nose. They are the only neurons that continue to divide and differentiate throughout an organism\'s life.
oligodendrocyte
Neuroglial cell of the central nervous system in vertebrates whose function is to myelinate CNS axons.
oligomycin
A bacterial toxin inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation that acts on a small subunit of the F1-ATPase.
oligomycin sensitivity conferral protein
(= OSCP) The d- subunit of the ATP synthase, believed to link the F 1 catalytic segment to the F f573 sfo proton-conduction segment. Binds the toxin oligomycin.
oligonucleotide
Linear sequence of up to 20 nucleotides joined by phosphodiester bonds. Above this length the term polynucleotide begins to be used.
oligopeptide
A peptide of a small number of component amino acids as opposed to a polypeptide. Exact size range is a matter of opinion but peptides from 3 to about 40 member amino acids ...
oligosaccharide
A saccharide of a small number of component sugars, either O- or N-linked to the next sugar. Number of component sugars not rigorously defined.
oligosaccharin
An oligosaccharide derived from the plant cell wall that in small quantities induces a physiological response in a nearby cell of the same or a different plant, and thus acts ...
oligotroph
Organism that can grow in an environment poor in nutrients.
olomoucine
Inhibitor of cdk5.
omega-oxidation
Minor metabolic pathway for medium chain-length fatty acids
omeprazole
Non-proprietary name for gastric proton-pump (H+ /K+ transport-ATPase) inhibitor, much prescribed for gastric ulcers since it inhibits acid secretion by parietal cells.
ommatidium
(= ommatidia (plural) ) Single facet of an insect compound eye. Composed of a set of photoreceptor cells, overlain by a crystalline lens.
Onchocerca
Genus of filarial nematode parasites that cause river blindness.
oncocytes
See Askenazy cells.
oncogen
Synonym for carcinogen, an agent causing cancer.
oncogene
Mutated and/or overexpressed version of a normal gene of animal cells (the proto-oncogene) that in a dominant fashion can release the cell from normal restraints on growth, and ...
oncogenic virus
A virus capable of causing cancer in animals or in humans. These include DNA viruses, ranging in size from Papova viruses to Herpes viruses, and the RNA-containing retroviruses. ...
oncomodulin
Calcium-binding proteins containing the EF-hand motif. Found only in tumours, and related to panalbumin.
oncoprotein 18
See stathmin.
oncostatin M
Multifunctional cytokine (28 kD) of the IL-6 cytokine family. Produced by activated T-cells; inhibits tumour cell growth and induces IL-6 production by endothelial cells via ...
Oncovirinae
The family of retroviruses (Retroviridae) that can cause tumours. They are enveloped by membrane derived from the plasma membrane of the host cell, from which they are released ...
ontogeny
The total of the stages of an organism\'s life history.
oocyte
The developing female gamete before maturation and release.
oocyte expression
Technique whereby the cellular translational machinery of an oocyte (typically Xenopus ) is utilized to generate functional protein from microinjected mRNA or to produce ...
oogenesis
The process of egg formation.
oogonium
Female sexual structure in certain algae and fungi, containing one or more gametes. After fertilization the oogonium contains the oospore.
oomycetes
Group of fungi in which the mycelium is non-septate, ie. lacks cross-walls, and the nuclei are diploid. Sexual reproduction is oogamous.
opal codon
The codon UGA, one of the three that causes termination of protein synthesis.
opal mutation
Mutation that changes any codon to the termination codon UGA.
opal suppressor
A gene that codes for an altered tRNA so that its anticodon can recognize the opal codon and thus allows the continuation of protein synthesis. A suppressor of an opal ...
