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Слова на букву amph-barn (375)

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amphiphilic
Having affinity for two different environments - for example a molecule with hydrophilic (polar) and lipophilic (non-polar) regions. Detergents are classic examples. Antonym of ...
amphiphysin
Protein of the nerve terminal that associates with synaptic vesicles, probably through AP2 and synaptotagmin.
amphiregulin
A heparin-binding growth factor containing an EGF-like domain. See HB-EGF.
amphitrophic
Of organisms that can grow either photosynthetically or chemotrophically.
ampholyte
Substance with amphoteric properties. Most commonly encountered as descriptive of the substances used in setting up electrofocusing columns or gels.
amphoteric
Having both acidic and basic characteristics. This is true of proteins since they have both acidic and basic side groups (the charges of which balance at the isoelectric point).
amphotericin B
(= Fungizone) Polyene antibiotic from Streptomyces spp. Used as a fungicide, it is cytolytic by causing the formation of pores (5-10 molecules of amphotericin in association ...
ampicillin
Penicillin derivative with broad spectrum activity; ampicillin resistance is often used as a marker for plasmid transfer in genetic engineering (eg. pBR322 is ampicillin ...
amplicon
The DNA product of a polymerase chain reaction.
amygdala
Almond-shaped body in the lateral ventricle of the brain.
amylin
Natural hormone produced by pancreatic beta-cells that moderates the glucose-lowering effects of insulin. One of the calcitonin family peptides.
amyloid
Glycoprotein deposited extracellularly in tissues in amyloidosis. The glycoprotein may either derive from light chain of immunoglobulin (AIO (amyloid of immune origin): 5-18 ...
amyloid precursor protein
Individuals with Alzheimer\'s disease are characterized by extensive accumulation of amyloid in the brain, referred to as senile plaques. These consist of a core of amyloid ...
amyloidogenic glycoprotein
(= A4 protein) An integral membrane glycoprotein of the brain, and related to the Drosophila vnd -gene product. A precursor of b -amyloid, that accumulates in Alzheimer\'s ...
amyloidosis
Deposition of amyloid. A common complication of several diseases (leprosy, tuberculosis) ; often associated with perturbation of the immune system, although there may be ...
amylopectin
Component of starch in which glucose chain is a -1,4 linked ( a -1,6 at branch points).
amyloplast
A plant plastid involved in the synthesis and storage of starch. Found in many cell types, but particularly storage tissues. Characteristically has starch grains in the ...
amylose
A linear polysaccharide formed from a-D-glucopyranosyl units in a -1,4 linkage. Found both in starch (starch amylose) and glycogen (glycogen amylose)
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
(= Lou Gehrig&’s disease; motor neuron disease) Progressive degenerative disease of motor neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord that leads to weakening of the voluntary ...
amytal
(= amylobarbitone) A barbiturate that inhibits respiration.
Anabaena
A genus of Cyanobacteria that forms filamentous colonies with specialized cells (heterocysts), capable of nitrogen fixation. Ecologically important in wet tropical soils and ...
anabolic
Of a process, route or reaction. Metabolic pathways are classically divided into anabolic and catabolic types. The former are synthetic processes, frequently requiring ...
anabolism
Synthesis; opposite of catabolism.
anaemia
(= anemia) Reduced level of haemoglobin in blood for any of a variety of reasons including abnormalities of mature red cells (sickle cell anaemia, spherocytosis), iron ...
anaerobic
The absence of air (specifically of free oxygen). Used to describe a biological habitat or an organism that has very low tolerance for oxygen.
anaerobic respiration
Metabolic processes in which organic compounds are broken down to release energy in the absence of oxygen. Requires inorganic oxidizing agents or accumulation of reduced ...
analgesia
A state of insensitivity to pain, even though the subject is fully conscious.
analogous
Of genes or gene products, performing a similar role in different organisms. cf. homologous.
anamnestic response
Archaic term now replaced by such terms as secondary immune response, immunological memory.
anandamide
(= arachidonyl ethanolamide) Endogenous agonist for cannabinoid receptors.
anaphase
The stage of mitosis or meiosis beginning with the separation of sister chromatids (or homologous chromosomes) followed by their movement towards the poles of the spindle.
anaphylatoxin
Originally used of an antigen that reacted with an IgE antibody thus precipitating reactions of anaphylaxis. Now restricted to defining a property of complement fragments C3a ...
anaphylaxis
As opposed to prophylaxis. A system or treatment that leads to damaging effects on the organism. Now reserved for those inflammatory reactions resulting from combination of a ...
anaplasia
Lack of differentiation, characteristic of some tumour cells.
anaplerotic
Reactions that replenish TCA cycle intermediates and allow respiration to continue; for example, carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate in plants.
