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Слова на букву rici-stab (375)

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Ricinus communis agglutinin
Lectin (120 kD) from castor bean, with specificity similar to ricin, but much less toxic.
Rickettsia
Genus of Gram negative bacteria responsible for a number of insect-borne diseases of man (including scrub typus and Rocky Mountain spotted fever). Obligate intracellular ...
rifampicin
Semi-synthetic member of the rifamycin group of antibiotics.
rifamycin
Antibiotic produced by Streptomyces mediterranei that acts by inhibiting prokaryotic, but not eukaryotic DNA-dependent RNA synthesis. Blocks initiation, but not elongation of ...
rigor
Stiffening of muscle as a result of high calcium levels and ATP depletion, so that actin-myosin links are made, but not broken.
rilmenidine
See clonidine.
RING finger motif
A zinc finger motif found in various nuclear proteins and in some receptor-associated proteins. The RING finger, or Cys3HisCys4, family of zinc binding proteins play important ...
Ringer's solution
Isotonic salt solution used for mammalian tissues; original version (for frog tissues) much modified and often used loosely to mean any physiological saline.
ristocetin
Mixture of ristocetins A and B: isolated from actinomycete, Nocardia lurida. Induces platelet aggregation.
RMP pathway
(= ribulose monophosphate pathway; allulose phosphate pathway.) A metabolic pathway used by methylotropic bacteria for the conversion of formaldehyde to hexose sugars etc. In ...
RNA
(= ribonucleic acid) This molecular species has an informational role, a structural role and an enzymic role and is thus used in a more versatile way than either DNA or ...
RNA editing
A process responsible for changes in the final sequence of mRNA that are not coded in the DNA template. Excludes mRNA splicing and modifications to tRNA. Various kinds of ...
RNA plasmid
dsRNA found in yeasts, also known as killer factors. Their nomenclature is uncertain and some scientists consider them viruses.
RNA polymerases
Enzymes that polymerize ribonucleotides in accordance with the information present in DNA. Prokaryotes have a single enzyme for the three RNA types that is subject to stringent ...
RNA primase
An RNA polymerase that synthesizes a short RNA primer sequence to initiate DNA replication.
RNA primer
The primer sequence synthesized by RNA primase.
RNA processing
Modifications of primary RNA trancripts including splicing, cleavage, base modification, capping and the addition of poly-A tails. See also RNA editing.
RNA splicing
The removal of introns from primary RNA transcripts. See alternative splicing.
RNA tumour virus
See Oncovirinae.
RNAase protection assay
Sensitive and quantitative alternative to Northern blots for the measurement of gene expression levels. Labelled antisense cRNA is transcribed from a DNA clone in an ...
sauvagine
Peptide (40 amino acids) originally isolated from the skin of the frog, Phyllomedusa sauvagei, and that is closely related to corticotrophin releasing factor and to urotensin ...
saxitoxin
Neurotoxin produced by the " red tide" dinoflagellates, Gonyaulax catenella and G. tamarensis. It binds to the sodium channel, blocking the passage of action potentials. Its ...
scaffold proteins
Proteins that remain when chromosomes are digested with DNAase. Many antigenic species have been identified.
scanning electron microscopy
Technique of electron microscopy in which the specimen is coated with heavy metal, and then scanned by an electron beam. The image is built up on a monitor screen (in the same ...
scanning probe microscopy
Methods for visualizing surfaces at microscopic scale that rely on moving a tiny probe over a surface (usually in an x-y scan), and recording some property of interest (current, ...
scanning transmission electron microscopy
(= STEM) Method of electron microscopy in which image formation depends upon analysis of the pattern of energies of electrons that pass through the specimen. Has comparable ...
scanning tunnelling microscopy
A form of ultra-high resolution microscopy of a surface in which a very small current is passed through a surface and is detected by a microprobe of atomic dimnensions at its ...
Scatchard plot
A method for analysing data for freely reversible ligand/receptor binding interactions. The graphical plot is: (Bound ligand/Free ligand) against (Bound ligand) ; the slope ...
scatter factor
A motility factor (motogen) isolated from conditioned medium in which human fibroblasts have been grown. It causes colonies of epithelial and endothelial cells, in culture, to ...
scavenger receptor
Structurally diverse family of receptors on macrophages that are involved in the uptake of modified LDL and have been implicated in development of atherosclerotic lesions. Six ...
SCF
See stem cell factor.
