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Digalactosyl-sucrose, a compound involved in carbohydrate transport in the phloem of many plants, and also in carbohydrate storage in some seeds.
Staphylococcal alpha toxin
(= leucocidin) 1. Pore-forming exotoxin (33 kD) secreted by Staphylococcus aureus. Protein (monomer) has two domains connected by flexible hinge region: oligomerises in the ...
Bacteriocins produced by staphylococci.
Genus of non-motile Gram positive bacteria that are found in clusters, and that produce important exotoxins. Staphylococcus aureus ( S. pyogenes ) is pyogenic, an ...
Enzyme released by Staphylococcus aureus that acts as a plasminogen activator.
Storage carbohydrate of plants, consisting of amylose (a linear a (1-4) -glucan) and amylopectin (an a (1-4) -glucan with a (1-6) -branch points). Present as starch grains in ...
start codon
See initiation codon.
start site
Vague, as can refer to either a transcriptional start site or a translational start site.
A low molecular weight (5380 D, 43 amino acid residues) acidic tyrosine-rich phosphoprotein secreted mainly by salivary glands. Binds fimbrillin.
(= oncoprotein 18; Op18) Ubiquitous coiled-coil cytosolic phosphoprotein (19 kD) that interacts with tubulin heterodimers and increases the rate of rapid (‘catastrophic’) ...
An organ for the perception of gravity and thus body orientation, found in many invertebrate animals; a cavity lined with sensory cells and containing a statolith.
A root-tip cell containing one or more statoliths, involved in the detection of gravity in geotropism.
(1) Bot. A type of amyloplast found in root-tip cells of higher plants. It can sediment within the cell under the influence of gravity, and is thought to be involved in the ...
(= signal transducers and activators of transcription) Contain SH2 domains that allow them to interact with phosphotyrosine residues in receptors, particularly cytokine-type ...
Inhibitor of PKC-like protein kinases derived from Streptomyces sp. Has a rather broad inhibitory spectrum and cannot be used to ascribe a specific role for protein kinase C in ...
stearic acid
(= n-octadecanoic acid) See fatty acids.
Cells that give rise to fat cells (adipocytes).
steel factor
Murine equivalent of stem cell factor.
(= cystatin) Family of cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Stefin A has 98 residues and inhibits cathepsins D, B, H and L.
stem cell
(1) Cell that gives rise to a lineage of cells. (2) More commonly used of a cell that, upon division, produces dissimilar daughters, one replacing the original stem cell, the ...
stem cell factor
(= SCF; Steel factor in mice; mast cell growth factor; c-kit ligand) Haematopoietic growth factor, 18.6 kD from sequence; found as dimer (35 kD protein, 53 kD in its ...
stem-and-loop structure
The structure of tRNAs is so termed because it has four base-paired stems and three loops (not base-paired), one of which contains the anticodon.
Descriptive of an organism that is unable to tolerate a range of salinities.
(= stereocilia (plural) ) Microfilament bundle-supported projection, several microns long, from the apical surface of sensory epithelial cells (hair cells) in inner ear: like a ...
(= stereovilli (plural) ) Better name for stereocilium.
steroid finger motif
See steroid receptor.
steroid hormone
A group of structurally related hormones, based on the cholesterol molecule. They control sex and growth characteristics, are highly lipophilic, and are unique in that their ...
steroid receptor
Family of nuclear transcription factors, most of which are receptors for hormones of the steroid family, for example androgen, oestrogen, glucocorticoid, mineralocorticoid, ...
steroid response element
DNA sequence that is recognized and bound by a steroid receptor.
Molecules that have a 17-carbon steroid structure, but with additional alcohol groups and side chains. Commonest example is cholesterol.
sticky ends
The short stretches of single-stranded DNA produced by cutting DNA with restriction endonucleases whose site of cleavage is not at the axis of symmetry. The cut generates two ...
stimulus-secretion coupling
A term used to describe the events that link receipt of a stimulus with the release of materials from membrane-bounded vesicles (the analogy is with excitation-contraction ...
sting cells
Nematocysts of coelenterates.
A stalk, especially of fungal fruiting bodies or of large brown algae.