Anas platyrhynchos
Mallard - from which domestic duck is derived by breeding (traditional genetic engineering).
anastomosis
Joining of two or more cell processes or multicellular tubules to form a branching system. Anastomosis of blood vessels allows alternative routes for blood flow.
ANCA
(= anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) ANCA-positivity is seen in patients with a variety of inflammatory disorders including IBD, Wegener&’s granulomatosis and ...
anchorage
Attachment, not necessarily adhesive in character; because the mechanism is not assumed the term ought to be more widely used.
anchorage dependence
The necessity for attachment (and spreading) in order that a cell will grow and divide in culture. Loss of anchorage dependence seems to be associated with greater independence ...
anchored PCR
(= anchored polymerase chain reaction) Variety of polymerase chain reaction in which only enough information is known to make a single primer. A known sequence is thus added to ...
Androctonus mauretanicus mauretanicus
Moroccan scorpion. See kaliotoxin.
androgen
General term for any male sex hormone in vertebrates.
anemone toxins
Polypeptide toxins (around 5 kD) from sea anemones (anthozoan coelenterates), most of which act on voltage-gated sodium channels. Some, however, block voltage-regulated potassium ...
anergy
Failure of lymphocytes that have been primed to respond to second exposure to the antigen. Consequence is a depression or lack of normal immunological function.
aneuploid
Having a chromosome complement that is not an exact multiple of the haploid number. Chromosomes may be present in multiple copies (eg. trisomy) or one of a homologous pair ...
aneurysm
Balloon-like swelling in the wall of an artery.
ANF
See atrial natriuretic peptide.
Angelman syndrome
Syndrome in which there is severe mental retardation and ataxic movement associated with absence of maternal 15q11q13, and the absence of the b 3 subunit of GABA receptor-A.
angiogenesis
The process of vascularization of a tissue involving the development of new capillary blood vessels.
angiogenin
Polypeptide (14 kD) that induces the proliferation of endothelial cells; one of the components of tumour angiogenesis factor. It has sequence homology with pancreatic ...
angioma
A knot of distended blood vessels atypically and irregularly arranged. Most are not tumours but haematomas.
angioplasty
(= PTCA) Surgical distension of an occluded blood vessel. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is commonly used as a method for restoring patency to occluded ...
angiopoietin
Angiopoetin-1 (498 residues) is the ligand for Tie2; angiopoietin-2 (496 residues) is a natural antagonist. Angiopoietin-1, but not Ang-2, is chemotactic for endothelial ...
angiosperm
A large class of flowering plants that bear seeds in a closed fruit.
angiostatin
Inhibitor of angiogenesis.
angiotensin
A peptide hormone. Angiotensinogen (renin substrate) is a 60 kD polypeptide released from the liver and cleaved in the circulation by renin to form the biologically inactive ...
angiotensinase
See angiotensin.
angiotensinogen
See angiotensin.
Angstrom unit
Small unit of measurement (10-10m) named after Swedish physicist and astronomer. Much used as a unit in early electron microscopy though since it is not in the approved mks ...
animal pole
In most animal oocytes the nucleus is not centrally placed and its position can be used to define two poles. That nearest to the nucleus is the animal pole, and the other is ...
animalised cells
The 8-16 cell early blastula of sea urchins has animal and vegetal poles; by manipulating the environmental conditions it is possible to shift more cells from vegetal to animal ...
anion exchanger
Family of integral membrane proteins that perform the exchange of chloride and bicarbonate across the plasma membrane. Best known is band III of the red blood cell.
anionic detergents
Detergents in which the hydrophilic funtion is fulfilled by an anionic grouping. Fatty acids are the best known natural products in this class, but it is doubtful if they have a ...
anisogamy
Mode of sexual reproduction in which the two gametes are of different sizes.
anisotropic
Not the same in all directions.
