Слова на букву nucl-pers (375) Dictionary of molecular biology
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Слова на букву nucl-pers (375)

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parenthesome
Structure shaped rather like a parenthesis "(", found on either side of pores in the septum of a basidiomycete fungus. More logically called septal pore caps.
parfocal
Microscope objectives that are mounted in such a way that changing objectives does not put the specimen out of focus are parfocal.
parkin
Gene found to be mutated in unusual form of Parkinsonism (autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism). Located on long arm of Chromosome 6. Gene is large (500 kb), very active ...
Parkinsonism
(= paralysis agitans) Disease (Parkinson\'s disease) characteried by tremor and associated with the underproduction of L-DOPA (dihydroxyphenylalanine) by dopaminergic neurons and ...
paroral membrane
In ciliates the cilia in the region of the mouth may be fused into a paroral membrane.
paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria
Disease in which there is haemolysis by complement as a result of deficiency in decay accelerating factor.
PARP
See poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase.
parthenocarpy
Fruit formation without fertilization. Occurs spontaneously in some plants, eg. banana, and in other plants can be induced by application of auxin. Results in seedless fruits.
parthenogenesis
Development of an ovum without fusion of its nucleus with a male pronucleus to form a zygote.
partial agonist
Agonist for a receptor population that is unable to produce a maximal response even if all the receptors are occupied.
partition coefficient
Equilibrium constant for the partitioning of a molecule between hydrophobic (oil) and hydrophilic (water) phases. A measure of the affinity of the molecule for hydrophobic ...
parvalbumins
Calcium binding proteins (12 kD), found in teleost and amphibian muscle, with sequence homology to calmodulin but only two EF-hand calcium binding sites.
Parvoviridae
Class II viruses. The genome of these simple viruses is single stranded DNA and they have an icosahedral nucleocapsid. The autonomous parvoviruses have a negative strand DNA ...
PAS
(1) See periodic acid-Schiff reaction. (2) p-amino-salicylic acid.
PAS
(1) See periodic acid-Schiff reaction. (2) p-amino-salicylic acid.
PAS genes
Genes essential for the biogenesis and proliferation of peroxisomes in yeast ( S. cerevisiae ). PAS1 codes for a rather hydrophilic 117 kD protein with two ATP binding sites and ...
pasin
Proteins of unknown function bound, on the cytoplasmic face, to the sodium-potassium ATPase. Two pasins have been identified, pasin 1 (77 kD) and pasin 2 (73 kD). The name is ...
passage
Term that derives originally from maintenance of, for example, a parasite by serially infecting host animals, passaging the parasite each time. Subsequently also used to describe ...
passive immunity
Immunity acquired by the transfer from another animal of antibody or sensitised lymphocytes. Passive transfer of antibody from mother to offspring is important for immune ...
passive transport
The movement of a substance, usually across a plasma membrane, by a mechanism that does not require metabolic energy. See active transport, transport protein, facilitated ...
Pasteur effect
Decrease in the rate of carbohydrate breakdown that occurs in yeast and other cells when switched from anaerobic to aerobic conditions. Results from a relatively slow flux of ...
Pasteurella pestis
Old name for Yersinia pestis.
Patau syndrome
(= trisomy 13) Set of congenital defects in man caused by presence of an extra Chromosome 13.
patch clamp
A specialized and powerful variant of voltage clamp method, in which a patch electrode of relatively large tip diameter (5 m m) is pressed tightly against the plasma membrane ...
patching
Passive process in which integral membrane components become clustered following cross-linking by an external or internal polyvalent ligand. See capping.
pathogenic
Capable of causing disease.
pathognomic
A sign or symptom that is diagnostic of a disease.
pattern formation
One of the classic problems in developmental biology is the way in which complex patterns are formed from an apparently uniform field of cells. Various hypotheses have been put ...
pavementing
Term used to describe the margination of leucocytes on the endothelium near a site of damage.
pawn
Mutant of Paramecium that, like the chess-piece, can only move forward and is unable to reverse to escape noxious stimuli. Defect is apparently in the voltage-sensitive calcium ...
Pax genes
Mouse genes that contain a DNA-binding domain similar to one in the paired genes of Drosophila. 8 Pax genes have been identified, and most of them are expressed in the nervous ...
paxillin
Cytoskeletal protein (68 kD) that localizes, like talin, to focal adhesions, to dense plaques in smooth muscle, and to the myotendonous and neuromuscular junctions of ...
PBMC
(= peripheral blood mononuclear cells) A mixture of monocytes and lymphocytes; blood leucocytes from which granulocytes have been separated and removed.
PBP
See platelet basic protein.
PC12
A rat phaeochromocytoma cell line from adrenal medulla. Widely used in the study of stimulus-secretion coupling, and because it differentiates to resemble sympathetic ...
pCEF-4
See 9E3.
PCNA
(= proliferating cell nuclear antigen) Commonly used marker for proliferating cells, a 35 kD protein that associates as a trimer, and as a trimer interacts with DNA polymerases ...