SCF complexes
Class of E3 ubiquitin protein ligases that are composed of a Skp1p-cdc53p-F-box protein complex and play a role in regulation of cell division. Substrate specificity for ...
SCG10 gene
A neural-specific gene that encodes a growth-associated protein expressed early in the development of neuronal derivatives of the neural crest. The 22 kD intracellular protein ...
Scheie syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis (lysosomal disease) in which there is a defect in a- L-iduronidase. Fibroblasts from Scheie syndrome patients do not cross-correct fibroblasts from ...
Schiff base
The reaction of a primary amine with an aldehyde or ketone yields an imine sometimes called a Schiff base. When an arylamine is used the Schiff base may form an intermediate in a ...
Schiff's reagent
See periodic acid-Schiff reaction.
schistocytes
Fragments of red blood cells found in the circulation.
schistosomiasis
Disease (bilharzia) caused by trematode worms (flukes). Three main species, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni, cause disease in man. Larval forms of the ...
schistosomulum
(= schistosomula (plural) ) See schistosomiasis.
schizogony
The division of cells, especially of protozoans, in non-sexual stages of the life history of the organism.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe
Species of fission yeast commonly used for studies on cell cycle control because there is a distinct G2 phase to the cycle. Only distantly related to the budding yeast ...
Schultz-Charlton test
Test for scarlet fever in which antitoxin to erythrogenic toxin of Streptococcus pyogenes is injected subcutaneously.
Schwann cell
A specialized glial cell that wraps around vertebrate axons providing extremely good electrical insulation. Separated by nodes of Ranvier about once every millimetre, at which ...
Schwannoma-derived growth factor
(= SDGF) A growth factor containing an EGF-like domain, mitogenic for astrocytes, Schwann cells and fibroblasts.
Schwartzmann reaction
Mis-spelling of Shwartzman reaction.
SCID
(= severe combined (or congenital) immunodeficiency disease) An heterogeneous group of inherited disorders characterized by gross functional impairment of the immune system. ...
scinderin
Protein (80 kD) of the gelsolin family isolated from vertebrate neural and secretory tissue. Subcortical scinderin is redistributed into patches following stimulation of ...
scintillation counting
Technique for measuring quantity of a radioactive isotope present in a sample. In biology, liquid scintillation counting is mainly used for b emitters such as 14C, 35S and 32P ...
scintillation proximity assay
Assay system in which antibody or receptor molecule is bound to a bead that will emit light when b emission from an isotope occurs in close proximity, ie. from a ...
scirrhous carcinoma
Carcinoma having a hard structure because of excessive production of dense connective tissue.
sclereid
Type of sclerenchyma cell that differs from the fibre cell by not being greatly elongated. Often occurs singly (an idioblast) or in small groups, giving rise to a gritty ...
sclerenchyma
Plant cell type with thick lignified walls, normally dead at maturity and specialized for structural strength. Includes fibre cells, that are greatly elongated, and sclereids, ...
scleroderma
Hardening of skin.
sclerosis
Pathological hardening of tissue.
scoliosis
Abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
scopolamine
(= hyoscine) Alkaloid found in thorn apple ( Datura stramonium ). Related to atropine both in effects and structure and acts as a muscarinic acetylcholine receptorantagonist. ...
scorpion toxins
Polypeptide toxins (7 kD) with four disulphide bridges. The a -toxins are found in venom of Old World scorpions, b -toxins in those of the New World. Bind with high affinity to ...
scotophobin
Peptide (15 residues) isolated from brains of rats trained to avoid the dark that will transfer this aversion to naive animals.
scrapie
A chronic neurological disease of sheep and goats, similar to other spongiform encephalopathies and much used as a model for studying the diseases. Controversy still surrounds ...
scRNP
Small cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein.
scruin
Actin-binding protein found associated with the acrosomal process of Limulus polyphemus sperm. Scruin holds the microfilaments of the core process in a strained configuration ...
scurfy
The murine X-linked lymphoproliferative disease scurfy is similar to the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome in humans. Disease in scurfy (sf) mice is mediated by CD4+ T-cells but there is ...
scurvy
Disease caused by vitamin C deficiency. The effects are due to a failure of the hydroxylation of proline residues in collagen synthesis, and the consequent failure of ...
scutellum
Part of the embryo in seeds of the Poaceae (grasses). Can be considered equivalent to the cotyledon of other monocotyledenous seeds. During germination, absorbs degraded ...
scyllatoxin
Toxin from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. Peptide of 31 residues that specifically blocks low conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels that are also a ...