(1) Stem cell-derived tyrosine kinase, one of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor family and the murine homologue of the human RON receptor tyrosine kinase. Expressed on ...
Random or probabilistic event.
Ratio of the participating molecules in a reaction - in the case of an enzyme-substrate or receptor-ligand interaction should be a small integer.
Stoke&’s radius
Stoke&’s law of viscosity defines the frictional coefficient for a particle moving through a fluid, a coefficient that depends upon the viscosity of the fluid and the radius of ...
(= stomata (plural) ) Pore in the epidermis of leaves and some stems, which permits gas exchange through the epidermis. Can be open or closed, depending upon the physiological ...
stone cell
See sclereid.
stop codon
See termination codon.
(= stable tubulin-only proteins) A family of calcium-calmodulin regulated microtubule-stabilising proteins that confer cold-stability on microtubules. Subunit seems to be 145kD ...
storage diseases
Another name for lysosomal diseases.
storage granules
(1) Membrane-bounded vesicles containing condensed secretory materials (often in an inactive, zymogen, form). Otherwise known as zymogen granules or condensing vacuoles. (2) ...
strain birefringence
See birefringent.
stratified epithelium
An epithelium composed of multiple layers of cells, only the basal layer being in contact with the basal lamina (see basement membrane). The basal layer is of stem cells that ...
stratum corneum
Outermost layer of skin, composed of clear, dead, scale-like cells with little remaining except keratin.
Analogue of avidin. A protein isolated from Streptomycetes avidiniithat has a high affinity for biotin. Used to detect biotin markers.
streptococcal toxins
Group of haemolytic exotoxins released by Streptococcus spp. a -haemolysin: 26-39 Kd (four types), forms ring-like structures in membranes (see streptolysin O). Lipid target ...
Bacteriocinsreleased by streptococci.
Genus of Gram positive cocci that grow in chains. Some species ( Strep. pyogenes in particular) are responsible for important diseases in humans (pharyngitis, scarlet fever, ...
Mixture of four DNAases released by streptococci. By digesting DNA released from dead cells the enzyme reduces the viscosity of pus and allows the organism greater motility.
Plasminogen activator released by Streptococcus pyogenes. Occurs in two forms, A and B.
Antibiotic that blocks peptide chain elongation by binding to the polymerase.
streptolysin O
Oxygen-labile thiol-activated haemolysin (native toxin is 61 kD and is cleaved to form 55 kD fragment that retains activity). Haemolysis is inhibited by cholesterol, and only ...
streptolysin S
Thought to be a peptide of 28 residues: causes zone of b -haemolysis around streptococcal colonies on blood agar. Mechanism of haemolysis unclear. Toxic to leucocytes, ...
Genus of Gram positive spore-forming bacteria that grow slowly in soil or water as a branching filamentous mycelium similar to that of fungi. Important as the source of many ...
Commonly used antibiotic in cell culture media: acts only on prokaryotes, and blocks transition from initiation complex to chain-elongating ribosome. Isolated originally ...
Antibiotics that block initiation of transcription in prokaryotes. (cf. rifamycins and rifampicin).
Methyl nitroso-urea with a 2-substituted glucose, used as an antibiotic (effective against growing Gram positive and Gram negative organisms), and also to induce a form of ...
Bundle of microfilaments and other proteins found in fibroblasts, particularly slow-moving fibroblasts cultured on rigid substrata. Shown to be contractile; have a periodicity ...
stress-induced proteins
Alternative and preferable name for heat-shock proteins of eukaryotic cells, which emphasises that the same small group of proteins is stimulated both by heat and various other ...
striated border
Obsolete term for the apical surface of an epithelium with microvilli.
striated muscle
Muscle in which the repeating units (sarcomeres) of the contractile myofibrils are arranged in register throughout the cell, resulting in transverse or oblique striations ...
(= low stringency; high stringency; stringency wash) In nucleic acid hybridization, the labelled probe is used to label matching sequences by base-pairing. Unbound probe is ...
(1) The soluble, aqueous phase within the chloroplast, containing water-soluble enzymes such as those of the Calvin-Benson cycle. The site of the dark reaction of ...
stromal cell
Resident cell of loose fibrous connective tissue. Relatively non-committal term.