PCR
See polymerase chain reaction. (= in situ hybridization) New technique for detection of very rare mRNA or viral transcripts in a tissue. Tissue sections are subjected to PCR, ...
PD-ECGF
(= platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor) Cytokine (471 residues) produced by platelets, fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. Stimulates endothelial proliferation ...
PDE
(= phosphodiesterase) Any enzyme (in EC 3.1 class) that catalyses the hydrolysis of one of the two ester linkages in a phosphodiester. PDE-I (EC 3.1.4.1) catalyses removal of ...
PDGF
See platelet-derived growth factor.
PDZ domain
Domains found in various intracellular signalling proteins associated with the plasma membrane; named for the postsynaptic density, disc-large, ZO-1 proteins in which they were ...
PEA-15
(= phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes, 15 kD) PEA-15 is an acidic serine-phosphorylated protein highly expressed in the CNS, where it can play a protective role against ...
peanut agglutinin
Lectin from Arachis hypogaea that binds to glycoproteins containing b -D-gal (1-3) D-galNAc in membranes; used to investigate differential adhesiveness in developing systems.
Pecten
(= scallop) A bivalve mollusc. The adductor muscle, a catch muscle, has been a favourite with muscle physiologists and biochemists as well as with gourmets.
pectin
Class of plant cell wall polysaccharide, soluble in hot aqueous solutions of chelating agents or in hot dilute acid. Includes polysaccharides rich in galacturonic acid, ...
pedicels
See podocytes.
PEG
See polyethylene glycol.
pelB
The 18 residue N-terminal leader sequence of pelB is commonly used in various vector constructs. The gene from which it comes, pelB, codes for pectin lyase B, one of the many ...
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease
Dysmyelinating disease resulting from defects in PLP (proteolipid protein) gene. Mouse model is jimpy.
pelle
Drosophila protein kinase that is involved in the activation of dorsal (NF k B homologue).
pellicle
The outer covering of a protozoan: the plasma membrane plus underlying reinforcing structures, for example the membrane-bounded spaces (alveoli) just below the plasma membrane ...
PEM
(= polymorphic epithelial mucin) See episialin.
pemphigus
A group of dermatological diseases characterized by the production of bullae (blisters).
penetrance
The proportion of individuals with a specific genotype who express that character in the phenotype.
penicillamine
(= dimethyl cysteine) Product of acid hydrolysis of penicillin that chelates heavy metals (lead, copper, mercury) and assists in their excretion in cases of poisoning. Also ...
penicillin
Probably the best known of the antibiotics, derived from the mould Penicillium notatum. It blocks the cross-linking reaction in peptidoglycan synthesis, and therefore destroys ...
pentobarbital
An anticonvulsant and anaesthetic, usually used as the sodium or calcium salt.
pentosan
Glycan that, when hydrolyzed, yields only pentoses.
pentose phosphate pathway
(= pentose shunt; hexose monophosphate pathway; phosphogluconate oxidative pathway) Alternative metabolic route to Embden-Meyerhof pathway for breakdown of glucose. Diverges ...
pentoses
Sugars (monosaccharide) with five carbon atoms. Include ribose and deoxyribose of nucleic acids, and many others such as the aldoses arabinose and xylose, and the ketoses ...
pentraxins
Family of proteins that share a discoid arrangement of five non-covalently linked subunits. Includes CRP and serum amyloid P.
PEP
See phosphoenolpyruvate.
PEP carboxylase
Enzyme responsible for the primary fixation of CO2 in C4 plants. Carboxylates PEP (phosphoenolpyruvate) to give oxaloacetate. Also important in crassulacean acid metabolism, ...
pepsin
Acid protease (EC 3.4.23.1) from stomach of vertebrates. Cleaves preferentially between two hydrophobic amino acids (eg. F-L, F-Y,), and will attack most proteins except ...
pepsinogen
The inactive precursor (42.5 kD) of pepsin.
pepstatin
Peptide from Streptomyces spp. that inhibits pepsin and other aspartic proteases, for example cathepsin D and renin.
peptidase
Alternative name for a protease.
peptide bond
The amide linkage between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another. The linkage does not allow free rotation and can occur in cis or trans ...
peptide map
Proteases will produce fragments of a characteristic size from a protein, and this can be used as a test for the identity or otherwise of two similar-sized proteins. It is ...
peptide neurotransmitter
Small peptides used as primary or co-transmitters in nerve cells, eg. FMRF-amide, FLRF-amide.
peptide nucleic acid
Synthetic nucleic acid mimic, in which the sugar-phosphate backbone is replaced by a peptide-like polyamide. Instead of 5&’ and 3&’ ends, PNAs have N and C termini. Their ...
peptide receptor
Specific receptor for peptide neurotransmitters.
peptidoglycan
(= murein) Cross-linked polysaccharide-peptide complex of indefinite size found in the inner cell wall of all bacteria (50% of the wall in Gram negative, 10% in Gram positive). ...
