Слова на букву amph-barn (375) Dictionary of molecular biology
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Слова на букву amph-barn (375)

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ATP binding site
(= "A" motif) A consensus domain found in a number of ATP or GTP-binding proteins, for example ATP synthase, myosin heavy chain, helicases, thymidine kinase, G-protein a ...
ATP synthase
A proton-translocating ATPase, found in the inner membrane of mitochondria, chloroplasts and the plasmalemma of bacteria. It can be known as the F1/Fo or CF1/CFo ATPase, or as ...
ATPase
An enzyme capable of releasing the terminal (g) phosphate from ATP, yielding ADP and inorganic phosphate. The description could mislead, because in most cases the enzymic ...
atrial natriuretic factor
Obsolete name for atrial natriuretic peptide.
atrial natriuretic peptide
A polypetide hormone found mainly in the atrium of many species of vertebrates. It is released in response to atrial stretching, and thus to elevated blood pressure. ANP acts ...
atrium
(= atria (plural) ) A cavity in the body, especially either of the two upper chambers of the heart in higher vertebrates.
atrophy
Wasting away of tissue.
atropine
An alkaloid, isolated from Deadly Nightshade, Atropa belladonna, that inhibits muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Applied to the eye causes dilation of the pupil that is said ...
attachment constriction
See centromere.
attachment plaques
Specialized structures at the ends of a chromosome by which it is attached to the nuclear envelope at leptotene stage of mitosis.
attacins
Antibacterial proteins (20-22 kD) produced by insect haemocytes following bacterial challenge. May be basic or acidic.
attennuation
Viruses that have been passaged extensively may become attenuated (non-virulent), and can be used as a vaccine.
AUG
The codon in messenger RNA that specifies initiation of a polypeptide chain, or within a chain, incorporation of a methionine residue.
Aurelia aurita
Common jellyfish - transparent disc with four blue/purple horseshoe-shaped gonads clearly visible. Phylum Cnidaria; Class Scyphozoa.
aurosome
Gold-containing secondary lysosome found in patients treated with gold complexes.
aurovertin
Inhibitor of the respiratory chain that binds to ATPase.
Australia antigen
An envelope antigen now known as HBsAg of hepatitis B virus. Appearance of the antigen in serum is associated with a phase of high infectivity.
autacoids
Local hormones such as histamine, serotonin, angiotensin, eicosanoids.
autoantibody
Antibody that reacts with an antigen that is a normal component of the body. Obviously this can lead to some problems, and autoimmunity has been proposed as a causative factor in ...
autocatalytic
A compound that catalyses its own chemical transformation. More commonly a reaction that is catalysed by one of its products or an enzyme-catalysed reaction in which one of the ...
autochthonous
Found in the place where it was originally formed, indigenous.
autocrine
Secretion of a substance, such as a growth factor, that stimulates the secretory cell itself. One route to independence of growth control is by autocrine growth factor ...
autofluorescence
Property of a compound or material that will fluoresce in its own right - without the addition of an exogenous fluorophore. A common problem in fluorescence microscopy and in ...
autogamy
Self-fertilisation, common in plants and also in some ciliate protozoa where gametic nuclei from a single micronucleus subsequently fuse to form the zygote nucleus.
autogenous
Generated without external influence or input.
autograft
Graft taken from one part of the body and placed in another site on the same individual.
autoimmune
Adjective describing a situation in which the immune system responds to normal components of the body. Several diseases are thought to have an autoimmune component, but it is ...
autologous
Derived from an organism\'s tissues or DNA. cf heterologous, homologous.
autolysis
Spontaneous lysis (rupture) of cells or organelles produced by the release of internal hydrolyic enzymes. Normally associated with the release of lysosomal enzymes.
autonomic nervous system
Neurons that are not under conscious control, comprising two antagonistic components, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. Together, they control the heart, ...
autophagy
Removal of cytoplasmic components, particularly membrane bounded organelles, by digesting them within secondary lysosomes(autophagic vacuoles). Particularly common in embryonic ...
autophosphorylation
Addition of a phosphate to a protein kinase (possibly affecting its activity) by virtue of its own enzymic activity.
autoradiography
Technique in which a specimen containing radioactive atoms is overlaid with a photographic emulsion, which is subsequently developed, revealing the localization of radioactivity ...
autoregulation
Regulation of a gene encoding a transcription factor by its own gene product: a feedback process.
autosomal dominant
Gene located on an autosome that has a dominant effect - even though two copies of the gene exist, one of them normal. Often attributed to a gain-of-function.
autosomal recessive
Mutation carried on an autosome that is deleterious only in homozygotes.
autosomes
Chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes.
autotroph
(= lithotroph) Organisms that synthesize all their organic molecules from inorganic materials (carbon dioxide, salts etc.). May be photo-autotrophs or chemo-autotrophs, ...
auxesis
Growth by increase in cell size rather than by increasing cell numbers.
auxilin
A novel adaptin found associated with the coated vesicles isolated from brain cells.
auxins
A group of plant growth substances (often called phytohormones or plant hormones), the most common example being indole acetic acid (IAA), responsible for raising the pH ...
auxotroph
Mutant that differs from the wild-type in requiring a nutritional supplement for growth. A deficiency mutant.
auxotyping
Method for strain-typing Neisseria by checking their requirements for specific nutrients in defined media.
