Слова на букву rici-stab (375) Dictionary of molecular biology
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Слова на букву rici-stab (375)

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soft agar
Semi-solid agar used to gelate medium for culture of animal cells. Placed in such a medium, over a denser agar layer, the cells are denied access to a solid substratum on ...
sol-gel transformation
Transition between more fluid cytoplasm (endoplasm) and stiffer gel-like ectoplasm proposed as a mechanism for amoeboid locomotion: since the endoplasm cannot really be ...
Solanum tuberosum
The potato.
somatic cell
Usually any cell of a multicellular organism that will not contribute to the production of gametes, ie. most cells of which an organism is made: not a germ cell. Notice, ...
somatic cell genetics
Method for identifying the chromosomal location of a particular gene without sexual crossing. Unstable heterokaryons are made between the cell of interest and another cell with ...
somatic hybrid
Heterokaryon formed between two somatic cells, usually from different species. See somatic cell genetics.
somatic mesoderm
That portion of the embryonic mesoderm that is associated with the body wall, and is divided from the splanchnic (visceral) mesoderm by the coelomic cavity.
somatic mutation
Mutation that occurs in the somatic tissues of an organism, and that will not, therefore, be heritable, since it is not present in the germ cells. Some neoplasia is due to ...
somatic recombination
One of the mechanisms used to generate diversity in antibody production is to rearrange the DNA in B-lymphocytes during their differentiation, a process that involves cutting ...
somatocrinin
Peptide (44 residues) with high growth hormone releasing activity. Can be isolated from rat hypothalamus and some human pancreatic tumours. Acts on adenylate cyclase.
somatomedin
Generic term for insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) produced in the liver and released in response to somatotropin. Somatomedins stimulate the growth of bone and muscle, and ...
somatostatin
Gastrointestinal and hypothalamic peptide hormone (two forms: 14 and 28 residues) ; found in gastric mucosa, pancreatic Islets, nerves of the gastrointestinal tract, in ...
somatotropin
(= growth hormone) Hormone (191 amino acids) released by anterior pituitary that stimulates release of somatomedin, thereby causing growth.
somites
Segmentally arranged blocks of mesoderm lying on either side of the notochord and neural tube during development of the vertebrate embryo. Somites are formed sequentially, ...
son-of-sevenless
Drosophila ras-GRF (GDF releasing factor), mammalian homologues of which (sos1, sos2) play an important part in intracellular signalling. See sos.
sonic hedgehog
Secreted protein that is involved in organization and patterning of several vertebrate tissues during development. The zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) that determines ...
sorbitol
(= glucitol) The polyol (polyhydric alcohol) corresponding to glucose. Occurs naturally in some plants, is used as a growth substrate in some tests for bacteria, and is ...
sorbose
A monosaccharide hexose: L-sorbose is an intermediate in the commercial synthesis of ascorbic acid.
sorocarp
Fruiting body formed by some cellular slime moulds; has both stalk and spore-mass.
sorting out
Phenomenon observed to occur when mixed aggregates of dissimilar embryonic cell types are formed in vitro. The original aggregate sorts out so that similar cells come together ...
sorus
A group of sporangia or spore cases, eg. on the underside of fern leaves.
sos
Guanine-nucleotide releasing factor (155kD), the mammalian homologue of son-of-sevenless. The proline-rich region of sos binds to the SH3 domain of GRB2. Has homology with ...
sos
Guanine-nucleotide releasing factor (155kD), the mammalian homologue of son-of-sevenless. The proline-rich region of sos binds to the SH3 domain of GRB2. Has homology with ...
SOS system
The DNA repair system also known as error-prone repair in which apurinic DNA molecules are repaired by incorporation of a base that may be the wrong base but that permits ...
Southern blots
See blotting. Originally developed by Dr Ed Southern, hence the name.
sox
(1) SoxR: Redox sensory protein in E. coli. (2) SOX syndrome: Sialadenitis, osteoarthritis and xerostomia syndrome. (3) Sox genes: Gene family involved in many developmental ...
soybean trypsin inhibitor
(= STI; SBTI) Single polypeptide (21 kD; 181 amino acids) that forms a stable, stoichiometric, enzymically-inactive complex with trypsin.
spacer DNA
The DNA sequence between genes. In bacteria, only a few nucleotides long. In eukaryotes, can be extensive and include repetitive DNA, comprising the majority of the DNA of the ...