SDGF
See Schwannoma-derived growth factor.
SDS-PAGE
Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in which the charge on the proteins results from their binding of SDS. Since the charge is proportional to the surface area of the ...
sea
An oncogene, identified in bird sarcoma, encoding a receptor tyrosine kinase.
SEC
(= serpin-enzyme complex) Receptor mediates catabolism of a -1-antitrypsin/elastase complexes and elevates a -1-antitrypsin synthesis. Also implicated in neutrophil chemotaxis ...
sec 65
Gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that encodes a protein very similar to the SRP19 subunit of the mammalian signal recognition particle.
sec7
(= ySec7p) Protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae that plays an important part in the secretory pathway. Mutations in sec7 lead to accumulation of Golgi cisternae and loss of ...
second messenger
In many hormone-sensitive systems the systemic hormone does not enter the target cell but binds to a receptor and indirectly affects the production of another molecule within ...
secondary immune response
The response of the immune system to the second or subsequent occasion on which it encounters a specific antigen.
secondary lymphoid tissue
See lymphoid tissue.
secondary lysosome
Term used to describe intracellular vacuoles formed by the fusion of lysosomes with organelles (autosomes) or with primary phagosomes. Residual bodies are the remnants of ...
secondary product
End-product of plant cell metabolism, which accumulates in, or is secreted from, the cell. Includes anthocyanins, alkaloids, etc. Some are of major economic importance, eg. as ...
secondary structure
Structures produced in polypeptide chains involving interactions between amino acids within the chain. Especially alpha-helical and beta pleated sheet structures. Also applies ...
secondary wall
(of plants) That part of the plant cell wall which is laid down on top of the primary cell wall after the wall has ceased to increase in surface area. Only occurs in certain ...
secretagogue
Substance that induces secretion from cells; originally applied to peptides inducing gastric and pancreatic secretion.
secretin
Peptide hormone of gastrointestinal tract (27 residues) found in the mucosal cells of duodenum. Stimulates pancreatic, pepsin and bile secretion, inhibits gastric acid ...
secretion
Release of synthesized product from cells. Release may be of membrane-bounded vesicles (merocrine secretion) or of vesicle content following fusion of the vesicle with the ...
secretogranins
See granins.
secretory cells
Cells specialized for secretion, usually epithelial. Those that secrete proteins characteristically have well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum, whereas conspicuous smooth ...
secretory component of IgA
A polypeptide chain of about 60 kD that aids secretion of the IgA; a portion of the IgA receptor on the plasmalemma of the inner side of the epithelial cells lining the ...
secretory proteins
In eukaryotes, proteins synthesized on rough endoplasmic reticulum and destined for export. Nearly all proteins secreted from cells are glycosylated (in the Golgi apparatus, ...
secretory vesicle
Membrane-bounded vesicle derived from the Golgi apparatus and containing material that is to be released from the cell. The contents may be densely packed, often in an inactive ...
sedimentation
Settling of a component of a mixture under the influence of gravity (natural or artificial) so that the mixture separates into two or more phases or zones.
sedimentation coefficient
The ratio of the velocity of sedimentation of a molecule to the centrifugal force required to produce this sedimentation. It is a constant for a particular species of molecule, ...
sedoheptulose
Seven-carbon sugar, whose phosphate derivatives are involved in the pentose phosphate pathway and the Calvin-Benson cycle.
segment-polarity gene
A segmentation gene, responsible for specifying anterior-posterior polarity within individual embryonic segments. In Drosophila, there are at least 10 such genes, for example ...
segmentation
Organization of the body into repeating units called segments is a common feature of several phyla, eg. arthropods and annelids, although the segments arise by very different ...
segmentation gene
Genes required for the establishment of segmentation in the embryo. In Drosophila about 20 such genes are required.
segregation of chromosomes
The separation of pairs of homologous chromosomes that occurs at meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in any single gamete.
selectin
Group of cell adhesion molecules that bid to carbohydrates via a lectin-like domain. The name is derived from select and lectin. They are integral membrane glycoproteins with ...
selector genes
A group of genes that determines which part of a developmental pattern cells will be allocated within a developmental segment.
selenium
Essential trace element that must be provided as a supplement in serum-free culture media for most animal cells.
selenocysteine
An unusual amino acid of proteins, the selenium analogue of cysteine, in which a selenium atom replaces sulphur. Involved in the catalytic mechanism of seleno-enzymes such as ...