ANK repeat
Amino acid motif found in diverse proteins including ankyrin (hence the name), the Notch product, transcriptional regulators, cell cycle regulatory proteins and a toxin ...
ankylosing spondylitis
Polyarthritis involving spine, which may become more-or-less rigid. Interestingly the disease seems to be associated with HLA-B27; those with this histocompatibility antigen are ...
ankylosis
Fusion of bones across a joint. Complication of chronic inflammation. See ankylosing spondylitis.
ankyrin
Globular protein (200 kD) that links spectrin and an integral membrane protein (Band III) in the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Isoforms exist in other cell types.
ankyrin repeat
See ANK repeat.
anlage
Region of the embryo from which a specific organ develops.
annealing
(1) Toughening upon slow cooling. (2) Used in the context of DNA renaturation after temperature dissociation of the two strands. Rate of annealing is a function of ...
Annelida
Phylum of segmented (metameric) coelomate worms. Common earthworm ( Lumbricus terrestris) is a familiar example of the phylum.
annexins
Group of calcium-binding proteins that interact with acidic membrane phospholipids in membranes. They contain 4 or 8 repeats of a 61-amino acid domain that folds into 5 a ...
annulate lamellae
Organelles described in the oocytes of several animal species. Associated with the nuclear envelope; may be associated with tubulin synthesis from mRNA accumulated in these ...
annulus
Ring-like structure, adj. annulate.
anoikis
Apoptosisin normal epithelial and endothelial cells. Process is important in the regulation of cell number in skin.
anomers
The a- and b-forms of hexoses. Interconversion (mutarotation) is anomerisation and is promoted by mutarotases (aldose epimerases).
Anopheles
Genus of mosquitos (order Diptera) which carry the Plasmodium parasites which causes malaria.
anosmia
Condition of being unable to smell. Can be transiently induced by osmic acid.
anoxia
Total lack of oxygen, cf. hypoxia.
ANP
See atrial natriuretic peptide.
ANP receptor
Family of 3 receptors for atrial natriuretic peptide. ANP-A and ANP-B have intracellular guanylate cyclase and protein kinase-like domains. ANP-C, shares the extracellular ...
antagonist
Compound that inhibits the effect of a hormone or drug; the opposite of agonist.
antennal complex
Light-harvesting complexes (LHC) of protein and pigment in or on photosynthetic membranes of bacteria are organized into arrays, called antennae. They transfer photon energy to ...
antennapedia
(= antp) Homeotic gene of Drosophila, controlling thoracic/head fate determination. In addition to the homeobox, there is also a 6-amino acid antennapedia -specific ...
anterograde transport
Movement of material from the cell body of a neuron into axons and dendrites (retrograde axoplasmic transport also occurs).
anthocyanins
Red plant pigments not directly involved in photosynthesis. Can mask the green of chlorophyll, and give the plant a red-purple colour.
Anthopleura
Genus of sea anemone (an anthozoan coelenterate). See anthopleurins.
anthopleurins
Peptide toxins (Anthopleurin A, B and C, 49, 50, 47 residues) from sea anemone, Anthopleura. Affect sodium channel of nerve and muscle, increase the duration of the action ...
anthrax
Highly contagious disease of man and domestic animals caused by Bacillus anthracis. Onset is rapid and disease often fatal. A variety of anthrax toxinsare known.
anthrax toxins
(1) (Anthrax edema factor) Multi-subunit toxin produced by Bacillus anthracis. Active subunit is a calmodulin-dependent adenylyl cyclase. (2) Anthrax lethal toxin (LeTx) ...
anti-idiotype antibody
An antibody directed against the antigen-specific part of the sequence of an antibody or T cell receptor. In principle an anti-idiotype antibody should inhibit a specific ...
anti-oncogene
See tumour suppressor gene.
antibiotic
Substance produced by one microorganism that selectively inhibits the growth of another. Many wholly synthetic antibiotics have been produced.
antibiotic resistance gene
Gene that encodes an enzyme that degrades or excretes an antibiotic, so conferring resistance. Frequently found in cloning vectors like plasmids, and sometimes in natural ...
antibody
General term for an immunoglobulin.
antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity
(= ADCC) Killing of target cells by lymphocytes or other leucocytes that carry antibody specific for the target cell, attached to their Fc receptors. The cell involved in the ...
antibody-induced lysis
See complement lysis, also see natural killer cells. The term is imprecise and should not be used since there is confusion as to which mechanism is involved, ie. natural ...
antibody-producing cell
A lymphocyte of the B series synthesizing and releasing immunoglobulin. Equivalent to plasmacyte and plasma cell.
anticoagulant
Substance that inhibits the clotting of blood. The most commonly used are EDTA and citrate (both of which work by chelating calcium) and heparin (that interferes with ...