Metalloproteinase involved in breaking down the extracellular matrix.
strong promoter
Promoter, which when bound by a transcription factor strongly activates expression of the associated gene. The term is widely used, but lacks precision.
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Common sea urchin. Echinoderms are popular tools for developmental biology because the early embryo is transparent and cell movements can easily be observed. Sea urchin eggs are ...
Mixture of glycosides from Strophanthus kombe that has properties similar to digoxin and ouabain. See digitalis.
structural gene
A gene that codes for a product (eg. an enzyme, structural protein, tRNA), as opposed to a gene that serves a regulatory role.
structure-activity analysis
(= structure activity relationship; SAR) Study in which systematic variation in the structure of a compound is correlated with its activity, in an attempt to determine the ...
Alkaloid obtained from the Indian tree Strychnos nux-vomica ; specific blocking agent for the action of the amino acid transmitter glycine. Convulsive effects of strychnine are ...
See saxitoxin.
Stylonychia mytilus
Large ciliate protozoan of the Order Hypotrichida, that has compound cilia (cirri) that can be used for walking or swimming.
Description of a disease that progresses more rapidly than a chronic disease and more slowly than an acute one.
subacute sclerosing panencephalitis
(= SSPE) Chronic progressive illness seen in children a few years after measles infection, and involving demyelination of the cerebral cortex. Virus apparently persists in brain ...
Fatty substance, containing long-chain fatty acids and fatty esters, found in the cell walls of cork cells (phellem) in higher plants. Also found in the Casparian band. Renders ...
submitochondrial particle
Formed by sonicating mitochondria. Small vesicles in which the inner mitochondrial membrane is inverted to expose the innermost surface.
substance P
A vasoactive intestinal peptide (1348 D) found in the brain, spinal ganglia and intestine of vertebrates. Induces vasodilation, salivation and increases capillary permeability. ...
substantia nigra
Area of darkly pigmented dopaminergic neurons in the ventral midbrain thought to control movement and damaged in Parkinsonism.
Substance that is acted upon by an enzyme: one can also speak of a suitable substrate for maintaining a species of bacterium - the compound is one that can support cell growth.
The solid surface over which a cell moves, or upon which a cell grows: should be used in this sense in preference to substrate, to avoid confusion.
Extracellular serine protease produced by Bacillus spp.
Haemolytic surfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis ; hexapeptide linked to a long-chain fatty acid.
subtractive hybridization
(= subtraction cloning) Technique used to identify genes expressed differentially between two tissue samples. A large excess of mRNA from one sample is hybridized to cDNA from ...
Components from which a structure is built; thus myosin has six subunits, microtubules are built of tubulin subunits. In some cases it may be more informative to speak of ...
(= ethane dicarboxylic acid) Intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and glyoxylate cycle.
succinyl CoA
An intermediate product in the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
Cholinergic antagonist and therefore a skeletal muscle relaxant.
See invertase.
(= table sugar) Non-reducing disaccharide, a- D-glucopyranosyl- b -D-fructofuranose.
Sudan stains
Histochemical stains used for lipids.
See separate entries.
The British spelling, sulphur, sulpho- is used throughout.
См. sulfo-.
An esterase in which one of the substituents of the substrate is a sulphate group.
Pyrazole compound related to phenylbutazone, but without anti-inflammatory activity. Has no effect on platelet aggregation in vitro, but inhibits platelet adhesion and ...
Lipids in which the polar head group contains sulphate species. Synthesized in the Golgi complex.
Group of drugs derived from sulphanilamide (a red dye) : act by blocking folic acid synthesis from p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), because they are competitive analogues.
sulphydryl reagent
Compounds that bind to SH groups. Include p-chlormercuribenzoate, N-ethyl maleimide, iodoacetamide. Very important in studies of protein structure.
Antigens, mostly of microbial origin, that activate all T-lymphocytes that have a T-cell receptor with a particular V b sequence; as a consequence superantigens activate large ...
In circular DNA or closed loops of DNA, twisting of the DNA about its own axis changes the number of turns of the double helix. If twisting is in the opposite direction to the ...