Opalina
A genus of parasitic protozoans found in the guts of frogs and toads. They look superficially like ciliates, but are classified in a separate group as they have a number of ...
open reading frame
A possible reading frame of DNA which is capable of being translated into protein, ie. is not punctuated by stop codons. (This capacity does not indicate per se that the ORF is ...
operator
The site on DNA to which a specific repressor protein binds and prevents the initiation of transcription at the adjacent promoter.
operon
Groups of bacterial genes with a common promotor, that are controlled as a unit and produce mRNA as a single piece, polycistronic messenger. An operon consists of two or more ...
opiates
Naturally occuring basic (alkaloid) molecules with a complex fused ring structure. Have high pharmacological activity. See morphine.
opines
Carbon compounds produced by crown galls and hairy roots induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes respectively. They are utilized as nutritional sources by ...
opioid receptors
Membrane proteins, widely distributed in animal cells, but especially in the brain (enkephalin receptors) and gut. The natural ligands are the opiate peptide neurotransmitters, ...
opportunistic pathogen
(= secondary pathogen) Pathogenic organism that is often normally a commensal, but which gives rise to infection in immunocompromised hosts.
opsin
General term for the apoproteins of the rhodopsin family.
opsonin
Substance that binds to the surface of a particle and enhances the uptake of the particle by a phagocyte. Probably the most important in mammals derive from complement (C3b or ...
opsonization
Process of coating with an opsonin. Often done simply by incubating particles (eg. zymosan) with fresh serum.
optic nerve
Projection from the vertebrate retina to the midbrain. Embryologically, a CNS tract rather than a peripheral nerve. Popular experimental preparation for studies of regeneration ...
optic tectum
A region of the midbrain in which input from the optic nerve is processed. Because the retinally derived neurons of the optic nerve "map" onto the optic tectum in a defined ...
optical diffraction
A technique used to obtain information about repeating patterns. Diffraction of visible light can be used to calculate spacings in the object.
optical isomers
Isomers (stereoisomers) differing only in the spatial arrangement of groups around a central atom. Optical isomers rotate the plane of polarized light in different directions. ...
optical tweezers
(= laser tweezers; optical trap) By focusing a beam of light on a particle it is possible to trap the particle as a result of the forces due to radiation pressure (the forces ...
orbivirus
Genus of Reoviridae that infects a wide range of vertebrates and insects.
organ culture
Culture in vitro of pieces of tissue (as opposed to single cells) in such a way as to maintain some normal spatial relationships between cells and some normal function. Contrast ...
organelle
A structurally discrete component of a cell.
organizing centre
See microtubule organizing centre.
organogenesis
The process of formation of specific organs in a plant or animal involving morphogenesis and differentiatio.
Oriental sore
Skin disease caused by the flagellate protozoan, Leishmania tropica.
orientation chamber
Chamber designed by Zigmond in which to test the ability of cells (neutrophils) to orient in a gradient of chemoattractant. The chamber is similar to a haemocytometer, but with ...
origin of replication
Regions of DNA that are necessary for its replication to begin, such as pBR322 ori, required for plasmid replication.
ornithine decarboxylase
The enzyme that converts ornithine to putrescine (dibasic amine) by decarboxylation. Rate-limiting in the synthesis of the polyamines spermidine and spermine that regulate ...
ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency
X-linked disorder, the most common cause of inherited urea cycle disorders.
orosomucoid
(= a-1-seromucoid; a-1-acid glycoprotein) Plasma protein of mammals and birds, 38% carbohydrate. In humans a single-chain glycoprotein of 39 kD. Increased levels are associated ...
orotic acid
(= orotate) Intermediate in the de novo synthesis of pyrimidines. Linked glycosidically to ribose 5\'-phosphate, orotate forms the pyrimidine nucleotide orotidylate, that on ...
orthogonal arrays
Arrays that are at (approximately) right angles to one another. Confluent fibroblasts often become organized into such arrays; other examples are the packing of collagen fibres ...
orthograde transport
Axonal transport from the cell body of the neuron towards the synaptic terminal. Opposite of retrograde transport and probably dependent on a different mechanochemical protein ...
orthokinesis
Kinesis in which the speed or frequency of movement is increased (positive orthokinesis) or decreased.
orthologous genes
Genes related by common phylogenetic descent - contrast with paralogous genes.
Orthomyxoviridae
Class V viruses. The genome consists of a single negative strand of RNA that is present as several separate segments each of which acts as a template for a single mRNA. The ...
Orthopoxviridae
Genus of double-stranded DNA viruses (250-390 x 200-260nm) that preferentially infect epithelial cells. Includes variola (smallpox) and vaccinia.
oscillator
Something that changes regularly or cyclically. Examples: oscillator neurons, which generate regular breathing or locomotory rhythms; slime moulds which secrete cyclic AMP in ...