self-antigens
(= autoantigen) The antigens of an individual&’s body have the potential to be self-antigens for the immune system and unless clones of immune cells reactive with self-antigens ...
self-assembly
The property of forming structures from subunits (protomers) without any external source of information about the structure to be formed such as priming structure or template. ...
self-cloning
Any system in which inappropriate cell types or organisms are eliminated because they possess some character that allows them to die or to remove themselves from the system. Thus ...
self-incompatibility
Inability of pollen grains to fertilize flowers of the same plant or its close relatives. Acts as a mechanism to ensure out-breeding within some plant species, eg. in the case of ...
self-replicating
Literally, replication of a system by itself without outside intervention. In practice often taken to refer to systems that replicate without the contribution of any information ...
self-splicing
Self-catalysed removal of group 5 introns, mediated by six paired conserved regions.
sem-5
Cell-signalling gene of Caenorhabditis elegans that encodes a protein (228 residues) with SH2 and SH3 domains and that acts in vulval development and sex myoblast migration. ...
semaphorins
Family of proteins that mediate neuronal guidance by inhibiting nerve growth cone movement. Both transmembrane and secreted proteins are included and many domains of the ...
semiautonomous
Of systems or processes that are not wholly independent of other systems or processes.
semiconservative replication
The system of replication of DNA found in all cells in which each daughter cell receives one old strand of DNA and one strand newly synthesized at the preceding S phase. The ...
semipermeable membrane
A membrane that is selectively permeable to only one (or a few) solutes. The potential developed across a membrane permeable to only one ionic species is given by the Nernst ...
Semliki forest virus
Enveloped virus of the alphavirus group of Togaviridae. First isolated from mosquitoes in the Semliki Forest in Uganda; not known to cause any illness. The synthesis and export ...
Senarmont compensation
In interference microscopy, compensation for the phase difference introduced by the object, measured by introducing a quarter-wavelength plate and rotating the analyser: the ...
Sendai virus
Parainfluenza virus type 1 (Paramyxoviridae). Can cause fatal pneumonia in mice, and may cause respiratory disease in humans. The ability of ultraviolet-inactivated virus to fuse ...
senescent cell antigen
An antigen (62 kD) that appears on the surface of senescent erythrocytes and is immunologically cross-reactive with isolated band III. Seems to be recognized by an ...
senile plaque
Characteristic feature of the brains of Alzheimer\'s disease patients and aged monkeys, consisting of a core of amyloid fibrils surrounded by dystrophic neurites. The principal ...
sensitization
A state of heightened responsiveness, usually referring to the state of an animal after primary challenge with an antigen. The term is frequently used in the context of ...
sensory neuron
(1) A neuron that receives input from sensory cells. (2) Sensory cells such as cutaneous mechanoreceptors and muscle receptors.
Sephacryl
Trade-name for a covalently cross-linked allyl dextrose gel formed into beads. Used in gel filtration columns for separating molecules in the size range 5 kD to 1.5 million D.
Sephadex
Trade-name for a cross-linked dextran gel in bead form used for gel filtration columns: by varying the degree of cross-linking the effective fractionation range of the gel ...
Sepharose
Trade-name for a gel of agarose in bead form from which charged polysaccharides have been removed. Used in gel filtration columns.
septate junction
An intercellular junction found in invertebrate epithelia that is characterized by a ladder-like appearance in electron micrographs. Thought to provide structural strength, and ...
septic shock
Condition of clinical shock caused by endotoxin in the blood. A serious complication of severe burns and abdominal wounds, frequently fatal. Part of the problem seems to be due ...
septicaemia
See bacteraemia.
septin
Family of homologous proteins (around 40 kD) first identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae where they associated with cytokinesis and septum formation. Encoded by CDC3, CDC10, ...
septum
Literally a separating wall. Mainly applied to the structure composed of plasmalemmae and cell wall material formed in cell division in prokaryotes and fungi. Also applied to ...
sequence homology
Strictly, refers to the situation where nucleic acid or protein sequences are similar because they have a common evolutionary origin. Often used loosely to indicate that ...