(= superoxide radical) Term used interchangeably for the superoxide anion.O2-, or the weak acid HO2.. Superoxide is generated both by prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and is an ...
superoxide dismutase
Any of a range of metalloenzymes (EC that catalyses the formation of hydrogen peroxide and oxygen from superoxide, and thus protects against superoxide-induced ...
Phenomenon in band-shift assays where the reduction in mobility on a gel induced by a binding interaction with a protein is enhanced by the addition of an antibody to the ...
suppressor factor
(1) Factors released by T-suppressor cells. (2) See suppressor mutation and ochre suppressor, opal suppressor.
suppressor mutation
Mutation that alleviates the effect of a primary mutation at a different locus. May be through almost any mechanism that can give a primary mutation, but perhaps the most ...
suppressor T-cells
(= T-suppressor cell) Ill-defined class of T-cells that suppress T or B antigen-dependent responses.
(= sulphonylurea receptor; SUR1, SUR2) ABC protein that interacts with K-ATP (Kir6.1 and Kir6.2) channels and regulates the response of the cell to glucose levels by sensing ...
Compound that uncouples G-proteins from receptors, inhibits phospholipase D and inhibits binding of EGF, PDGF to cell surface receptors.
surface envelope model
A way of treating the hydrodynamics of a ciliary field - by considering the whole surface of the ciliate to have an undulating surface. The undulations arise because of ...
surface plasmon resonance
Alteration in light reflectance as a result of binding of molecules to a surface from which total internal reflection is occurring. Used in the Biacore (Pharmacia Trademark) ...
surface potential
The electrostatic potential due to surface charged groups and adsorbed ions at a surface. It is usually measured as the zeta potential at the Helmholtz slipping plane outside the ...
surface-active compound
Usually, in biological systems, means a detergent-like molecule that is amphipathic and that will bind to the plasma membrane, or to a surface with which cells come in contact, ...
A surface-active compound; the best known example of which is the lung surfactant that renders the alveolar surfaces hydrophobic and prevents the lung filling with water by ...
Protein in tumour cells that blocks apoptosis, possibly by inhibiting caspases. Related to IAPs.
Sus scrofa
Domestic pig.
suspensor cell
Plant cell linking the growing embryo to the wall of the embryo sac in developing seeds.
A depolarising neuromuscular blocking agent, which resembles acetylcholine in structure and binds to acetylcholine receptors, acting as an agonist. Unlike acetylcholine ...
Swiss 3T3 cells transformed with SV40.
(= simian virus 40) A small DNA tumour virus, member of the Papovaviridae. Isolated from monkey cells, which were being used for the preparation of poliovirus vaccine, and ...
Svedberg unit
The unit applied to the sedimentation coefficient of a particle in a high-speed or ultracentrifuge. The unit S is calculated as follows, S= rate of sedimentation x 1/ r2 ...
Fungal alkaloid that inhibits the mannosidase in the Golgi that is involved in processing the oligosaccharide chains of glycoproteins.
SWI complex
См. SNF complex.
Swiss 3T3 cells
An immortal line of fibroblast-like cells established from whole trypsinised embryos of Swiss mice (not an inbred stock) under conditions that favour establishment of cells with ...
switch regions
The nucleotide sequences in heavy chain immunoglobulin genes located in the introns at the 5\' end of each CH locus concerned with DNA recombination events that lead to ...
Tyrosine kinase (72 kD), an effector of the B-cell receptor signalling pathway. Contains two tandem SH2 domains through which it interacts with ITAM motif. More widely ...
One of the partners in a symbiotic relationship.
Living together for mutual benefit. See symbiont, symbiotic algae.
symbiotic algae
Algae (often Chlorella spp.) that live intracellularly in animal cells (eg. endoderm of Hydra viridis ). The relationship is complex, because lysosomes do not fuse with the ...
sympathetic nervous system
One of the two divisions of the vertebrate autonomic nervous system (the other being the parasympathetic nervous system). The sympathetic preganglionic neurons have their cell ...
The intracellular compartment of plants, consisting of the cytosol of a large number of cells connected by plasmodesmata.
symplectic metachronism
See metachronism.