Oscillatoria princeps
Large cyanobacterium that exhibits gliding movements, possibly involving the activity of helically arranged cytoplasmic fibrils of 6-9nm diameter.
oscillin
Soluble protein (oligomeric: 33 kD subunits) from mammalian sperm that is involved with the oscillations in calcium concentration that occur in the egg following fertilization. ...
OSCP
See oligomycin sensitivity conferral protein.
oskar
An egg-polarity gene in Drosophila, concentrated at the posterior pole of the egg, and required for subsequent posterior structures. A maternal-effect gene.
osmiophilic
Having an affinity for osmium tetroxide.
osmium tetroxide
(= OsO4) Used as a post-fixative/stain in electron microscopy. Membranes in particular are osmiophilic, ie. bind osmium tetroxide.
osmoregulation
Processes by which a cell regulates its internal osmotic pressure. These may include water transport, ion accumulation or loss, synthesis of osmotically active substances such ...
osmosis
The movement of solvent through a membrane impermeable to solute, in order to balance the chemical potential due to the concentration differences on each side of the membrane. ...
osmotic pressure
See osmosis. The pressure required to prevent osmotic flow across a semi-permeable membrane separating two solutions of different solute concentration. Equal to the pressure ...
osmotic shock
Passage of solvent into a membrane-bound structure due to osmosis, causing rupture of the membrane. A method of lysing cells or organelles.
osteoarthritis
Disease of joints due to mechanical trauma. There is major disturbance in homeostasis of extracellular matrix with cartilage degradation (involving matrix metalloproteinases) ...
osteoblast
Mesodermal cell that gives rise to bone.
osteocalcin
(= bone g-carboxyglutamic acid protein: BGP) Polypeptide of 50 residues formed from a 76-77 amino acid precursor, and found in the extracellular matrix of bone. Binds ...
osteoclast
Large multinucleate cell formed from differentiated macrophage, responsible for breakdown of bone.
osteocyte
Osteoblast that is embedded in bony tissue and which is relatively inactive.
osteogenesis
Production of bone.
osteogenesis imperfecta
Heterogenous group of human genetic disorders that affect connective tissue in bone, cartilage and tendon. Bones are very brittle and fracture-prone.
osteogenin
Bone-inducing protein (less than 50 kD) associated with extracellular matrix. Binds heparin. See bone morphogenetic protein.
osteoid
Uncalcified bone matrix, the product of osteoblasts. Consists mainly of collagen, but has osteonectin present.
osteoma
Benign tumour of bone.
osteomalacia
Softening of bone caused by vitamin D deficiency: adult equivalent of rickets.
osteomyelitis
Inflammation of bone marrow caused by infection.
osteonectin
(= basement membrane protein BM-40; SPARC) Calcium-binding protein of bone, containing the EF-hand motif. Binds to both collagen and hydroxyapatite.
osteopetrosis
The formation of abnormally dense bone, as opposed to osteoporosis.
osteophytes
Small dense areas seen in X-ray pictures of bone around margin of joints with osteoarthritis. Sometimes larger, more porotic, protrusions are also seen.
osteopontin
Bone-specific sialoprotein (57 kD: probably two similar peptides) that links cells and the hydroxyapatite of mineralised matrix; has RGD sequence. Found only in calcified ...
osteoporosis
Loss of bony tissue; associated with low levels of oestrogen in older women.
osteosarcoma
Malignant tumour of bone (probably neoplasia of osteocytes).
ouabain
(= Strophanthin G) A plant alkaloid from Strophantus gratus, that specifically binds to and inhibits the sodium-potassium ATPase. Related to digitalis.