SER
See smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
serglycin
An intracellular proteoglycan, found particularly in the storage granules of connective tissue mast cells. The core protein consists of 153 amino acids with 24 serine-glycine ...
sericin
Protein found in silk. Very serine-rich - 30% of the residues are serine.
serine
(= Ser; S: 105 D) One of the amino acids found in proteins and that can be phosphorylated.
serine protease
One of a group of endoproteases from both animal and bacterial sources that share a common reaction mechanism based on formation of an acyl-enzyme intermediate on a specific ...
serosa
A serous epithelium, having serous glands or cells, as opposed to a mucous membrane.
serotonin
(= 5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) A neurotransmitter and hormone(176 D), found in vertebrates, invertebrates and plants.
serotype
The genotype of a unicellular organism as defined by antisera against antigenic determinants expressed on the surface.
serous gland
An exocrine gland that produces a watery, protein-rich secretion, as opposed to a carbohydrate-rich mucous secretion.
serpentine receptors
(= seven-spanners; seven transmembrane receptors) Receptors in which there are seven transmembrane-spanning regions. All are G-protein coupled. A variety of names have been used ...
serpins
Lackie Superfamily of proteins, mostly serine protease inhibitors, that includes ovalbumin, a-1-antitrypsin, antithrombin.
Serrate
Drosophila locus. Gene product contains 14 repeats of the EGF-like domain.
serrate protein
Transmembrane ligand for Notch, expressed on dorsal cells of Drosophila wing, activates Notch on ventral cells and induces the expression of Delta protein. Serrate protein ...
Serratia marcescens
A Gram negative bacterium that is very common in soil and water; most strains produce a characteristic pigment, prodigiosin. Opportunistic human pathogens, infecting mainly ...
Sertoli cell
Tall columnar cells found in the mammalian testis closely associated with developing spermatocytes and spermatids. Probably provide appropriate microenvironment for sperm ...
serum
Fluid that is left when blood clots; the cells are enmeshed in fibrin and the clot retracts because of the contraction of platelets. It differs from plasma in having lost ...
serum amyloid
In secondary amyloidosis the fibrils deposited in tissues are unrelated to immunoglobulin light chains (in contrast to the situation in primary amyloidosis) and are made of ...
serum amyloid P-component
Precursor of amyloid component P, found in basement membrane. Member of the pentraxin family. See serum amyloid.
serum hepatitis
See hepatitis B.
serum requirement
The amount of serum that must be added to culture medium to permit growth of an animal cell in culture. Transformed cells frequently have less stringent serum requirements ...
serum response element
DNA motif found (for example) in the c-fos promoter, which is bound by the serum response factor.
serum response factor
(= SRF; p67SRF) Transcription factor which interacts with Elk-1 (p62TCF) to bind the serum response element promoter found in many growth-related genes.
serum sickness
A hypersensitivity response (Type III) to the injection of large amounts of antigen, as might happen when large amounts of antiserum are given in a passive immunization. The ...
seven-membrane spanning receptors
See serpentine receptors.
Sevenless
Drosophila gene that is required for development of the R7 cell in each ommatidium in the eye. Gene product is a receptor tyrosine kinase, related to the insulin receptor. ...
severin
Calcium-dependent F-actin cleaving protein (40 kD) isolated from the slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum that binds irreversibly to the barbed ends of the microfilament; not, ...
sex chromatin
Condensed chromatin of the inactivated X chromosome in female mammals (Barr body).
sex chromosome
Chromosome that determines the sex of an animal. In humans, where the two sex chromosomes (X and Y) are dissimilar, the female has two X chromosomes, and the male is ...
sex hormone
Hormone that is secreted by gonads, or that influences gonadal development. Examples are oestrogen, testosterone, gonadotrophins.
sex pili
Fine filamentous projections (pili) on the surface of a bacterium that are important in conjugation. Often seem to be coded for by plasmids that confer conjugative potential on ...
sex-duction
The transfer of genes from one bacterium to another by the process of conjugation. May involve one bacterium with an F\'-plasmid, in which case the process is called F-duction.
sex-linked disorder
A genetic defect, usually due to a gene on the unpaired portion of the X chromosome. Recessive X-linked alleles are fully expressed in the heterogametic sex because they can ...
Sf9 cells
Insect cell line derived from Spodoptera frugiperda much used for production of recombinant protein. Gene is incorporated into baculovirus vector which is then used to infect ...
SH domains
Src homology domains: domains of protein that, from their homology with src are involved in the interaction with phosphorylated tyrosine residues on other proteins (SH2 domains) ...
SH2
See SH domains.
