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Protein that stimulates neural crest differentiation, neural crest growth, bone growth and wound healing.
dosage compensation
Genetic mechanisms that allow genes to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of the number of copies at which they are present. Usually invoked for genes that lie on sex ...
dot blot
Method for detecting a specific protein or message. A spot of solution is dotted onto nitrocellulose paper, a specific antibody or probe is allowed to bind and the presence of ...
The final nitrogenous excretion product of many organisms.
uric acid
The final product of nitrogenous excretion in animals that require to conserve water, such as terrestrial insects, or have limited storage space, such as birds and their eggs. ...
The ribonucleoside formed by the combination of ribose and uracil.
urocanic acid
Intermediate in degradation of L-histidine.
Amphibians of the Order Caudata that have tails: newts and salamanders.
A peptide isolated from human urine that inhibits gastric acid secretion. Now known to be identical to epithelial growth factor.
Tail region of a moving amoeba.
Serine protease from kidney that is a plasminogen activator. Contains EGF-like domain.
A naturally occurring immunosuppressant (85 kD) originally found in urine of pregnant women. Identical to Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein but cell surface-linked by ...
uronic acids
Carboxylic acids related to hexose sugars etc. by oxidation of the primary alcohol group, eg. glucuronic, galacturonic acid.
uroporphyrinogen I synthetase
An enzyme of haem biosynthesis that is defective in the inherited (autosomal dominant) disease, acute intermittent porphyria. UP I is isomerised to UP III by UP III ...
Progesterone-binding protein found in lagomorphs (rabbits, hares etc.), which is also a potent inhibitor of phospholipase A2. Forms an antiparallel dimer, linked by disulphide ...
See untranslated region.
(= dystrophin associated protein) Autosomal homologue of dystrophin (395kD) localized near the neuromuscular junction in adult muscle, though in the absence of dystrophin ...
Glycoprotein (120 kD) originally defined as the antigen responsible for eliciting antibodies capable of blocking compaction in early mouse embryos (at the morula stage), and ...
See variable gene.
General abbreviation for the viral form of an oncogene, cf. c- onc, the normal, cellular proto-oncogene.
Those regions in the amino acid sequence of both the heavy and the light chains of immunoglobulins where there is considerable sequence variability between one immunoglobulin ...
V-type ATPase
(= vacuolar ATPase) One of three major classes of ion transport ATPase, characterized by a multi-subunit structure, and a lack of a phosphorylated intermediate. Pumps H+. ...
V8 protease
Protease from Staphylococcus aureus strain V8. Cleaves peptide bonds on the carboxyl side of aspartic and glutamic acid residues. Used experimentally for selective cleavage of ...
See annexin.
(= vacuolating cytotoxin) Protein (600-700 kD: hexamers or heptamers of identical 140 kD monomers) released into culture supernatant by Type I Helicobacter pylori. The 140 kD ...
The process of inducing immunity to a pathogenic organism by injecting either an antigenically related but non-pathogenic strain (attenuated strain) of the organism or related ...
An antigen preparation that when injected will elicit the expansion of one or more clones of responding lymphocytes so that immune protection is provided against a disease.
Virus of the Orthopoxvirus family used in vaccination against smallpox. Related to, but not identical to, cowpox virus. Also used as a vector for introducing DNA into animal ...
vacuolar ATPase
See V-type ATPase.
Membrane-bounded vesicle of eukaryotic cells. Secretory, endocytotic, and phagocytotic vesicles can be termed vacuoles. Botanists tend to confine the term to the large vesicles ...
(= Val; V; 117 D) An essential amino acid.
A potassium ionophore antibiotic, produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus. Composed of 3 molecules (L-valine, D -a- hydroxyisovaleric acid, L-lactic acid) linked alternately to ...
Tricyclic compounds with anti-inflammatory properties.
van der Waals&’ attraction
Electrodynamic forces arise between atoms, molecules and assemblies of molecules due to their vibrations giving rise to electromagnetic interactions; these are attractive when ...
(= VO43-) Powerful inhibitor of many, but not all enzymes that cleave the terminal phosphate bond of ATP. The vanadate ion is believed to act as an analogue of the transition ...
Complex glycopeptide antibiotic produced by actinomycetes. Inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis. Active against many Gram positive bacteria.
vanilloid receptor-1
Receptor found selectively on sensory neurons, resembling (distantly) receptors of the TRP-type. Protein (95 kD) with six transmembrane domains having some similarity with SOCS ...
variable antigen
Term usually applied to the surface antigens of those parasitic or pathogenic organisms that can alter their antigenic character to evade host immune responses. (See antigenic ...
variable gene
See V-region.
variable region
See V-region.
Varicella zoster
Member of the Alphaherpesvirinae: human herpes simplex virus type 3, causative agent of chickenpox and shingles.
variola virus
Virus responsible for smallpox. Said to have been completely eradicated. Large DNA virus (‘brick-like’, 250-390nm x 20-260nm) with complex outer and inner membranes (not ...
Drosophila gene involved in oogenesis and embryonic positional specification; a DEAD-box helicase.
vascular bundle
Strand of vascular tissue in a plant; composed of xylem and phloem.