A mechanism of transport across a membrane in which two different molecules move in the same direction. Often, one molecule can move up an electrochemical gradient because the ...
A connection between excitable cells, by which an excitation is conveyed from one to the other. (1) Chemical synapse: one in which an action potential causes the exocytosis of ...
Family of phosphoproteins associated with synaptic vesicles and implicated in control of release. Synapsin Ia (84 kD) and Ib (80 kD) are alternatively spliced variants as are ...
The specific pairing of the chromatids of homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis. It allows crossing-over to take place.
synaptic cleft
The narrow space between the presynaptic cell and the postsynaptic cell in a chemical synapse, across which the neurotransmitter diffuses.
synaptic plasticity
Change in the properties of a synapse, usually in the context of learning and memory. Very few synapses provide simple 1:1 transfer of action potentials, and very small changes ...
synaptic transmission
The process of propagating a signal from one cell to another via a synapse.
synaptic vesicle
Intracellular vesicles found in the presynaptic terminals of chemical synapses, which contain neurotransmitter.
(= vSNARE; VAMP-2) Small integral membrane proteins (16.7 kD) of synaptic vesicles. Two isoforms, VAMP-1 and VAMP-2 are known. Bind SNAPs and also interact with target-SNARE ...
Formation of a synapse.
Integral component (29 kD) of synaptic vesicle with some similarity to synaptophysin. Has four transmembrane domains.
Protein of the vertebrate nerve terminal (145 kD) that seems to participate with dynamin in the process of vesicle recycling. Has phosphatase activity and is a member of the ...
synaptonemal complex
Structure, identified by electron microscopy, lying between chromosomes during synapsis; consists of two lateral plates closely apposed to the chromosomes and connected to a ...
Abundant glycoprotein component of synaptic vesicle membranes composed of a 38 kD subunit that spans the membrane 4 times and has both its N- and C-termini located ...
Putative channel protein of synaptic vesicles, and a member of the synaptophysin/connexin superfamily. It has 58% amino acid identity to synaptophysin, with highly conserved ...
A subcellular fraction prepared from tissues rich in chemical synapses, used in biochemical studies. Consists mainly of vesicles from presynaptic terminals.
Calcium-binding synaptic vesicle protein that binds acidic phospholipids and recognizes the cytoplasmic domain of the neurexins. May be involved in vesicle docking.
synchronous cell population
A culture of cells that all divide in synchrony. Particularly useful for certain studies of the cell cycle, cells can be made synchronous by depriving them of essential ...
Microtubule-associated protein (280 kD) found in chicken erythrocytes. Has some similarities with MAP-2, but thought to be distinct.
Syncytial layer that forms the outermost foetal layer in the placenta and is thus the interface with maternal tissue. Has invasive capacity - though in a regulated manner.
An epithelium or tissue in which there is cytoplasmic continuity between the constituent cells.
An integral membrane proteoglycan (250-300 kD) associated largely with epithelial cells. The core protein of 294 amino acids has an extracellular domain of 235 amino acids and ...
An intermediate filament-associated protein (230 kD) isolated from avian smooth muscle, but homologue also found in mammalian muscle. Co-localises with desmin near ...
Annexin VII.
Fusion of two haploid gametic nuclei to form the diploid nucleus of the zygote.
Organisms that are antigenically identical - monozygotic twins or highly inbred strains of animals. Thus cells injected into a syngeneic host will not be rejected because of a ...
A somatic hybrid cell in which chromosomes from two different parental cells are enveloped in a single nucleus.
See allomone.
Connective tissue that forms the bearing surface of the joint and that is eroded in arthritis.
(= t-SNARE) Integral membrane protein of presynaptic membrane. Has a long cytoplasmic domain involved in the targeting of vesicles.
Syntenic genes lie on the same chromosome. Some loci are syntenic in both man and mouse, others are not.
Enzymes of Class 6 in the E classification; catalyse synthesis of molecules, their activity being coupled to the breakdown of a nucleotide triphosphate.
syringyl alcohol
(= sinapyl alcohol) A phenylpropanoid alcohol, one of the three precursors of lignin.
systemic lupus erythematosus
Disease of humans, probably autoimmune with antinuclear and other antibodies in plasma. Immune complex deposition in the glomerular capillaries is a particular problem.