anticodon
Nucleotide triplet on transfer RNA that is complementary to the codon of the messenger RNA.
antidiuretic hormone
See vasopressin.
antidromic
1. Running in the opposite direction: most common usage is in neurophysiology for the passage of an action potential in the opposite direction to that in which it would ...
antigen
A substance inducing and reacting in an immune response. Normally antigens have molecular weights greater than about 1 kD. The antigenic determinant group is termed an epitope ...
antigen presentation
See antigen presenting cell.
antigen presenting cell
A cell that carries on its surface antigen bound to MCH Class I or Class II molecules, and presents the antigen in this "context" to T-cells. Includes macrophages, endothelium, ...
antigen processing
Modification of an antigen by accessory cells. This usually involves endocytosis of the antigen and either minimal cleavage or unfolding. The processed antigen is then ...
antigen shift
Abrupt change in surface antigens expressed by a species or variety of organisms. Usually seen in microorganisms where the change may allow escape from immune recognition. ...
antigen-antibody complex
(= immune complex) The product of the reaction of antigen and immunoglobulin. If the antigen is polyvalent the complex may be insoluble; see also glomerulonephritis, Arthus ...
antigenic determinant
(= epitope) That part of an antigenic molecule against which a particular immune response is directed. For instance a tetra- to penta-peptide sequence in a protein, a tri- to ...
antigenic variation
The phenomenon of changes in surface antigens in parasitic populations of Trypanosoma and Plasmodium (and some other parasitic protozoa) in order to escape immunological ...
antilymphocyte serum
Immunoglobulins raised xenogeneically against lymphocyte populations. Referring particularly to antisera recognizing one or more antigenic determinants on T-cell populations. ...
antimitotic drugs
Drugs that block mitosis; the term is often used of those which cause metaphase-arrest such as colchicine and the vinca alkaloids. Many anti-tumour drugs are antimitotic, ...
antimycin
Inhibitor of QH2 cytochrome C-reductase.
antineoplaston
A naturally occurring cytodifferentiating agent that has been tested for antitumour activity and used to induce differentiation of astrocytes in rat models of neurodegenerative ...
antioxidant
Any substance that inhibits oxidation - usually because it is preferentially oxidised itself. Common examples are vitamin E ( a -tocopherol) and vitamin C. Important for ...
antiparallel
Having the opposite polarity (eg. the two strands of a DNA molecule).
antiplasmin
(= a-2-antiplasmin) Plasma protein (65 kD) that inhibits plasmin (and Factors XIa, XIIa, plasma kallikrein, thrombin and trypsin) and therefore acts to regulate ...
antiplectic
Pattern of metachronal coordination of the beating of cilia, in which the waves pass in the opposite direction to that of the active stroke.
antipodal cells
Three cells of the embryo sac in angiosperms, found at the end of the embryo away from the point of entry of the pollen tube.
antiport
A membrane protein that transports two different ions or molecules, in opposite directions, across a lipid bilayer. Energy may be required, as in the sodium pump; or it may ...
antiproteases
(= antiproteinases) Substances that inhibit proteolytic enzymes.
Antirrhinum majus
A flowering plant (the common snapdragon), widely used as a model system for plant molecular genetics.
antisense
In general the complementary strand of a coding sequence of DNA or of mRNA. Antisense RNA hybridizes with and inactivates mRNA.
antisepsis
Processes, procedures or chemical treatments that kill or inhibit microorganisms in contrast to asepsis where microorganisms are excluded.
antiserum
Serum containing immunoglobulins against specified antigens.
antitermination
During transcription, failure of an RNA polymeraseto recognize a termination signal: can be of significance in regulation of gene expression.
antithrombins
Plasma glycoproteins of the a-2-globulin class that inhibit the proteolytic activity of thrombin and serve to regulate the process of blood clotting.
antitoxin
An antibody reacting with a toxin, eg. anti-cholera toxinantibody.
antizyme
Repressor of ornithine decarboxylase. Antizyme (29 kD) is a polyamine-inducible protein involved in feedback regulation of cellular polyamine levels. The N terminus of ...
Antp
See antennapedia.
anucleate
Having no nucleus.
anucleolate
Literally, having no nucleoli. An anucleolate mutant of Xenopus (viable when heterozygous) is used in nuclear transplantation experiments because nuclei are of identifiable ...
Anura
Class of amphibians; the frogs and toads.
anxiolytic
Drug that reduces anxiety, for example benzodiazepines and barbiturates.