Ouchterlony assay
Immunological test for antigen-antibody reactions in which diffusion of soluble antigen and antibody in a gel leads to precipitation of an antigen-antibody complex, visible ...
outron
Found at the 5\' end of pre-mRNAs, that are to be trans-spliced: contains an intron-like sequence, followed by a splice acceptor.
outside-out patch
A variant of patch clamp technique, in which a disc of plasma membrane covers the tip of the electrode, with the outer face of the plasma membrane facing outward, to the ...
ovalbumin
A major protein constituent of egg white. A phosphoprotein of 386 amino acids (44 kD) with one N-linked oligosaccharide chain. Synthesis is stimulated by oestrogen. The gene, ...
ovalocytosis
Hereditary disorder of erythrocytes relatively common in areas where malaria is endemic. Not only are the erythrocytes more rigid, but there is a mutation in band III, the ...
ovarian follicle
In mammals the group of cells around the primary oocyte proliferate and form a surrounding non-cellular layer. A space opens up in the follicle cells and the whole structure ...
ovarian granulosa cells
During oogenesis in mammals the ovarian (Graafian) follicle, in which the developing ovum lies, is lined with follicle cells; the peripheral follicle cells form the stratum ...
overlap index
A measure of the extent to which a population of cells in culture forms multilayers. The predicted amount of overlapping is calculated knowing the cell density, the projected ...
overlapping
In cell locomotion, the situation in which the leading lamella of one cell moves actively over the dorsal surface of another cell - should be distinguished from underlapping. ...
overlapping genes
Different genes whose nucleotide coding sequences overlap to some extent. The common nucleotide sequence is read in two or three different reading frames thus specifying ...
oviduct
The tubular tract in female animals through which eggs are discharged either to the exterior or, in mammals, to the uterus.
Ovis aries
Domestic sheep (eg. ‘Dolly’).
ovomucoid
Egg-white protein produced in tubular gland cells in the epithelium of the chicken oviduct in response to progesterone or oestrogen.
ovum
(= ova (plural) ) An egg cell.
owl-eye cells
Enlarged cells infected with Cytomegalovirus that contain large inclusion bodies surrounded by a halo, hence the name.
oxacladiellanes
(= 1,4-oxacladiellanes) Class of compounds that includes sarcodictyin A and eleutherobin that stabilize microtubules, and the valvidones and eleuthosides that are ...
oxalic acid
Occurs in plants, and is toxic to higher animals by virtue of its calcium binding properties; it causes the precipitation of calcium oxalate in the kidneys, prevents calcium ...
oxaloacetate
Metabolic intermediate. Couples with acetyl CoA to form citrate, ie. the entry point of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Formed from aspartic acid by transamination.
oxidation
Occurs when a compound donates electrons to an oxidizing agent. Also combination with oxygen or removal of hydrogen in reactions where there is no overt passage of electrons ...
oxidation-reduction potential
See redox potential.
oxidative metabolism
Respiration in the biochemical sense.
oxidative phosphorylation
The phosphorylation of ATP coupled to the respiratory chain.
oxidoreductase
An oxidase that uses molecular oxygen as the electron acceptor.
oxygen electrode
A sensitive method to detect oxygen consumption; involves a PTFE (Teflon) membrane.
oxygen radical
Any oxygen species that carries an unpaired electron (except free oxygen). Examples are.OH, the hydroxyl radical and O2-, the superoxide anion. These radicals are very powerful ...
oxygen-dependent killing
One of the most important bactericidal mechanisms of mammalian phagocytes involves the production of various toxic oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, singlet ...
oxygenase
Enzyme catalysing the incorporation of the oxygen of molecular oxygen into organic substrates. Dioxygenases (oxygen transferases) catalyse introduction of both atoms of molecular ...
oxyntic cell
(= parietal cell) Cell of the gastric epithelium that secretes hydrochloric acid.
oxyntomodulin
Peptide produced by cleavage of proglucagon by prohormone convertases. Cleavage also produced proglucagon in addition to glucagon itself.
oxyphil cells
See Askenazy cells.
oxysome
Multimolecular array that acts as a unit in oxidative phosphorylation.
oxytocin
A peptide hormone (1007 D) from hypothalamus: transported to the posterior lobe of the pituitary (see neurophysin). Induces smooth muscle contraction in uterus and mammary ...
Oxyuranus scutelatus scutelatus
The Australian taipan snake. See taicatoxin.
P antigen
Antigenic determinant on the surface of human red blood cells to which the Donath-Landsteiner antibody reacts. This antibody binds in the cold (a "cold IgG"), but elutes from ...