SH3
See SH domains.
shadowing
Procedure much used in electron microscopy, in which a thin layer of material, usually heavy metal or carbon, is deposited onto a surface from one side, in such a way as to cast ...
shaker
Drosophila gene encoding a potassium channel. Related genes, shab, shal and shaw are known in flies and humans. The mutation is so-called because the fly&’s legs shake under ...
shc
Gene family identified by presence of SH2 domains. Shc also has a tyrosine motif that, when phosphorylated, will bind the SH2 of the adaptor protein grb2 and may link ...
shear stress response element
(= SSRE) Various cells can be stimulated to divide if subject to fluid shear stress. This is particularly interesting in the case of endothelial and vascular smooth muscle ...
shibire
Drosophila gene that encodes dynamin. Shibire is temperature sensitive and in affected flies synaptic vesicles are depleted at high temperatures but are restored in nerve ...
shiga toxin
(= verotoxin) Bacterial toxin from Shigella dysenteriae that blocks eukaryotic protein synthesis. See Shiga-like toxins.
shiga-like toxins
Group of structurally-related toxins that block eukaryotic protein synthesis by cleaving a single residue from the 28S rRNA subunit of ribosomes thus blocking interaction with ...
Shigella
Genus of non-motile Gram negative enterobacteria (Escherichiae group) : cause dysentery. See Shiga toxin.
shikimic acid pathway
Metabolic pathway in plants and microorganisms, by which the aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan) are formed from phosphoenolpyruvate and ...
Shine-Dalgarno region
A poly-purine sequence found in bacterial mRNA about 7 nucleotides in front of the initiation codon, AUG. The complete sequence is 5\'-AGGAGG-3\' and almost all messengers ...
shingles
Disease in adults caused by Varicella zoster virus (Herpetoviridae), that in children causes chicken pox. Disease arises by reactivation (usually associated with a decline in ...
SHIP
Lipid phosphatase containing an SH2 domain; dephosphorylates 5&’-inositol phosphate. Important in regulation of mast cell degranulation and cytokine signal transduction in ...
ShK toxin
A potassium channel-blocking polypeptide (35 residues) from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus.
shock
Condition associated with circulatory collapse - a result either of blood loss, bacteraemia, an anaphylactic reaction, or emotional stress.
Shope fibroma virus
Poxvirus associated with the production of benign skin tumours in rabbits.
Shope papilloma virus
Papovavirus that produces papillomas (warts) in rabbits.
Shp
(= Shp-1, Shp-2) Protein tyrosine phosphatases with SH2 domains. Are recruited to ITIM motif of receptor tyrosine kinases and play an important role in the control of ...
shuttle flow
See cytoplasmic streaming.
shuttle vector
Cloning vector that replicate in cells of more than one organism, eg. E. coli and yeast. This combination allows DNA from yeast to be grown in E. coli and tested directly for ...
Shwartzman reaction
Reaction that occurs when two injections of endotoxin are given to the same animal, particularly rabbits, 24h apart. In the local Shwartzman reaction the first injection is ...
sialic acid
See neuraminic acid.
sialidase
See neuraminidase.
sialoglycoprotein
Glycoprotein of which the N- or O-glycan chains include residues of neuraminic acid.
sialophorin
See leukosialin.
sialyl Lewis x
(= sLex ; CD15s) Sialylated form of CD15, the ligand for E-, P- and L-selectins. Expressed on neutrophils, basophils and monocytes and only some lymphocytes. Also present on ...
SIC1
S phase cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. See Skp.
sickle cell anaemia
Disease common in races of people from areas in which malaria is endemic. The cause is a point mutation in haemoglobin (valine instead of glutamic acid at position 6), and ...
sideramines
Naturally-occurring iron-binding compounds, hydroxamic acids.
sideroblasts
Red blood cells containing Pappenheimer bodies: small, deeply basophilic granules that contain ferric iron.
sideromycins
Non-chelating antibiotic analogues produced by some enteric bacteria; interfere with the uptake of sideramine-ferric ion complexes.
siderophilins
Family of non-haem iron chelating proteins (about 80 kD) found in vertebrates. Examples are lactoferrin and transferrin.
siderophores
Natural iron-binding compounds that chelate ferric ions (which form insoluble colloidal hydroxides at neutral pH and are then inaccessible) and are then taken up together with ...
sieve plate
Perforated end walls separating the component cells (sieve elements) that make up the phloem sieve tubes in vascular plants. The perforations permit the flow of water and ...
sieve tube
The structure within the phloem of higher plants that is responsible for transporting organic material (sucrose, raffinose, amino acids, etc.) from the photosynthetic tissues ...