peptidyl transferase
(EC 2.3.2.12) Integral enzymic activity of the large subunit of a ribosome, catalysing the formation of a peptide bond between the carboxy-terminus of the nascent chain and the ...
peptidyl-arginine deiminase
EC 3.5.3.15 Enzyme responsible for formation of protein-bound citrulline, a major amino acid in the inner root sheath and medulla of the hair follicle. Substrate is ...
peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase
See PPIase and immunophilin.
perforins
Perforins 1 and 2 form tubular transmembrane complexes (16nm diameter) at the sites of target cell lysis by NK cells and cytotoxic T-cells.
perfringolysin O
(= theta toxin; q-toxin) Cholesterol binding toxin from Clostridium perfringens. Shares with other thiol-activated haemolysins a highly conserved sequence (ECTGLAWEWWR) near ...
periaxin
Protein originally suggested to initiate myelin deposition in peripheral nerves. Two isoforms exist coded by a single gene. L-periaxin (147 kD) is localized to plasma membrane ...
peribacteroid membrane
Membrane derived from the plasma membrane of a plant cell and that surrounds the nitrogen-fixing bacteroids in legume root nodules. Has a high lipid content and may regulate the ...
pericanicular dense bodies
Electron-dense membrane-bounded cytoplasmic organelles found near the canaliculi in liver cells: lysosomes.
pericarp
That part of a fruit that is produced by thickening of the ovary wall. Composed of three layers, epicarp (skin), mesocarp (often fleshy) and endocarp (membranous or stony in the ...
pericentric inversion
Chromosomal inversion in which the region that is inverted includes the kinetochore.
pericentrin
Conserved protein (200-220 kD) of the pericentriolar region involved in organization of microtubules during meiosis and mitosis; concentration highest at metaphase, lowest at ...
pericentriolar region
Rather amorphous region of electron-dense material surrounding the centriole in animal cells: the major microtubule organizing centre of the cell.
perichondrial cell
Cell of the perichondrium, the fibrous connective tissue surrounding cartilage.
pericyte
Cell associated with the walls of small blood vessels: not a smooth muscle cell, nor an endothelial cell.
periderm
The outer cork layer of a plant that replaces the epidermis of primary tissues. Cells have their walls impregnated with cutin and suberin.
perikaryon
Cell body surrounding nucleus of a neuron - does not include axonal and dendritic processes.
perinuclear space
Gap 10-40nm wide separating the two membranes of the nuclear envelope.
period
Drosophila gene regulating circadian rhythm. Expressed in CNS, Malpighian tubules, and a number of other tissues. Per contains a PAS structural domain, a nuclear localization ...
periodic acid-Schiff reaction
A method for staining carbohydrates: adjacent hydroxyl groups are oxidized to form aldehydes by periodic acid (HIO4 ) and these aldehyde groups react with Schiff\'s reagent ...
periodontal
Adjective describing the region around the teeth ie. gums and gingival crevice. Periodontal disease is a common consequence of inadequate phagocyte function.
peripheral lymphoid tissue
Secondary lymphoid tissue, not necessarily located peripherally. See lymphoid tissue.
peripheral membrane protein
Membrane proteins that are bound to the surface of the membrane and not integrated into the hydrophobic region. Usually soluble and were originally thought to bind to integral ...
peripherin
(1) Type III intermediate filament protein (57-58 kD) co-expressed with neurofilament triplet proteins. (2) Photoreceptor-specific glycoprotein found on the rim region of rod ...
Periplaneta
Genus of insects that includes P. americana, the American cockroach, a favourite experimental animal.
periplasmic binding proteins
Transport proteins located within the periplasmic space. Some act as receptors for bacterial chemotaxis, interacting with MCPs. Their mode of action is unclear.
periplasmic space
Structureless region between the plasma membrane and the cell wall of Gram negative bacteria.
periseptal annulus
Organelle associated with cell division in Gram negative bacteria. There are two circumferential zones of cell envelope in which membranous elements of the envelope are ...
peritoneal exudate
A term most commonly used to describe the fluid drained from the peritoneal cavity some time after the injection of an irritant solution. For example, a standard method for ...
permease
General term for a membrane protein that increases the permeability of the plasma membrane to a particular molecule, by a process not requiring metabolic energy. See ...
permissive cells
Cells of a type or species in which a particular virus can complete its replication cycle.
permissive temperature
Of a temperature-sensitive mutation, a temperature at which the mutated gene product behaves normally, and so the cell or organism survives as if wild-type (compare with ...
Peromyscus
Genus of mice native to Central and North America.
peroxidase
A haem enzyme that catalyses reduction of hydrogen peroxide by a substrate that loses two hydrogen atoms. Within cells, may be localized in peroxisomes. Coloured ...
peroxisome
Organelle containing peroxidase and catalase, sometimes as a large crystal. A site of oxygen utilization, but not of ATP synthesis. In plants, associated with chloroplasts in ...
persistence
(1) The tendency of a cell to continue moving in one direction: an internal bias on the random walk behaviour that cells exhibit in isotropic environments. (2) Of viruses that ...

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