Avena sativa
Cultivated oat.
avermectin B1
(= abamectin) Metabolite of Streptomyces avermitilis used as an acaricide, insecticide and anthelminthic.
avian erythroblastosis virus
See avian leukaemia virus.
avian leukaemia virus
Group of C-type RNA tumour viruses (Oncovirinae) that cause various leukaemias and other tumours in birds. The acute leukaemia viruses, that are replication-defective and ...
avian myeloblastosis virus
Retrovirus of the subfamily Oncornaviridae. Causes myelocytomatosis, osteopetrosis, lymphoid leukosis and nephroblastoma. May be a mixture of viruses.
avidin
Biotin-binding protein (68 kD) from egg-white. Binding is so strong as to be effectively irreversible - a diet of raw egg-white leads to biotin deficiency.
avidity
Strength of binding, usually of a small molecule with multiple binding sites by a larger; particularly the binding of a complex antigen by an antibody. (Affinityrefers to simple ...
axenic
A situation in which only one species is present. Thus an axenic culture is uncontaminated by organisms of other species, an axenic organism does not have commensal organisms in ...
axil
Member of the axin family. Interacts with GSK-3 and b -catenin. By enhancing phosphorylation and thus the subsequent degradation of b -catenin, inhibits axis formation in ...
axin
A negative regulator of the Wnt signalling pathway. Binds to APC (adenomatous polyposis coli protein) and to b -catenin and regulates the stability of the catenin. Interacts ...
axokinin
Axonemal protein (56 kD) that, when phosphorylated by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase, reactivates the axoneme.
axolemma
Plasma membrane of an axon.
axon
Long process, usually single, of a neuron, that carries efferent (outgoing) action potentials from the cell body towards target cells. See dendrite.
axon hillock
Tapering region between a neuron\'s cell body and its axon. This region is responsible for summating the graded inputs from the dendrites, and producing action potentials if ...
axonal guidance
General term for mechanisms that ensure correct projections by nerve cells in developing and regenerating nervous systems. Implies accurate navigation by growth cones, the highly ...
axoneme
The central microtubule complex of eukaryotic cilia and flagella with the characteristic "9 + 2" arrangement of tubules when seen in cross-section.
axonin
Chick homologue of TAG-1. See tax-1
axonogenesis
The growth and differentiation of axonal processes by developing neurons. See axon.
axoplasm
The cytoplasm of a neuron.
axopod
(= axopodia (plural) )
axostyles
Ribbon-like bundles of microtubules found in certain parasitic protozoa that may generate bending waves by dynein-mediated sliding of microtubules.
azacytidine
(= 5-azacytidine; b-ribofuranosyl 5-azacytidine) The ribonucleoside of 5-azacytosine.
azacytosine
(= 5-azacytosine) An analogue of the pyrimidinebase cytosine, in which carbon 5 is replaced by a nitrogen. In DNA, unlike cytosine, it cannot be methylated.
azide
Usually the sodium salt NaN3, an inhibitor of electron transport that blocks electron flow from cytochrome oxidase to oxygen. Frequently used to prevent growth of microorganisms ...
Azotobacter
Genus of free-living rod-shaped bacilli capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen.
azurin
(1) Blue copper-containing protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2) Histochemical dye.
azurophil granules
Primary lysosomal granules found in neutrophil granulocytes; contain a wide range of hydrolytic enzymes. Sometimes referred to as primary granules to distinguish them from the ...
B cells of pancreas
Cells within discrete endocrine islands (Islets of Langerhans) embedded in the major exocrine tissue of vertebrate pancreas. The B or b- cells (originally distinguished by ...
B chromosome
Small acentric chromosome; part of the normal genome of some races and species of plants.
b-c1 complex
A part of the mitochondrial electron transport chain that accepts electrons from ubiquinone, and passes them on to cytochrome c. The b/c1 complex consists of 2 cytochromes.
B-DNA
The structural form of DNA originally described by Crick and Watson. It is the form normally found in hydrated DNA and is strictly an average, approximate stucture for a family ...
B-lymphocyte
See lymphocyte.
Babes-Ernst granules
Metachromatic intracellular deposits of polyphosphate found in Corynebacterium diphtheriae when the bacteria are grown on suboptimal media. Stain reddish with methylene blue or ...
Babesia
Genus of protozoa that are found as parasites within red blood cells of mammals and are transmitted by ticks.