sigma factor
(= s factor) Initiation factor (86 kD) that binds to E. coli DNA-dependent RNA polymerase and promotes attachment to specific initiation sites on DNA. Following attachment, the ...
signal peptidase
See signal sequence.
signal peptidase complex
See signal sequence.
signal peptide
See signal sequence.
signal recognition particle
A complex between a 7S RNA and six proteins. SRP binds to the nascent polypeptide chain of eukaryotic proteins with a signal sequence and halts further translation until the ...
signal recognition particle-receptor
Receptor for the signal recognition particle (SRP) found in the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. Also known as docking protein. Heterodimeric, both protomers having ...
signal sequence
A peptide present on proteins that are destined either to be secreted or to be membrane components. It is usually at the N-terminus and normally absent from the mature protein. ...
signal transduction
The cascade of processes by which an extracellular signal (typically a hormone or neurotransmitter) interacts with a receptor at the cell surface, causing a change in the level ...
signal-response coupling
See signal transduction.
signet-ring cell
Cell (adipocyte) with a large central fat-filled vacuole that pushes the nucleus to one side to give an appearance reminiscent of a signet ring.
silanizing
Conversion of active silanol (-SiOH) groups on surface of (for example) glass into less polar silyl ethers (-SiOR), thereby making the surface less adhesive. See siliconization.
silent mutation
Mutations that have no effect on phenotype because they do not affect the activity of the product of the gene, usually because of codon ambiguity.
siliconization
Non-covalent coating of surface with a layer of silicone oil making it less adhesive or reactive. See silanizing.
silicosis
Inflammation of the lung caused by foreign bodies (inhaled particles of silica) : leads to fibrosis but unlike asbestosis does not predispose to neoplasia.
simple epithelium
An epithelial layer composed of a single layer of cells all of which are in contact with the basal lamina (see basement membrane). May be cuboidal, columnar, squamous or ...
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome
(= SGBS) Human disorder leading to overgrowth. Arises through mutation in glycipan-3 gene on X chromosome - probably reducing the extent to which IGF-2 is bound and ...
Sin3
Component of the multiprotein complex involved in repression of transcription. Sin3 is a corepressor and forms a complex with Rpd3 histone deacetylase; the complex then ...
Sindbis virus
Enveloped virus of the alphavirus group of Togaviridae. It is thought to be an infection of birds spread by fleas, and there is little evidence that it causes any serious ...
single cell protein
Protein(s) produced by single cells in culture, especially Candida species. Of possible commercial importance in providing food sources from biotechnological processes.
single stranded DNA
(= ssDNA) DNA that consists of only one chain of nucleotides rather than the two base-pairing strands found in DNA in the double-helix form. Parvoviridae have a single-stranded ...
single-channel recording
Variant of patch clamp technique.
single-stranded conformational polymorphism
(= SSCP) Technique for detecting point mutations in genes by amplifying a region of genomic DNA (using asymmetric PCR) and running the resulting product on a high quality gel. ...
singlet oxygen
(= (1) O2) An energised but uncharged form of oxygen that is produced in the metabolic burst of leucocytes and that can be toxic to cells.
sis
An oncogene, identified in monkey sarcoma, encoding a B-chain of PDGF.
SIS
See macrophage inflammatory protein 1 a and b.
sister chromatid
One of the two chromatids making up a bivalent. Both are semi-conservative copies of the original chromatid.
site-directed mutagenesis
See site-specific mutagenesis.
site-specific mutagenesis
An in vitrotechnique in which an alteration is made at a specific site in a DNA molecule, which is then reintroduced into a cell. Various techniques are used; for the cell ...
site-specific recombination
See site-specific recombination, recombinase.
site-specific recombination
A type of recombination that occurs between two specific short DNA sequences present in the same or in different molecules. An example is the integration and excision of lambda ...
situs inversus
Condition in which the normal asymmetry of the body (in respect of circulatory system and intestinal coiling) is reversed. Interesting because it occurs in approximately 50% of ...
SIV
(= simian immunodeficiency virus) Very similar to HIV and used extensively as an animal model.
Sjogren&’s syndrome
One of the so-called connective tissue diseases that also include rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatic fever. Characterized by inflammation of ...
skeletal muscle
A rather nonspecific term usually applied to the striated muscle of vertebrates that is under voluntary control. The muscle fibres are syncytial and contain myofibrils, tandem ...
ski
An oncogene, identified in avian carcinoma, encoding a nuclear protein.