SPARC
See osteonectin.
sparsomycin
Antibiotic that inhibits peptidyl transferase in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
spasmin
Protein (20 kD) that forms the spasmoneme. Thought to change its shape when the calcium ion concentration rises, and to revert when the calcium concentration falls: the ...
spasmoneme
Contractile organelle found in Vorticella and related ciliate protozoans. Capable of shortening faster than any actin-myosin system, and of expanding actively. See spasmin.
spatial sensing
Mechanism of sensing a gradient in which the signal is compared at different points on the cell surface and cell movement directed accordingly. Translocation of all or part of ...
specific activity
The number of activity units (whatever is appropriate) per unit of mass, volume or molarity. Perhaps most often encountered in the context of radiochemicals, the number of ...
specific granules
(= secondary granules) One of the two main classes of granules found in neutrophils: contain lactoferrin, lysozyme, Vitamin B12 binding protein and elastase. Are released more ...
spectinomycin
Aminocyclitol antibiotic: acts on ribosome, but is bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal.
spectrin
Membrane-associated dimeric protein (240 and 220 kD) of erythrocytes. Forms a complex with ankyrin, actin, and probably other components of the ‘membrane cytoskeleton’, so ...
spectrophotometry
Quantitative measurements of concentrations of reagents made by measuring the absorption of visible, ultraviolet or infrared light.
Spemann&’s organizer
Signalling region located on the dorsal lip of the blastopore in the early embryo, essential for defining the main body axis.
speract
Sea urchin peptide hormone, from the jelly coat of the eggs of the sea-urchins Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Hemicentrotus pulcherrinus, affecting motility and metabolism. ...
spermatids
The haploid products of the second meiotic division in spermatogenesis. Differentiate into mature spermatozoa.
spermatocytes
Cells of the male reproductive system that undergo two meiotic divisions to give haploid spermatids.
spermatogenesis
The process whereby primordial germ cells form mature spermatozoa.
spermatogonium
Plant gonad cell that undergoes repeated mitoses, leading to the production of spermatocytes.
Spermatophyte
Division of the plant kingdom, consisting of plants that reproduce by means of seeds.
spermatozoon
Mature sperm cell (male gamete).
spermidine
(= N-(3-aminopropyl) -1,4-butanediamine) ) A polybasic amine (polyamine) ; see spermine.
spermine
(= N, N\' bis(3-aminopropyl) -1,4-butanediamine) ) Polybasic amine (polyamine). Found in human sperm, in ribosomes and in some viruses. Involved in nucleic acid packaging. ...
SPF
(= specific pathogen free) Animals that have been raised in carefully controlled conditions so that they are not infected with any known pathogens. May require that they are ...
spherical aberration
Deficiency in simple lenses in which the image is sharp in the centre but out-of-focus at the periphery of the field, more a problem when taking photographs than when observing ...
spherocytosis
A condition in which erythrocytes lose their biconcave shape and become spherical. It occurs as cells age, and is also found in individuals with abnormal cytoskeletal proteins, ...
spheroplast
Bacterium from which the cell wall has been removed but that has not lysed.
spherosome
Lysosome-like compartment in plants that derives from the endoplasmic reticulum and is a site for lipid storage.
sphingolipid
Structural lipid of which the parent structure is sphingosine rather than glycerol. Synthesized in the Golgi complex.
sphingomyelin
A sphingolipid in which the head group is phosphoryl choline. A close analogue of phosphatidyl choline. In many cells the concentration of sphingomyelin and phosphatidyl ...
sphingosine
Long-chain amino alcohol that bears an approximate similarity to glycerol with a hydrophobic chain attached to the 3-carbon. Forms the class of sphingolipids when it carries an ...
Spi-1
Proto-oncogene encoding a transcription factor (PU1) that binds to purine-rich sequences (PU boxes) expressed in haematopoietic cells.
spin labelling
The technique of introducing a grouping with an unpaired electron to act as an electron spin resonance (ESR) reporter species. This is almost invariably a nitroxide compound ...
spinal cord
Elongated, approximately cylindrical part of the central nervous system of vertebrates that lies in the vertebral canal, and from which the spinal nerves emerge.
spinal ganglion
(= dorsal root ganglion) Enlargement of the dorsal root of the spinal cord containing cell bodies of afferent spinal neurons. Neural outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia has ...
spindle
See mitosis.
spindle fibres
Microtubules of the spindle that interdigitate at the equatorial plane with microtubules of the opposite polarity derived from the opposite pole microtubule organizing ...
spinner culture
Method for growing large numbers of cells in suspension by continuously rotating the culture vessel.
spiral cleavage
Pattern of early cleavage found in molluscs and annelids (both mosaic eggs). The animal pole blastomeres are rotated with respect to those of the vegetal pole. The handedness ...
spirillum
A fairly rigid helically twisted bacterial cell often, but not necessarily, a member of the genus Spirillum.
spirochaete
(= spirochete (USA) ) An elongated, spirally-shaped bacterium, eg. the organism responsible for syphilis.
Spirogyra
Genus of green filamentous algae found in freshwater ponds. Contain helically disposed ribbon-like chloroplasts.
spironolactone
Aldosterone antagonist: diuretic; used to treat low-renin hypertension, and Conn\'s syndrome (in which there is overproduction of aldesterone).