AP-1
(1) A transcription factor, formed from a heterodimer of the products of the proto-oncogenes fos and jun. Binds the palindromic DNA sequence TGACTCA. (2) Adaptor protein ...
AP-2
(1) Cis -acting transcription activator. (2) One of the multimeric adaptor proteins (APs; ca 270 kD) found in clathrin-associated complexes. AP-2 is found at the plasma ...
AP3
См. AP5.
AP4
См. AP5.
AP5
(= amino-3-phosphonopropanoate, 2-amino-4-phosphonobutanoate, 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid) Selective antagonists for NMDA receptors.
APA
(= amino pimelic acid) Low affinity rapidly dissociating competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors.
APAF-1
(= apoptosis protease activating factor 1) Protein that binds to cytochrome c that has been released from mitochondria and links with caspase-9 which then activates caspase-3, ...
apamin
A small (2027 D) basic peptide present in the venom of the honey bee ( Apis mellifera ). Blocks calcium-activated potassium channels and has an inhibitory action in the central ...
APC
(1) Antigen presenting cell. (2) adenomatous polyposis coli.
aphidicolin
(1) Inhibitor of eukaryotic DNA polymerases. (2) tetracyclic diterpenoid from Cephalosporium.
apical dominance
Growth-inhibiting effect exerted by actively-growing apical bud of higher-plant shoots, preventing the growth of buds further down the shoot. Thought to be mediated by the ...
apical meristem
The meristem at the tips of stems and roots. Composed of undifferentiated cells, many of which divide to add to the plant body but the central mass (the quiescent centre) ...
apical plasma membrane
The term used for the cell membrane on the apical (inner or upper) surface of transporting epithelial cells. This region of the cell membrane is separated, in vertebrates, from ...
apidaecins
Proline-rich basic antibacterial peptides (2 kD) found in the immune haemolymph of the honeybee.
Apis mellifera
Common honeybee, a Hymenopteran.
aplasia
Defective development of an organ or tissue so that it is totally or partially absent from the body.
aplastic anaemia
Anaemia due to loss of most or all of the haematopoietic bone marrow. Usually all haematopoietic cells are equally diminished in number.
Aplysia
(= sea hare) Opisthobranch mollusc with reduced shell; favourite source of ganglia for neurophysiological study.
apoA etc.
(= apoA, apoB, apoC, apoE) Plasma apolipoproteins. ApoE is the specific ligand for uptake of lipoprotein by the LDL receptor and different alleles of the ApoE gene are ...
apoenzyme
An enzyme without its cofactor. See apoprotein.
apolipoprotein
The protein component of serum lipoproteins. Small proteins containing multiple copies of the kringle domain.
apomixis
Type of degenerate sexual reproduction in some fungi: meiosis and gamete formation do not occur even though an ascus containing identical diploid spores is formed.
apoplast
Since the protoplasts of cells in a plant are connected through plasmodesmata, plants may be described as having two major compartments: the apoplast, which is external to the ...
apoprotein
When a protein can exist as a complex between polypeptide and a second moiety of non-polypeptide nature, the term apo-protein is sometimes used to refer to the molecule divested ...
apoptosis
The most common form of physiological (as opposed to pathological) cell death. Apoptosis is an active process requiring metabolic activity by the dying cell; often characterized ...
App(NH)p
(= (b, g-imido) ATP) Non-hydrolysable analogue of ATP.
applagin
See disintegrin.
apple domain
A consensus sequence, composed of 90 amino acids including 6 cysteines, that forms a characteristic, vaguely apple-shaped, pattern via disulphide bridges. Shared by plasma ...
aprotinin
Basic polypeptide that inhibits several serine proteases (including trypsin, chymotrypsin, kallikrein, pepsin).
aptamers
Double-stranded DNA or single-stranded RNA molecules that bind to specific molecular targets.
APUD cells
Acronym for amine-precursor uptake and decarboxylation cells: paracrine cells of which argentaffin cells are an example. Usage neither helpful nor memorable.
apurinic sites
Sites in DNA from which purines have been lost by cleavage of the deoxy-ribose N-glycosidic linkage.
apyrase
Enzyme (EC 3.6.1.5) that catalyses breakdown of ATP to AMP; usually extracted from plants, but aortic and placental forms have also been described.
aquaporin
(= AQP; CHIP28) Integral membrane protein (28 kD) with six trans-membrane domains that greatly increases water permeability. Found esp. in kidney, red blood cells. AQP1 forms a ...
ara C
In bacteria, the arabinose ara operon regulatory protein. One of a large group of bacterial transcription factors with the helix-turn-helix motif.
ara operon
Operons involved in arabinose metabolism, esp. the araBAD operon of E. coli. Two other ara operons are known in E. coli.