Skn-1
Maternally expressed transcription factor that specifies the fate of certain blastomeres during early development of Caenorhabditis elegans. Binds DNA with high affinity as a ...
skp
(= S-phase kinase-associated proteins; Skp1, Skp2.) Component of the SCF complex. The SCF (Skp1-cullin-F-box complex) ubiquitin protein ligase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ...
skyllocytosis
Phagocytic process in Allogromia.
Sl locus
(= Steel locus) Mouse mutant; see stem cell factor.
SL1
Transcription factor composed of four proteins including TBP, required for activity of RNA Polymerase I, resembles in some respect bacterial sigma factor.
sleeping sickness
See Trypanosoma.
sliding filament model
Generally accepted model for the way in which contraction occurs in the sarcomere of striated muscle, by the sliding of the thick filaments relative to the thin filaments. ...
slime moulds
Two distinct groups of fungi, the cellular slime moulds or Acrasidae that include Dictyostelium, and the acellular slime moulds or Myxomycetes that include Physarum.
slot blot
A dot blot in which samples are placed on a membrane through a series of rectangular slots in a template. This is slightly advantageous because hybridization artefacts are ...
slow muscle
Striated muscle used for long-term activity (eg. postural support). Depend therefore on oxidative metabolism and have many mitochondria and abundant myoglobin.
slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis
(= SRS-A) Potent bronchoconstrictor and inflammatory agent released by mast cells; an important mediator of allergic bronchial asthma. A mixture of three leukotrienes (LTC4 ...
slow virus
(1) Specifically one of the Lentivirinae. (2) Any virus causing a disease that has a very slow onset. Diseases such as sub-acute spongiform encephalopathy, Aleutian disease of ...
SLS collagen
(= segment long spacing collagen) Abnormal packing pattern of collagen molecules formed if ATP is added to acidic collagen solutions, in which lateral aggregates of molecules ...
Smad proteins
Intracellular proteins that mediate signalling from receptors for extracellular TGF b -related factors. Smad2 is essential for embryonic mesoderm formation and establishment of ...
small acid-soluble spore proteins
(= SASP) DNA-binding proteins in the spores of some bacteria, thought to stabilize the DNA in the A-DNA configuration, so protecting it from cleavage by enzymes or UV light.
small cell carcinoma
Common malignant neoplasm of bronchus. Cells of the tumour have endocrine-like characteristics and may secrete one or more of a wide range of hormones, especially regulatory ...
small nuclear RNA
(= snRNA) Abundant class of RNA found in the nucleus of eukaryotes, usually including those RNAs with sedimentation coefficients of 7s or less. They are about 100-300 ...
Smith-Watermann alignment
Algorithm for detecting sequence similarities when searching a genomic database.
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
An internal membrane structure of the eukaryotic cell. Biochemically similar to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), but lacks the ribosome-binding function. Tends to be ...
smooth microsome
Fraction produced by ultracentrifugation of a cellular homogenate. It consists of membrane vesicles derived largely from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
smooth muscle
Muscle tissue in vertebrates made up from long tapering cells that may be anything from 20-500 m m long. Smooth muscle is generally involuntary, and differs from striated ...
smooth strain
See rough strain.
SMRT
Silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors. Part of a co-repressor complex.
SNAP
(1) S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine. (2) Soluble NSF attachment (accessory) protein (25 kD), involved in the control of vesicle transport. a and g SNAPs are found in a wide ...
SNAREs
Receptors for SNAPs. The neuronal receptor for vesicle-SNAPs, v-SNARE, is synaptobrevin, also known as VAMP-2. The target (t-SNARE) associated with the plasma membrane of the ...
SNF complex
The SWI/SNF complex remodels nucleosome structure in an ATP-dependent manner. In yeast the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex is comprised of 11 tightly associated ...
snoRNA
Small nucleolar ribonucleic acid. See fibrillarin.
snRNA
See small nuclear RNA.
snRNP
Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein. See snRNA.
sodium channel
(= sodium gate) The protein responsible for electrical excitability of neurons. A multi-subunit transmembrane ion channel, containing an aqueous pore around 0.4nm diameter, with ...
sodium pump
See sodium-potassium ATPase.
sodium-potassium ATPase
A major transport protein of the plasma membrane. A multi-unit enzyme, it moves 3 sodium ions out of the cell, and 2 potassium ions in, for each ATP hydrolyzed. The sodium ...

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