Spirostomum
Genus of large free-living ciliate protozoans with an elongated body.
splanchnic
Relating to the viscera. See also splanchnic mesoderm.
splanchnic mesoderm
That portion of the embryonic mesoderm that is associated with the inner (endodermal) part of the body in contrast to somatic mesoderm which is associated with the body wall. ...
splenocytes
Phagocytic cells (macrophages) of the spleen are usually meant by this vague term.
spliceosome
A complex of small nuclear RNA/protein particles (snRNPs- ‘snurps’) that participate in hnRNA splicing.
splicing
The process by which introns are removed from hnRNA to produce mature messenger RNA that contains only exons. Alternative splicing seems to occur in many proteins and by ...
split gene
See introns.
split ratio
The fraction of the cells in a fully grown culture of animal cells that should be used to start a subsequent culture. Minimum may be dictated by inadequacies of the medium ...
spokein
Constituent protein of the radial spokes of the ciliary axoneme. Since a number of complementary spoke mutants are known to occur in Chlamydomonas, and one mutant lacks 17 ...
spongiform encephalopathies
A group of diseases characterized by long incubation and fatal progressive course with characteristic spongiform degeneration of grey matter of the cortex. The two main human ...
spongioblast
Cell found in developing nervous system: gives rise to astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.
spongiocytes
Lipid droplet-rich cells from the middle region of the cortex of the adrenal gland.
spongy parenchyma
Tissue usually found in the lower part of the leaf mesophyll. Consists of irregularly-shaped, photosynthetic parenchyma cells, separated by large air spaces.
spontaneous transformation
Transformation of a cultured cell that occurs without the deliberate addition of a transforming agent. Cells from some species, especially rodents, are particularly prone to such ...
sporadic
Of a tumour or genetic disease, a novel occurrence without any previous family history of the disease (cf. inherited). Examples of diseases with both sporadic and inherited ...
sporangium
Spore case, within which asexual spores are produced.
spore
Highly resistant dehydrated form of reproductive cell produced under conditions of environmental stress. Usually have very resistant cell walls (integument) and low metabolic ...
sporocarp
Multicellular structure in fungi, lichens, ferns or other plants. Location of spore formation.
sporophyte
Spore-producing plant generation. The dominant generation in pteridophytes and higher plants, and alternates with the gametophyte generation.
sporopollenin
Polymer of carotenoids, found in the exine of the pollen wall. Extremely resistant to chemical or enzymic degradation.
Sporozoa
Class of spore-forming parasitic protozoa without cilia, flagella or pseudopodia.
spot desmosome
Macula adherens: see desmosome.
sprouting
Production of new processes (outgrowths) by nerve cells: eg. by embryonic neurons undergoing primary differentiation; by adult neurons in response to nervous system damage; or ...
squames
Flat, keratinised, dead cells shed from the outermost layer of a squamous stratified epithelium.
squamous epithelium
An epithelium in which the cells are flattened. May be a simple epithelium (eg. endothelium) or a stratified epithelium (eg. epidermis).
squamous-cell carcinoma
Carcinoma that develops from the squamous layer of the epithelium. Slow growing.
squid giant axon
Large axons, up to 1mm in diameter, that innervate the mantle of the squid. Because of their large size, many of the pioneering investigations of the mechanisms underlying ...
squidulin
Calcium-binding protein from the optic lobe of squid, which contains the EF-hand motif.
SR proteins
Family of splicing factors, highly conserved in metazoans. Contain one or two RNA-binding domains and region enriched in arginine/serine repeats (RS domain) at C terminus.
src family
Family of protein tyrosine kinases of which src was the first example. Includes Fyn, Yes, Fgr, Lyn, Hck, Lck, Blk and Yrk. All cells studied so far have one at least of these ...
src gene
The transforming (sarcoma-inducing) gene of Rous sarcoma virus. Protein product is pp60vsrc, a cytoplasmic protein with tyrosine-specific protein kinase activity, that ...
SRE
See serum response element.
SRF
See serum response factor.
sRNP
One of the classes of small nuclear RNAs. There are six U-types that have a high uridylic acid content, U1-U5 are synthesized by RNA Polymerase II, U6 by RNA Polymerase III.
SRP
See signal recognition particle.
SRS-A
See slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis.
SRTX
See sarafotoxin.
sry
(= sex-related gene on Y) Family of high-mobility group (HMG) proteins that bind to a subset of sequences recognized by C/EBP family of DNA-binding proteins. Sry itself is the ...
SSCP
1.1See single-stranded conformational polymorphism.
SSI-1
(= STAT-induced STAT inhibitor-1) Protein induced by cytokines (through STAT pathway) that binds to and inhibits JAK2 and Tyk2 thereby acting as a negative feedback signal. See ...
stable transfection
(= stable expression) When transfecting animal cells, a clone of cells in which the transgene has been physically incorporated into the genome. It thus provides stable, ...

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