In some parasitic protozoa the pairing of gamonts prior to sexual fusion, in gregarines the end-to-end attachment of the sporonts, in some crinoids the fusion of organs or ...
T even phage
A group of dsDNA bacteriophages of enterobacteria including T2, T4,T6 as opposed to T odd phage (T1,3,5 and 7)
T tubule
(= transverse tubule) Invagination of the plasma membrane (sarcolemma) of striated muscle that lies between two tubular portions of the endoplasmic (sarcoplasmic) reticulum ...
The small T-antigen of polyoma virus.
Proteins coded by viral genes that are expressed early in the replication cycle of papovaviruses such as SV40 and polyoma. Essential for normal viral replication, they are ...
T-box genes
The T-box gene family codes for transcription factors (and putative transcription factors) that share a unique DNA-binding domain, the T-domain. In all metazoans studied from ...
A class of lymphocytes, so called because they are of thymic origin and have been through thymic processing. Involved primarily in cell-mediated immune reactions and in the ...
T-cell factor
Transcription factor, one of the high-mobility-group domain proteins, activated by wnt/wingless signalling and repressed by CREB binding protein. Coactivator is beta-catenin. ...
T-cell growth factor
See interleukin-2.
T-cell leukaemia virus
См. T-cell lymphoma virus.
T-cell lymphoma virus
T-cell receptor
The antigen-recognising receptor on the surface of T-cells. Heterodimeric (disulphide linked), one of the immunoglobulin superfamily of proteins; binds antigen in association ...
T-helper cells
(= TH cells; Th1; Th2) There are now recognized to be two subclasses of CD4 positive T-helper cells, Th1 and Th2. Th1 cells produce IL-2, IFN g and TNF a and do not produce ...
T-loop of RNA
(= thymine pseudo-uracil loop; Ty loop) The T-loop of tRNA is the region of the molecule that is responsible for ribosome recognition.
See T-cell.
T-suppressor cell
Set of T-cells (usually CD8+) specifically involved in suppressing B-cell differentiation into antibody-secreting cells. There may also be T-suppressors of T-cell functions. ...
T-type channels
A class of voltage-sensitive calcium channels that open transiently in response to relatively small depolarizations of the neuronal membrane. May have a role in repetitive ...
(= bacteriophage T7) A T-odd phage.
TA cloning
Cloning strategy for PCR products that relies on the tendency of Taq polymerase to add an extra dA at the 3&’ end of newly synthesized DNA strands, thus leaving a single base ...
Tacaribe complex
Group of 8 Arenaviridae isolated in S. America from bats.
A group of neuropeptide hormones including substance P, substance K (neurokinin A) and neurokinin B in mammals, eledoisin from Octopus and physalaemin (amphibian). All have 10 ...
A decrease in the response to an agonist following repeated exposure. Can arise through a variety of mechanisms.
(= transient axonal glycoprotein) A 135 kD surface glycoprotein that is expressed transiently on commissural and motoneurons in developing vertebrate nervous system. TAG-1 and ...
Complex oligomeric protein toxin from Oxyuranus scutelatus scutelatus. Blocks high- but not low-threshold calcium channels of heart muscle. The oligomer contains a ...
Heterotrimeric toxin from Oxyuranus scutelatus scutelatus. All three subunits (a, b, g ) have homology with pancreatic phospholipase A2. Blocks transmission at the ...
Protein (215 kD) that binds to vinculin, but not to actin, and is associated with the sub-plasmalemmal cytoskeleton.
Talon resin
Proprietary name for immobilized nickel-beads. Used to purify his-tagged recombinant proteins.
Tamiami virus
Arenavirus of the Tacaribe complex.
Synthetic anti-oestrogen used in chemotherapy of breast carcinoma. Probably has other effects, including inhibition of chloride channel conductance.
tandem repeats
Copies of genes repeated one after another along a chromosome: for example the 40S-rRNA genes in somatic cells of toads, of which there are about 500 copies.
tannic acid
Penta-( m -digalloyl) -glucose, or any soluble tannin; used in electron microscopy to enhance the contrast. Addition of tannic acid to fixatives greatly improves, for example, ...
