Слова на букву baro-cata (375) Dictionary of molecular biology
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Слова на букву baro-cata (375)

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baroreceptor
(= baroceptor) In an organism, a receptor that is sensitive to pressure.
Barr body
Small dark-staining inactivated X chromosome seen in female (XX) cells. According to the Lyon hypothesis, random inactivation occurs.
basal body
Structure found at the base of eukaryotic cilia and flagella consisting of a continuation of the nine outer sets of axonemal microtubules but with the addition of a C-tubule to ...
basal cell carcinoma
(= BCC; rodent ulcer) Common carcinoma derived from the basal cells of the epidermis. Often a consequence of exposure to sunlight and much more common in those with fair skin; ...
basal cells
General term for relatively undifferentiated cells in an epithelial sheet that give rise to more specialized cells (act as stem cells). In the stratified squamous epithelium of ...
basal ganglia
Three large subcortical nuclei of the vertebrate brain: the putamen, the caudate nucleus and the globus pallidus. They participate in the control of movement along with the ...
basal lamina
See basement membrane.
base analogues
Purine and pyrimidine bases that can replace normal bases used in DNA synthesis and hence can be included in DNA, eg. 5-bromouracil (replacing thymine) or 2-aminopurine ...
base-pairing
The specific hydrogen-bonding between purines and pyrimidines in double-stranded nucleic acids. In DNA the pairs are adenine and thymine, and guanine and cytosine, while in ...
basement membrane
Extracellular matrix characteristically found under epithelial cells. There are two distinct layers: the basal lamina, immediately adjacent to the cells, is a product of the ...
baseplate
A hypothetical cell adhesion molecule possibly involved in sponge cell adhesion, existence unproven.
basic leucine zipper
(= bZIP) Family of proteins having a basic region and a leucine zipper. The basic region is the DNA-binding domain and the leucine zipper is involved in protein-protein ...
Basidiomycetes
Group of fungi that includes rusts, smuts, and edible fungi. Produce basidiospores.
basidiospore
Spores of Basidiomycete fungi. These spores are usually uninucleate and haploid.
basidium
Club-shaped organ involved in sexual reproduction in basidiomycete fungi (mushrooms, toadstools etc.). Bears four haploid basidiospores at its tip.
basilar membrane
A thin layer of tissue covered with mesothelial cells that separates the cochlea from the scala tympani in the ear.
basket cells
Cerebellar neurons with many small dendritic branches that enclose the cell bodies of adjacent Purkinje cells in a basket-like array.
basolateral plasma membrane
The plasma membrane of epithelial cells that is adjacent to the basal lamina or the adjoining cells of the sheet. Differs both in protein and phospholipid composition from the ...
basophil
Mammalian granulocyte with large heterochromatic basophilic granules that contain histamine bound to a protein and heparin-like mucopolysaccharide matrix. They are not ...
basophilia
(1) Having an affinity for basic dyes. (2) Condition in which there is an excess of basophils in the blood.
batrachotoxin
Neurotoxin from the Columbian poison frog Phyllobates. A steroidal alkaloid that affects sodium channels; batrachotoxin R is more effective than related batrachotoxin A.
batroxostatin
See disintegrin.
bax
1. Protein related to bcl-2 that promotes apoptosis in cultured cells. Mice deficient in bax have selective hyperplasias. Bax seems to act as a tumour suppressor and is induced ...
Bayer's patches
(= Bayer\'s junctions) Sites of adhesion between the outer and cytoplasmic membranes of Gram negative bacteria.
Bayesian statistics
Statistical theory, based on Bayes&’ decision rule, that outlines a framework for producing decisions based on relative payoffs of different outcomes. Used in genetic ...
BCG
See Bacille Calmette-Guerin.
bcl-2
Proto-oncogene, activated by chromosome translocation in human B-cell lymphomas (hence "bcl"). Encodes a plasma membrane protein. The gene product inhibits programmed cell ...
bcl-3
Oncogene associated with some cases of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemias. The protein product contains seven "ankyrin-repeats" very similar to those found in I k B. Seems to ...
bcr
(= breakpoint cluster region) Region on chromosome 22 involved in the Philadelphia chromosome translocation.
beaded filaments
(= beaded-chain filaments) Intermediate filaments found in the lens fibre cells of the eye: composed of filensin and phakinin.