Arabidopsis thaliana
The common wall cress. A small plant, adopted as a model system for plant molecular biology, because of its small genome (7x107 bp), and short generation time (5-8 weeks).
arabinogalactans
Plant cell-wall polysaccharides containing predominantly arabinose and galactose. Two main types are recognized: arabinogalactan 1, found in the pectin portion of angiosperms ...
arabinose
A pentose monosaccharide that occurs in both D- and L- configurations. D-arabinose is the 2-epimer of D-ribose, ie. differs from D-ribose by having the opposite configuration at ...
arabinoxylan
Polysaccharide with a backbone of xylose ( b-1,4 linked) with side chains of arabinose ( a-1,3 linked): constituent of hemicellulose of angiosperm cell wall.
arachidonic acid
(= 5,8,11,14 eicosatetraenoic acid) An essential dietary component for mammals. The free acid is the precursor for biosynthesis of the signalling molecules prostaglandins, ...
arboviruses
Diverse group of single-stranded RNA viruses that have an envelope surrounding the capsid. Arthropod borne, hence the name, and multiply in both invertebrate and vertebrate ...
Archaea
Alternative name suggested for the Archaebacteria to emphasise the difference of this sub-kingdom from the Eubacteria.
Archaebacteria
One of two major subdivisions of the prokaryotes. There are three main Orders, extreme halophiles, methanobacteria, and sulphur-dependant extreme-thermophiles. Archaebacteria ...
archaeocyte
An amoeboid cell type of sponges (Porifera).
archegonium
Female sex organ of liverworts, mosses, ferns and most gymnosperms.
ARD-1
Bifunctional protein (64 kD) that has 18 kD GTP-binding ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) domain and 46 kD GTPase activating (GAP) domain.
ARE
Activin-response element to which ARF binds.
Arenaviridae
Family of ssRNA viruses including Lassa virus, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, and the Tacaribe group of viruses; not all require arthropods for transmission, despite their ...
AREs
(= AU-rich elements) Cytoplasmic mRNA stability is mediated by proteins that bind to AU-rich elements (AREs) in the 3\' untranslated region of transcripts. This has been shown ...
ARF
(= ADP-ribosylation factor) Ubiquitous GTP-binding protein, approximately 20 kD, N-myristoylated, stimulates cholera toxin ADP-ribosylation. Mediates binding of non-clathrin ...
arg
Oncogene, related to abl, that encodes a tyrosine kinase.
argentaffin cells
So-called because they will form cytoplasmic deposits of metallic silver from silver salts. Their characteristic histochemical behaviour arises from 5-HT (serotonin), which they ...
argentation chromatography
Modified form of standard thin layer chromatography in which the solid phase includes silver salts. Used for lipid analysis.
arginine
(= Arg; R; 174D) An essential amino acid; a major component of proteins and contains the guanido group that has a pKa of greater than 12, so that it carries a permanent positive ...
argyrophil cells
Neuroendocrine cells that take up silver ions from a staining solution but require the addition of a reducing agent to precipitate metallic silver (unlike argentaffin cells ...
ARIA
Polypeptide purified from chick brain that promotes the accumulation of acetylcholine receptors in chick myotubes.
armadillo
(= b-catenin; beta catenin; arm) Drosophila gene encoding b-catenin, a component of adherens junctions. Links junctional complex to the cytoskeleton.
armadillo repeat
Protein motif comprising 42 amino acids, originally described in the Drosophila armadillo protein. Usually found in multiple repeats that form a superhelix of helices with a ...
ARNO
(= ARF nucleotide-binding site opener) Guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ARFs that will stimulate nucleotide exchange on both ARF1 and ARF6. Closely related to cytohesin ...
aromatase
Microsomal enzyme complex that converts testosterone to oestradiol.
ARP-1
(= apolipoprotein regulatory protein-1) Nuclear receptor that binds to response element with two core motifs, 5&’-RG(G/T) TCA, as do various retinoic acid receptors such as ...
arrestin
Family of inhibitory proteins that bind to tyrosine-phosphorylated receptors, thereby blocking their interaction with G-proteins and effectively terminating the signalling. ...