Complex phenolic compounds found in the vacuoles of certain plant cells, eg. in bark. They are strongly astringent, and are used in tanning and dyeing.
Accessory protein required for the interaction of MHC Class I with TAPs thus ensuring efficient peptide binding. Tapasin is related to the immunoglobulin superfamily and has ...
(1) Layer of reflective tissue just behind the pigmented retinal epithelium of many vertebrate eyes. May consist either of a layer of guanine crystals, or a layer of ...
Transporters associated with antigen processing: ABC proteins involved in transporting protein fragments across ER membranes during antigen processing. See tapasin.
Taq polymerase
(= Taq polymerase) A heat-stable DNA polymerase that is normally used in the polymerase chain reaction. It was isolated from Thermus aquaticus.
(= transactivating-response RNA) RNA structure at the extreme 5\' terminus of virion RNA.
target regulation
General term for an interaction between neurons and their targets by which target-derived signals influence the differentiation of the innervating neurons.
targeting signal
Peptide sequence within a protein that determines where it will be located. Thus there are targeting signals for proteins that accumulate in the nucleus, others for ER, ...
Tat protein
Transactivator protein from lentiviruses, notably HIV; sequence-specific RNA binding protein that recognizes TAR RNA. Will induce endothelial cell migration and invasion in ...
TATA box
(= Goldber-Hogness box) A consensus sequence found in the promoter region of most genes transcribed by eukaryotic RNA polymerase II. Found about 25 nucleotides before the site ...
tau protein
(= tau factor) Protein (60-70 kD) that co-purifies with tubulin through cycles of assembly and disassembly, and the first microtubule associated protein to be characterized. Tau ...
(= 2-aminoethanesulphonic acid) Compound derived from cysteine by oxidation of the sulphydryl group and decarboxylation. Present in the cytoplasm of some cells (particularly ...
Major bile salt (derived from taurocholic acid) with strong detergent activity. Formed by conjugation of taurine with cholate.
Form of isomerism in which there are two or more arrangements usually of hydrogens bonded to oxygen. Keto-enol tautomerism is one common example. The balance between two ...
Antibiotic, inhibitor of Type 1 and Type 2a protein phosphatases.
Axonal surface glycoprotein (135 kD), the human homologue of rat TAG-1 and chicken axonin-1. GPI-linked to neuronal plasma membrane and is involved in adhesion. There are 6 ...
A response in which the direction of movement is affected by an environmental cue. Should be clearly distinguished from a kinesis.
Drug isolated from yew ( Taxus brevifolis ) that stabilizes microtubules: analogous in this respect to phalloidin that stabilizes microfilaments.
Tay-Sachs disease
Lysosomal disease (lipidosis) in which hexosaminidase A, an enzyme that degrades ganglioside GM2, is absent. A lethal autosomal recessive; mostly affects brain, where ...
(= TATA-binding protein) A 30 kD component of TFIIIB and of SL1, responsible for positioning the polymerase. Also involved in positioning RNA polymerase II in which case it ...
TCA cycle
See tricarboxylic acid cycle.
Mouse I-309.
(= thymine-DNA glycosylase.) Enzyme responsible for repair of G/T mispairings.
Tec family
Family of intracellular protein tyrosine kinases involved in signalling. Includes Btk. Unlike src family are not regulated by C-terminal phosphorylation. Have PH and TH domains ...
teichoic acid
Acidic polymers (glycerol or ribitol linked by phosphodiester bridges) found in cell wall of Gram positive bacteria. May constitute 10-50% of wall dry weight and are ...
Family of filamentous proteins (A, 55 kD; B, 51 kD; C, 47 kD) associated with some microtubules in ciliary and flagellar axonemes. Have homology with some intermediate filament ...
teleost melanophores
Large stellate cells found in the epidermis of fish. Cytoplasmic pigment granules (containing melanin) can be centrally located, or rapidly dispersed, using a ...
telocentric chromosome
Chromosome with the centromere located at one end.
Acidic protein (24 kD) found in some muscle tissue, identical to the C-terminal 155 residues of smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and independently expressed. ...