P element
A class of Drosophila transposon, widely used as a vector for reporter genes, for efficient germ-line transformation, and for enhancer trap or insertional mutagenesis ...
P glycoprotein
See multidrug transporter.
P(GAL4)
Synthetic P element of Drosophila melanogaster, comprising long-terminal repeats flanking a mini-white gene to mark flies carrying the P element by their red eye colour, ...
P-face
See freeze fracture.
P-light chain
(= DNTB light chain) Myosin light chain that can be phosphorylated by myosin light chain kinase; as a result of phosphorylation, the myosin is activated.
P-loop
See ATP binding site.
P-protein
Protein found in large amounts in phloem sieve tubes. Appears as thin strands when seen in the electron microscope.
P-ring
One of the bushes at the base of the flagellum of Gram negative bacteria, anchoring it in the peptidoglycan layer of the cells wall. Lies below the L-ring.
P-selectin
See selectins.
P-site
The peptidyl-tRNA binding site on the ribosome, the one to which the growing chain is attached; the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA attaches to the A-site.
P-type ATPase
One of three major classes of ion transport ATPases, characterized by vanadate sensitivity and a phosphorylated intermediate. The archetype is the sodium pump. See F-type ...
P-type channels
A class of voltage-sensitive calcium channels. Found in various neurons but particularly in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum (hence the name). Involved in induction of ...
p107
Protein (107 kD) with many similarities to retinoblastoma gene product. Binds to E2F and is found in the cyclin/E2F complex together with p33cdk2.
p130cas
(= p130cas) Substrate for src family kinases. Once phosphorylated can act as docking protein for proteins with SH2domains. Related protein is Sin/Efs.
p21
(= Waf1; Cip1) Cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (21 kD) that inhibits multiple cdks.
p21-activated kinases
(= PAK-1, 2, 3) Serine/threonine protein kinases of the STE20 subfamily. Form an activated complex with GTP-bound ras-like proteins (p21, cdc2 and rac1). Activated, ...
p34 kinase
See cyclin.
p35
См. P36.
P36
See annexin.
p38
Serine/threonine protein kinase activated by MAP kinase kinase (MKK6b) that acts in the signalling cascade downstream of various inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 and TNF ...
P388.D1 cells
Clonal derivative of P388 cells, a mouse macrophage line that produces a large amount of interleukin-1.
P400 protein
Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (InsP3-R). Key protein to understanding mechanisms of InsP3-mediated Ca2+ mobilization. Originally found as a cerebellar glycoprotein of 250 ...
p53
A 393 residue (in humans) phosphoprotein that is a common tumour antigen, expressed in many transformed cells. However, it is believed to be the product of a tumour suppressor ...
P57
See neuromodulin.
p57KIP2
(= p57KIP2) Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor of the p21CIP1, p27KIP1 family. Mice deficient in this inhibitor have major developmental defects similar to those seen in ...
p57lck
Lackie Lymphoid isoform of src-family tyrosine kinase. Expressed predominantly in thymocytes and peripheral T-cells. Associates with cytoplasmic domains of CD4 and CD8, and with ...
p65
Protein from human T-cells that has sequences in common with plastin. Major target for IL-2 stimulated phosphorylation. On basis of sequence has two calcium binding sites, a ...
p68
See annexin, DEAD-box helicases.
P680
Form of chlorophyll that has its absorption maximum at 680nm. See photosystem II.
p70
See annexin.
P700
Form of chlorophyll that has its absorption maximum at 700nm. See photosystem I.
PACAP
(= pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide) Genes for PACAP and its receptor are widely expressed in the mouse neural tube at day 10 of development and may play a role ...
pachynema
See pachytene.
pachytene
Classical term for the third stage of prophase I of meiosis, during which the homologous chromosomes are closely paired and crossing-over takes place.
packaging
Of a virus, the process by which the genetic material is encapsulated by the coat proteins.
paclitaxel
Proprietary name for taxol.
pactamycin
Antibiotic that inhibits translation by blocking the binding of initiator tRNA to the initiator complex.