Arrhenius plot
A plot of the logarithm of reaction rate against the reciprocal of absolute temperature. For a single stage reaction this gives a straight line from which the activation energy ...
arrhythmia
Lack of normal ordered rhythm - particularly in the case of the heart where arrhythmia can be a prelude to cardiac arrest.
arrowheads
Fanciful description given to the pattern of myosin molecules attached to a filament of F-actin. Easier to see if tannic acid is added to the fixative. The arrowheads indicate ...
ARS
(= autonomously replicating sequence.) A DNA sequence originally isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae that when linked to a non-replicating sequence can confer on the latter ...
Artemia salina
Brine shrimp, a crustacean of the Order Anostraca.
arteriole
Finest branch of an artery before capillary bed.
arteriosclerosis
Imprecise term for various disorders of arteries, particularly hardening due to fibrosis or calcium deposition; often used as a synonym for atherosclerosis.
artery
Blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart; walls have smooth muscle and are innervated by the sympathetic nervous system.
arthritis
General term for inflammation of one or more joints. Many diseases may cause arthritis, although in most cases the cause of the inflammation is not understood. This is ...
Arthrobacter
Genus of obligate aerobic bacteria of irregular shape, found extensively in soil.
arthropathy
Any disease affecting a joint - care should be taken not to confuse arthrosclerosis (stiffness of joints) with atherosclerosis.
arthropod
The largest phylum of the animal kingdom, containing several million species. Arthropods are characterized by a rigid external skeleton, paired and jointed legs, and a ...
Arthus reaction
A localized inflammation due to injection of antigen into an animal that has a high level of circulating antibody against that antigen. A haemorrhagic reaction with oedema ...
articulins
Membrane-associated protein complex of Euglena ; two isoforms of 80 and 86 kD, completely unlike spectrin, though functionally analogous. Have a core domain of 12-residue ...
Artiodactyla
Order of herbivorous even-toed mammals that includes antelopes, pig, cow, giraffe and hippopotamus.
aryl sulphatase
(EC 3.1.6.1) Aryl sulphatases A, B and C comprise a group of enzymes originally assayed by their ability to hydrolyze O-sulphate esters of aromatic substrates. Aryl sulphatase ...
AS-2
See adocia-sulphate-2.
asbestosis
Fibrosis of the lung as a result of the chronic inhalation of asbestos fibres. The needle-like asbestos fibres are phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages but burst the phagosome ...
Ascaris
Genus of nematodes (Aschelminthes). Ascaris suum is the common roundworm of pigs; Ascaris lumbricoides causes ascariasis in Man - though the worms are restricted to the gut they ...
Ascaris lumbricoides
A parasitic gut-dwelling nematode worm, of major medical significance.
Aschheim-Zondek test
Old pregnancy testing method that involved injecting specimen of urine into mice: a positive sample will cause swelling of the ovaries.
Aschoff bodies
Small granulomas composed of macrophages, lymphocytes and multinucleate cells grouped around eosinophilic hyaline material derived from collagen. Characteristic of the ...
Ascidiacea
Class of simple or compound tunicates that have a motile larva but sedentary adult form that filter-feeds. Sea squirts are the commonly known examples.
ascites
Accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity causing swelling; causes include infections, portal hypertension and various tumours.
ascites tumour
Tumour that grows in the peritoneal cavity as a suspension of cells. Obviously such cells have lost anchorage dependence, and they can easily be isolated and passaged. ...
Ascomycotina
Ascomycete fungi that produce spores, usually eight, in a structure known as an ascus. Includes yeasts and Neurospora.
ascorbic acid
(= vitamin C) A requisite in the diet of man and guinea pigs. May act as a reducing agent in enzymic reactions, particularly those catalysed by hydroxylases.
ascospore
Diploid spore formed by ascomycete fungi, contained within an ascus.
ascus
Elongated spore case containing 4 or 8 haploid sexual ascospores of ascomycete fungi (which include most yeasts).
asepsis
State in which harmful microorganisms are absent. Aseptic technique aims to avoid contamination of sterile systems.
asexual
Reproducing without a sexual process and thus without formation of gametes or reassortment of genetic characters.