(= telomere terminal transferase) A DNA polymerase with rather unusual properties that will only elongate oligonucleotides from the telomere and not other sequences. The ...
The end of a chromosome.
Portions of the amino acid sequence of a protein that are removed in maturation of the protein. Best example are the N- and C-terminal telopeptides of procollagen that are ...
The final stage of mitosis or meiosis, when chromosome separation is completed.
temperate phage
A bacteriophage that integrates its DNA into that of the host (lysogeny) as opposed to virulent phages that lyse the host.
temperature-sensitive mutation
(= ts mutation) A type of conditional mutation in organism, somatic cell or virus that makes it possible to study genes whose total inactivation would be lethal. Such ts ...
A structure that in some direct physical process can cause the patterning of a second structure, usually complementary to it in some sense. In current biology almost exclusively ...
temporal sensing
Mechanism of gradient sensing in which the value of some environmental property is compared with the value at some previous time, the cell having moved position between the two ...
(= myotendinous antigen; cytotactin) Protein of the extracellular matrix (240 kD subunit: usually as a hexabrachion, a six-armed hexamer of more than 1000 kD) selectively ...
The hypothesis that cells can behave like structures in which shape results from balancing tensile and hydrostatic forces.
Actin-binding component of focal adhesions and submembranous cytoskeleton. Has SH2 domain and can be tyrosine phosphorylated; speculated that it may link signalling systems ...
Sub-plasmalemmal protein (400 kD) from adherens junctions, associated with membrane insertions of microfilament bundles, and membrane adjacent to circumferential microfilament ...
(= TGFa-regulated and epithelial cell-enriched phosphatase) Also termed PTEN or MMAC1 (mutated in multiple advanced cancers 1).
Malignant tumour (teratoma) thought to originate from primordial germ cells or misplaced blastomeres that contains tissues derived from all three embryonic layers, eg. bone, ...
Agent capable of causing malformations in embryos. Notorious example is thalidomide.
See teratocarcinoma.
terminal bar
Obsolete name for zonula occludens (tight junction).
terminal cisternae
Regions of the sarcoplasmic reticulum adjacent to T tubules, and from which calcium is released when striated muscle is activated.
terminal web
The cytoplasmic region at the base of microvilli in intestinal epithelial cells, a region rich in microfilaments from the microvillar core and from adherens junctions, in ...
termination codon
The three codons, UAA known as ochre, UAG as amber and UGA as opal, that do not code for an amino acid but act as signals for the termination of protein synthesis. They are not ...
DNA sequence at the end of a transcription unit that causes RNA polymerase to stop transcription.
Lipid species, very abundant in plants. In principle terpenes are polymers of isoprene units. Function in plants is not clear. In animals dolichol, an important carrier species ...
tertiary structure
The third level of structural organization in a macromolecule. The primary structure of a protein (for example) is the amino acid sequence, the secondary structure is the ...
Outer covering of a seed, also called the seed-coat; derived from the integument of the ovary.
testicular feminization
If genetic males lack receptors for testosterone they develop as females and are unresponsive to male hormones.
Male sex hormone (androgen) secreted by the interstitial cells of the testis of mammals and responsible for triggering the development of sperm and of many secondary sexual ...
Thiol-activated haemolysin released by the bacterium Clostridium tetani.
See tetanus toxin.
(= lock-jaw) Disease caused by the bacterium Clostridium tetani, spores of which persist in soil, but can proliferate anaerobically in an infected wound. Disease entirely due to ...
tetanus toxin
(= tetanospasmin) Neurotoxin released by Clostridium tetani ; becomes active when peptide cleaved proteolytically to heavy (100 kD) and light (50 kD) chains held together by ...
(= amethocaine) Potent local anaesthetic.
Broad-spectrum antibiotic that blocks binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosomes of both Gram positive and Gram negative organisms (and those of organelles). Produced by ...
Four homologous chromatids paired together during first meiotic prophase. More generally, any group of four objects.
tetraethylammonium ion
A monovalent cation widely used in neurophysiology as a specific blocker of potassium channels. It is similar in size to the hydrated potassium ion, and gets stuck (reversibly) ...
A cannabinoid and one of the more psychoactive components of cannabis.

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