Growth of blood vessels into a tissue with the result that the oxygen and nutrient supply is improved. Vascularization of tumours is usually a prelude to more rapid growth and ...
Inflammation of the blood vessel wall. May be caused by immune complex deposition in or on the vessel wall.
vasoactive intestinal contractor
Mouse homologue of endothelin-2.
vasoactive intestinal peptide
Peptide of 28 amino acids, originally isolated from porcine intestine, but later found in the central nervous system where it acts as a neuropeptide, and is released by ...
vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein
(= VASP) A 46/50 kD protein that is a substrate for both cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases and that is associated with microfilament bundles in many tissue cells. ...
(= antidiuretic hormone; ADH) A peptide hormone released from the posterior pituitary lobe but synthesized in the hypothalamus. There are 2 forms, differing only in the amino ...
Any compound that causes constriction of blood vessels (vasoconstriction) thereby causing an increase in blood pressure.
Cyclic nonapeptide, related to vasopressin but found in birds, reptiles and some amphibians.
See vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein
Large cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particle that has an eight-fold symmetry with a central pore and petal-like structures giving the appearence of an octagonal dome. May be ...
An oncogene, identified in humans, encoding a serine/threonine protein kinase.
Voltage-dependent anion channel.
(1) Mathematical term to describe something that has both direction and magnitude. (2) Common term for a plasmid that can be used to transfer DNA sequences from one organism to ...
vectorette method
A method for PCR cloning an unknown sequence of DNA attached to a known sequence. To the end of the unknown sequence is attached a vectorette, a double-stranded sequence that ...
vectorial synthesis
Term usually applied to the mode of synthesis of proteins destined for export from the cell. As the protein is made it moves (vectorially) through the membrane of the rough ...
vectorial transport
Transport of an ion or molecule across an epithelium in a certain direction (eg. absorption of glucose by the gut). Vectorial transport implies a non-uniform distribution of ...
vegetal pole
The surface of the egg opposite to the animal pole. Usually the cytoplasm in this region is incorporated into future endoderm cells.
(= vascular endothelial growth factor; vascular permeability factor; VPF) Growth factor of the PDGF family that stimulates mitosis in vascular endothelium, angiogenesis, and ...
veiled cell
A cell type found in afferent lymph and defined (rather unsatisfactorily) on the basis of its morphology. Probably an accessory cell (a dendritic cell) migrating from the ...
(1) Blood vessel that returns blood from the microvasculature to the heart; walls thinner and less elastic than those of artery. (2) In leaves, thickened portion of leaf ...
Free-living larval form of some invertebrates, develops from the trochophore larva.
A toxic secretion in animals that is actively delivered to the target organism, either to paralyse or incapacitate or else to cause pain as a defence mechanism. Commonly include ...
ventral nervous system defective
A Drosophila gene encoding an integral membrane glycoprotein related to amyloidogenic glycoprotein.
A calcium-channel blocking drug (454 D), used as a coronary vasodilator and anti-arrhythmic.
Vero cells
Cell line derived from kidney of African Green Monkey. Susceptible to a range of viruses.
Trivial name for EDTA.
(= large fibroblast glycoprotein; chondroitin sulphate core protein) Protein (264 kD) involved in cell signalling. N-terminal region similar to glial hyaluronic acid binding ...
A closed membrane shell, derived from membranes either by a physiological process (budding) or mechanically by sonication. Vesicles of dimensions in excess of 50nm are believed ...
vesicular stomatitis virus
Rhabdovirus causing the disease ‘soremouth’ in cattle. Widely used as a laboratory tool especially in studies on the spike glycoprotein as a model for the synthesis, ...
Highly acidic protein (10 kD) found in synaptic vesicles.
Water-conducting system in the xylem, consisting of a column of cells (vessel elements) whose end-walls have been perforated or totally degraded, resulting in an uninterrupted ...
vessel element
Part of a xylem vessel in a higher plant, arising from a single cell. The end-walls are perforated and may completely disappear, giving rise to a continuous tube. The remaining ...
VH domain
См. VL domain.
VH gene
См. VL domain.
(= very high density lipoprotein) Plasma lipoprotein with density greater than 1.21 g/ml. Protein content about 57%, 21% phospholipid, 17% cholesterol and 5% triacylglycerols. ...
viability test
Test to determine the proportion of living individuals, cells or organisms, in a sample. Viability tests are most commonly performed on cultured cells and usually depend on the ...
Vibrio cholerae
Bacterium that causes cholera, the life-threatening aspects of which are caused by the exotoxin (see cholera toxin). Short, slightly curved rods, highly motile (single polar ...
See vasoactive intestinal contractor.
Vicia faba
Broad bean. Often used in plant genetics because cells have only six large chromosomes.
Seed storage protein of legumes. Protein from Pisum sativum is a trimer of 50 kD subunits. High proportion of beta pleated sheet (40-50%) and only about 10% alpha-helix.
Adenine arabinoside (Ara-A) : nucleoside analogue with antiviral properties that has been used to treat severe herpes virus infections.