ASGP
Membrane-associated mucin present on rat mammary carcinoma cells. ASGP-1 and ASGP-2 are generated from a single precursor; ASGP-2 acts as a membrane anchor for ASGP-1. Though ...
asialoglycoprotein
The carbohydrate moiety of many vertebrate glycoproteins bears terminal residues of sialic acid. If such residues are removed, eg. by treatment with a neuraminidase, the ...
ASK
(= Arabidopsis SHAGGY-related protein kinase) Gene family, Arabidopsis SHAGGY-related protein kinases, have homology to mammalian GSK-3 and Drosophila SHAGGY. There are at ...
Askenazy cells
Abnormal thyroid epithelial cells found in autoimmune thyroiditis. The cubical cells line small acini and have eosinophilicgranular cytoplasm and often bizarre nuclear ...
asparaginase
Enzyme (EC 3.5.1.1) that hydrolyzes L-asparagine to L-aspartate and ammonia that is used as an anti-tumour agent especially against lymphosarcoma and lymphatic leukaemia.
asparagine
(= b-asparagine; Asn; N; 132D)
aspartame
Trademark for Asp-Phe Methyl Ester, an artificial sweetener.
aspartate
(= aspartic acid; Asp; D; 133D) L-aspartate is one of the 20 amino acids directly coded in proteins; the free amino acid is a neurotransmitter.
aspartokinase
Enzyme that phosphorylates L-aspartate to produce aspartyl phosphate.
aspirin
(= acetyl salicylate) An analgesic, antipyretic and antinflammatory drug. It is a potent cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor and blocks the formation of prostaglandins from arachidonic ...
association constant
(= Ka; Kass) Reciprocal of dissociation constant. A measure of the extent of a reversible association between two molecular species at equilibrium.
astacin
Astacin, a zinc-endopeptidase from crayfish ( Astacus ), is the prototype for the astacin family of metallo-endopeptidases. Family includes BMP-1, Meprin A, stromelysin 1, and ...
aster
Star-shaped cluster of microtubules radiating from the polar microtubule organizing centre at the start of mitosis.
asthma
Inflammatory disease of the airways involving marked eosinophil infiltration and remodelling of the airways. Attacks can be triggered by allergic responses, physical exertion, ...
astroblast
An embryonic astrocyte.
astrocyte
A glial cell found in vertebrate brain, named for its characteristic star-like shape. Astrocytes lend both mechanical and metabolic support for neurons, regulating the ...
astrocytoma
A neuro-ectodermal tumour (glioma) arising from astrocytes. Probably the commonest glioma, it has a tendency to become anaplastic.
astroglia
See astrocytes.
astrogliosis
Hypertrophy of the astroglia, usually in response to injury.
Astropectinidae
Family of echinoderms that includes many starfish species with long spines.
astrotactin
Neuronal surface glycoprotein (100-105 kD; 3 EGF-like repeat domains, 2 fibronectin III repeats), that functions in murine cerebellar granule cell migration in vitro, acting ...
astroviruses
Spherical viruses with 5- or 6-pointed star-shaped surface pattern. May be associated with enteritis in various vertebrates.
ataxia telangiectasia
Louis Bar syndrome; a hereditary autosomal recessive disease in humans characterized by a high frequency of spontaneous chromosomal aberrations, neurological deterioration and ...
ATCase
(= aspartate transcarbamylase) Enzyme (EC 2.1.3.2) that catalyses the first step in pyrimidine biosynthesis, condensation of aspartate and carbamyl phosphate. Positively ...
ATCC
The American Type Culture Collection, repository of many eukaryotic cell lines (which may be purchased). Comparable collections of microorganisms, protozoa etc. are kept.
atheroma
Degeneration of the walls of the arteries because of the deposition of fatty plaques in the intima of the vessel wall, and scarring and obstruction of the lumen.
atherosclerosis
Condition caused by the deposition of lipid in the wall of arteries in (atheromatous plaques). Migration of smooth muscle cells from media to intima, smooth muscle cell ...
ATM
Protein product of the gene mutated in ataxia telangiectasia (AT), a member of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase family. ATM constitutively binds to the SH3 domain of the ...
atomic force microscopy
A form of scanning probe microscopy, in which a microscopic probe is mechanically tracked over a surface of interest in a series of x-y scans, and the force encountered at each ...
atopy
Allergic (hypersensitive) response at a site remote from the stimulus (eg. food-induced dermatitis).
ATP
(= adenosine 5\' triphosphate) Synthesis in cells from ADP is driven by energy-yielding processes. Enzymic transfer of the terminal phosphate or pyrophosphate to a wide variety ...

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