BAC library
(= bacterial artificial chromosome library) Library constructed in a vector with an origin of replication that allows its propagation in bacteria as an extra chromosome. ...
Bac7
Proline-and arginine-rich antimicrobial peptide (7 kD) isolated from bovine neutrophils. Bac-5 is similar. The upstream region of proBac-5 and proBac-7 both have sequence ...
Bacille Calmette-Guerin
An attenuated mycobacterium derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacterium is used in tuberculosis vaccination. Extracts of the bacterium have remarkable powers in ...
bacillus
Cylindrical (rod-shaped) bacterium. Bacilli are usually 0.5-1.0 m m long, 0.3-1 m m wide.
Bacillus thuringiensis
Soil-living bacterium that produces a delta-endotoxin that is deadly to insects. Many strains exist, each with great specificity as to target Orders of insects. In general, the ...
bacitracin
Branched cyclic peptides produced by strains of Bacillus licheniformis. Interfere with murein (peptidoglycan) synthesis in Gram positive bacteria.
bactenecin
Highly cationic polypeptides found in lysosomal granules of bovine neutrophil granulocytes. They are thought to be involved in bacterial killing and occur in a third class of ...
bacteraemia
(= bacteremia (USA) ) The presence of living bacteria in the circulating blood: usually implies the presence of small numbers of bacteria that are transiently present without ...
bacteria
One of the two major classes of prokaryotic organism (the other being the Cyanobacteria). Bacteria are small (linear dimensions of around 1 m m), non-compartmentalised, with ...
bacterial artificial chromosome
Method of construction of genomic library, in which the vector contains sites necessary for the DNA to be handled and replicated as a bacterial chromosome. Like YACs, this ...
bacterial chemotaxis
The response of bacteria to gradients of attractants or repellents. In a gradient of attractant the probability of deviating from a smooth forward path is reduced if the ...
bacterial flagella
Thin filaments composed of flagellin subunits that are rotated by the basal motor assembly and act as propellors. If rotating anticlockwise (as viewed from the flagellar tip) ...
bacteriochlorophyll
Varieties of chlorophyll (bacteriochlorophylls a, b, c, d, e and g) found in photosynthetic bacteria and differing from plant chlorophyll in the substituents around the ...
bacteriocide
A substance that kills bacteria.
bacteriocins
Exotoxins, often plasmid coded, produced by bacteria and which kill other bacteria (not eukaryotic cells). Colicins are produced by about 40% of E. coli strains: colicin E2 is ...
bacteriophaeophytin-b
One of the components of the bacterial photosynthetic reaction centre. (See also ubiquinone.)
bacteriophages
(= phages) Viruses that infect bacteria. The bacteriophages that attack Escherichia coli are termed coliphages, examples of these are lambda phage and the T-even phages, T2, T4 ...
bacteriorhodopsin
A light-driven proton-pumping protein (248 residues, 26 kD), similar to rhodopsin, found in "purple patches" in the cytoplasmic membrane of the bacterium Halobacterium ...
bacteriostatic
Adjective applied to substances that inhibit the growth of bacteria without necessarily killing them.
bacteroid
Small, often irregularly rod shaped bacterium eg. those found in root nodules of nitrogen-fixing plants.
Baculovirus
Viruses specialized as pathogens of lepidopteran larvae. Widely used as eukaryotic expression vectors for proteins requiring post-translational modifications such as ...
bafilomycin
Microbial toxin that is a specific inhibitor of the V-type ATPase.
bag cell neurons
Cluster of electrically coupled neurons in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia that are homogeneous, easily dissected out and release peptides that stimulate egg laying.
BALB/c
Inbred strain of white (albino) mice. Used as a source for one of the various 3T3 cell lines.
Balbiani ring
The largest puffs seen on the polytene chromosomes of Diptera are called Balbiani rings after the nineteenth century microscopist who first described polytene chromosomes.
balloon cell
Nonspecific description of any cell with abundant clear cytoplasm. May arise through a variety of causes and includes some carcinoid cells, hepatocytes following some forms of ...
Bam H I
(= BamHI) Common restriction enzyme (from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens H) that cuts the sequence G|GATCC.
band cells
Immature neutrophils released from the bone-marrow reserve in response to acute demand.
band III
A 90 kD protein of the human erythrocyte membrane, identified as the major anion transport/exchange protein. Analogous proteins exist in other erythrocytes. A dimeric ...
banding patterns
Chromosomes stained with certain dyes, commonly quinacrine (Q banding) or Giemsa (G banding), show a pattern of transverse bands of light and heavy staining that is ...
bandshift assay
(= gel shift assay) An assay for proteins, such as transcription factors, that bind specific DNA sequences. A labelled oligonucleotide corresponding to the recognition ...
BAPTA
(= 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy) ethane tetraacetate) Calcium chelator with low affinity for magnesium. Absorption maximum shifts when calcium is bound so it can be used as an ...
barnase
Bacterial ribonuclease.

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