PADGEM
(= CD62P; P-selectin; GMP-140) One of the selectin family, present on megakaryocytes, activated platelets and activated endothelial cells; rapidly upregulated in platelets and ...
PAGE
See polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.
Paget&’s disease
Breast carcinoma characterized by large cells with clear cytoplasm.
pagoda cells
Ganglion cells, from the central nervous system of a leech, with a spontaneous firing pattern that can look a little like a pagoda on an oscilloscope.
PAI-1
(= plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) PAI-1 and PAI-2 are plasma serpins that inhibit plasminogen.
pair-rule gene
A segmentation gene, expressed sequentially between gap genes and segment-polarity genes. In development of Drosophila, a set of about 8 genes that are expressed only in ...
paired
Developmentally regulated gene in Drosophila that contains the paired box domain.
paired box domain
Conserved domain of 128 amino acids, found in several developmentally-regulated proteins in Drosophila (eg. paired, gooseberry, Pox), mouse and human (eg. Pax, HuP1, HuP48). ...
PAL
See phenylalanine ammonia lyase.
Palade pathway
The routing of protein(s) from the site of their synthesis to the final cellular or secreted position. Several different pathways are known and others suspected. Glycosylation ...
palindromic sequence
Nucleic acid sequence that is identical to its complementary strand when each is read in the correct direction (eg. TGGCCA). Palindromic sequences are often the recognition sites ...
palisade parenchyma
Tissue found in the upper layers of the leaf mesophyll, consisting of regularly-shaped, elongated parenchyma cells, orientated perpendicular to the leaf surface, which are ...
Pallister-Killian syndrome
Rare disorder with multiple congenital abnormalities, seizures and mental retardation. Cause is an extra metacentric chromosome 12p only in skin fibroblasts - so that the body ...
palmitic acid
(= n-hexadecanoic acid) One of the most widely distributed of fatty acids. The palmitoyl residue is one of the common acyl residues of membrane phospholipids. It is also found ...
palmitoylation
See palmitic acid.
palytoxin
Linear peptide (2670 D) from corals of Palythoa spp. that binds to Na+/K+ ATPase at a site overlapping that of ouabain and converts it into a channel. Extremely toxic and said ...
pancreatic acinar cells
Cells of the pancreas that secrete digestive enzymes; the archetypal secretory cell upon which much of the early work on the sequence of events in the secretory process was done.
pancytopenia
Simultaneous decrease in the numbers of all blood cells: can be caused by aplastic anaemia, hypersplenism, or tumours of the marrow.
Pandorina
Colonial phytomonad in which the cells are held together in a gelatinous matrix. More complex than Eudorina, less complex than Volvox.
Paneth cells
Coarsely granular secretory cells found in the basal regions of crypts in the small intestine.
panmictic
A panmictic population is one in which there is random mating.
panning
Method in which cells are added to a dish with a particular surface coat or a layer of other cells and the non-adherent cells are then washed off. Those that remain are ...
pannus
(1) Vascularized granulation tissue rich in fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and macrophages, derived from synovial tissue; overgrows the bearing surface of the joint in rheumatoid ...
pantonematic flagella
Flagella without mastigonemes; cf. hispid flagella.
pantophysin
Ubiquitously expressed synaptophysin homologue (29 kD) found in cells of non-neuroendocrine origin. May be a marker for small cytoplasmic transport vesicles.
pantothenic acid
Vitamin of the B2 group.
PAP technique
(1) Colloquial abbreviation for Papanicolaou\'s stain, (2) Peroxidase-antiperoxidase method for obtaining an enhanced peroxidase reaction to indicate antibody binding to ...
papain
Thiol protease (EC 3.4.22.2) from Carica papaya (pawpaw). Thermostable and will act in the presence of denaturing agents. Although it will cleave a variety of peptide bonds ...
Papanicolaou's stain
A complex stain for detecting malignant cells in cervical smears. Contains in separate staining stages (a) haematoxylin, (b) Orange-G phosphotungstic acid c) Light green, ...
papaverine
Constituent of opium that acts as a smooth muscle relaxant probably by blocking membrane calcium channels and inhibiting phosphodiesterase.
paper chromatography
Separation method in which filter paper is used as the support. Not a very sensitive method, but historically important as one of the first methods available for separating ...