Microfilament-severing and -capping protein (95 kD) from microvillar core of intestinal epithelial cells. Severs at high calcium concentrations, caps at low.
Intermediate filament protein (58 kD) found in mesodermally-derived cells (including muscle).
Alkaloid (818D) isolated from Vinca (periwinkle) : binds to tubulin heterodimer and induces formation of paracrystals rather than tubules. Net result is that microtubules ...
VL domain
VH and VL genes define in part the sequences of the variable heavy and light regions of immunoglobulin molecules. VH and VL domains are the regions of amino acid sequence so ...
VL gene
См. VL domain.
VLA proteins
(= very late antigens) VLA-1 and VLA-2 were originally defined as antigens appearing on the surfaces of T-lymphocytes 2-4 weeks after in vitro activation; they are now know to ...
(= very low density lipoprotein) Plasma lipoproteins with density of 0.94-1.006 gm cm-3 ; made by the liver. Transport triacylglycerols to adipose tissue. Apoproteins B, C and ...
The maximum initial velocity of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction, ie. at saturating substrate levels.
voltage clamp
A technique in electrophysiology, in which a microelectrode is inserted into a cell, and current injected through the electrode so as to hold the cell\'s membrane potential at ...
voltage gradient
Literally, the electric field in a region, defined as the potential difference between two points divided by the distance between them. Used more loosely, the potential ...
voltage-gated ion channel
A transmembrane ion channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. These channels are essential for neuronal signal ...
voltage-sensitive calcium channels
(= VSCC) A variety of voltage-sensitive calcium channels are known and on the basis of electrophysiological and pharmacological criteria are grouped into six classes. The general ...
volutin granule
Metachromatic granules containing polyphosphate, a linear phosphate polymer found in bacteria, fungi, algae, and some higher eukaryotes that may serve as a stock of phosphate.
A genus of colonial flagellates. The colony is a hollow sphere about 0.5mm in diameter comprising about 50,000 cells embedded in a gelatinous wall and the cells are sometimes ...
von Willebrand factor
Plasma factor involved in platelet adhesion through an interaction with Factor VIII. See von Willebrand\'s disease.
von Willebrand's disease
Autosomal dominant platelet disorder in which adhesion to collagen, but not aggregation, is reduced. Both bleeding time and coagulation are increased. Factor VIII levels are ...
Genus of ciliate protozoa. It has a bell-shaped body with a belt of cilia round the mouth of the bell, to sweep food particles towards the "mouth" and a long stalk, connecting ...
Variant surface glycoprotein of trypanosomes. See antigenic variation.
VSV-G tag
Epitope tag (YTDIEMNRLGK) derived from the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein.
W locus
Mouse coat colour locus, equivalent to the kit proto-oncogene, that encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase essential for development of haematopoietic and germ cells.
Waardenburg's syndrome
Autosomal dominant disorder with deafness and pigmentary disturbances probably as a result of defects in function of neural crest. Various forms of the syndrome are recognized. ...
(= p21; cip1) Inhibitor (21 kD) of cdk activity; found in a complex with cyclin D, cdk4 and PCNA. Can bind to and inhibit all members of the cdk family though affinity ...
Walker motif
Highly conserved ATP-binding region found in ABC proteins and other ATP-binding proteins.
Synthetic inhibitor of prothrombin activation and therefore an inhibitor of blood clotting. Also used as a rat poison.
warm antibodies
Most IgG antibodies react better at 37°C than at lower temperatures, especially against red cell antigens. These are the warm antibodies as contrasted with cold agglutinins, ...
Benign tumour of basal cell of skin, the result of the infection of a single cell with wart virus (papillomavirus). Virus is undetectable in basal layer, but proliferates in ...
water potential
The chemical potential (ie. free energy per mole) of water in plants. Water moves within plants from regions of high water potential to regions of lower water potential, ie. ...
WD-repeat proteins
(= WD40) The WD motif is a conserved sequence of approximately 40 amino acids usually ending with tryptophan and aspartic acid (WD). The motif is implicated in protein-protein ...
See triple response.
In the murine mutation weaver there is early apoptotic death during development of cells in testes, cerebellum and midbrain. The defect is caused by a base pair substitution ...
Wegener&’s granulomatosis
A granulomatous vasculitis characterized by upper and lower respiratory tract granulomas and necrotising focal glomerulonephritis. Usually associated with autoantibodies to ...
Wehi 3b cells
Mouse myelomonocytic cells derived from Balb/c mouse. Cells produce IL-3.
Weibel-Palade body
Cytoplasmic organelle found in the vascular endothelial cells of some animals, though not in the endothelium of all vessels. Although markers for endothelium, their absence ...
Weil's disease
See leptospirosis.
Weismann's germ plasm theory
The theory that organisms maintain genetic continuity from organism to offspring through the germ line cells (germ plasm) and that the other (somatic) cells play no part in the ...
Werner's syndrome
Rare human genetic disorder characterized by genomic instability and predisposition to cancer. Defect is in protein that has a central domain with homology to helicase and ...
Western blot
An electroblotting method in which proteins are transferred from a gel to a thin, rigid support (nitrocellulose) and detected by binding of labelled antibody. See blots.

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