Papilio glaucus
Swallowtail butterfly.
papilla
(1) A projection occurring in various animal tissues and organs. (2) A small blunt hair on plants.
papilloma
Benign tumour of epithelium. Warts (caused by papilloma virus) are the most familiar example, and each is a clone derived from a single infected cell.
papillomaviruses
Genus of Papovaviridae. See papilloma, Shope papilloma virus.
Papovaviridae
Family of oncogenic DNA viruses including papilloma, polyoma, and simian vacuolating virus (SV40). Non-enveloped small viruses that mainly infect mammals.
papule
Small raised spot on skin (as in the rash of chickenpox).
PAR
See protease-activated receptor.
parabiosis
Surgical linkage of two organisms so that their circulatory systems interconnect.
Paracentrotus lividus
Species of sea urchin commonly used in developmental biology.
paracortex
Mid-cortical region of lymph node; area that is particularly depleted of T-lymphocytes in thymectomised animals, and is referred to as the thymus-dependent area.
paracrine
Form of signalling in which the target cell is close to the signal-releasing cell. Neurotransmitters and neurohormones are usually considered to fall into this category.
parainfluenza virus
Species of the Paramyxoviridae; there are four types: Type 1 is also known as Sendai virus or Haemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ), and the inactivated form is used to bring ...
paralogous genes
Genes that result from duplication of existing genes and then divergence of function - contrast with orthologous genes.
Paramecium
(= Paramoecium) Genus of ciliate protozoans. The "slipper animalcule" is cigar-shaped, covered in rows of cilia and about 250 m m long. Free-swimming, common in freshwater ponds: ...
paramural body
Membranous structure located between the plasma membrane and cell wall of plant cells. If it contains internal membranes, it may be called a lomasome; if not, it may be ...
paramylon
Storage polysaccharide of Euglena and related algae, present as a discrete granule in the cytoplasm and consisting of b(1-3) -glucan.
paramyosin
Protein (200-220 kD) that forms a core in the thick filaments of invertebrate muscles. The molecule is rather like the rod part of myosin and has a two-chain coiled-coil a- ...
Paramyxoviridae
Class V viruses of vertebrates. The genome consists of a single negative strand of RNA as one piece. The helical nucleocapsid has a virus-specific RNA polymerase ...
paranemin
Developmentally-regulated protein (280 kD) associated with desmin and vimentin filaments.
paraoxonase
(= PON1) Human serum protein (45 kD glycoprotein) located on high density lipoprotein (HDL) and that has been implicated in detoxification of organophosphates and possibly ...
parasegment
In development of Drosophila, the genetic boundaries between developing segments are thought to lie along the middle of each visible segment. To distinguish them from the ...
parasitaemia
Infection of a host by a parasite or the level of infection by the parasite, depending upon context.
parasympathetic nervous system
One of the two divisions of the vertebrate autonomic nervous sytem. Parasympathetic nerves emerge cranially as pre-ganglionic fibres from oculomotor, facial, glossopharyngeal and ...
parathormone
(= parathyrin; parathyroid hormone) A peptide hormone of 84 amino acids (9402 D). Stimulates osteoclasts to increase blood calcium levels, the opposite effect to calcitonin. ...
parathyroid hormone
See parathormone.
paratope
In immune network theory, an idiotope; an antigenic site of an antibody that is responsible for that antibody binding to an antigenic determinant (epitope). Also used of the ...
paraxial
Lying along an axis - commonest use is in reference to paraxial mesoderm, the mesoderm that forms somites as opposed to the axial mesoderm that forms notochord.
Pardachirus marmoratus
Red sea flatfish. See pardaxin.
pardaxin
Polypeptide (33 residues) from toxin gland of Pardachirus marmoratus that forms an eight-subunit voltage-dependent pore that will induce neurotransmitter release.
parenchyma
Type of unspecialised cell making up the ground tissue of plants. The cells are large and usually highly vacuolated, with thin, unlignified walls. They are often photosynthetic, ...
parenteral
Administration of a substance to an animal by any route other than the alimentary canal.

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