Becker muscular dystrophy
Benign X-linked muscular dystrophy with later onset and lower severity than Duchenne dystrophy.
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome
Rare developmental disorder with a complex pattern of inheritance suggesting a defect in maternal imprinting. Characteristics are all growth abnormalities - enlarged tongue, ...
Becquerel
См. Bq.
beige mouse
A mouse strain typified by beige hair and lymphadenopathy, reticulum cell neoplasms, and giant lysosomal granules in leucocytes. May be the murine equivalent of ...
belt desmosome
Another name for the zonula adherens or adherens junction.
Bence-Jones protein
Dimers of immunoglobulin light chains, normally produced by myelomas. Bence-Jones proteins are sufficiently small to be excreted by the kidney.
benign tumour
A clone of neoplastic cells that does not invade locally or metastasise, having lost growth control but not positional control. Usually surrounded by a fibrous capsule of ...
benzodiazepine
Drugs widely used in medical practice as CNS depressants, eg. diazepam (the tranquilliser Valium). Enhance the inhibitory action of GABA by modulating GABAA receptors.
benzopyrene
Polycyclic aromatic compound. Potent mutagen and carcinogen.
Berk-Sharp technique
(= S1 mapping) A technique of genetic mapping in which mRNA is hybridized with single stranded DNA and the non-hybridized DNA then digested with S1 nuclease; the residual DNA ...
Bernard-Soulier syndrome
Genetic deficiency in platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib (CD42) ; platelets aggregate normally (cf Glanzmann\'s thrombasthenia) but do not stick to collagen of sub-endothelial ...
Best&’s carmine
Stain that can be used to demonstrate the presence of glycogen, which stains deep red.
beta
(= b) 1. Entry prefix is given as ‘beta’; alternatively look for the main portion of the word. 2. Entry pre-fix is generally, but not universally, ignored for alphabetical ...
beta
(= b) 1. Entry prefix is given as ‘beta’; alternatively look for the main portion of the word. 2. Entry pre-fix is generally, but not universally, ignored for alphabetical ...
beta-2-microglobulin
(= b-2-microglobulin) Immunoglobulin-like polypeptide (12 kD, homologous with the constant region of Ig) that is found on the surfaces of most cells, associated non-covalently ...
beta-actinin
(= b-actinin) See capZ.
beta-alpha-beta motif
(= b-a-b motif) Protein motif comprising a beta strand-loop-helix-loop-strand arrangment, with the strands lying parallel.
beta-amylase
(= b-amylase) A terminal amylase that cleaves starch to maltose units from the end of starch chains.
beta-arch
(=b arch) Protein motif comprising two adjacent antiparallel beta strands joined by a coil that are part of different sheets, usually forming a beta sandwich.
beta-barrel
(=b barrel) Protein motif in which a series of (typically amphipathic) beta sheets is arranged around a central pore. Example: voltage-gated ion channel.
beta-blocker
(= b-blocker) Inhibitor of b -adrenergic receptors; causes decrease in heart rate and blood pressure. Those that inhibit b 1 receptors have effects primarily on the heart.
beta-bulge
(=b bulge) Protein motif comprising a disruption of a beta sheet, usually by the insertion of a single residue.
beta-cells of pancreas
(= b-cells) See B cells of pancreas
beta-COP
(= b-COP) Major component (110 kD) of coat of non-clathrin coated vesicles derived from Golgi. Has homology with beta-adaptin.
beta-emitter
(= b-emitter) A radionuclide whose decay is accompanied by the emission of b particles, most commonly negatively charged electrons. Many isotopes used in biology, such as ...
beta-galactosidase
(= b-galactosidase) Enzyme (EC 3.2.1.23) encoded by the LacZ gene, that is widely used as a reporter gene, as a variety of coloured or fluorescent compounds can be produced ...
beta-glucosidase
(= b glucosidase) EC 3.2.1.21. Enzyme catalysing the release of glucose by hydrolysis of the glycosidic link in various b -D-glucosides, R- b -D-glucose, where the group R may ...
beta-glucuronidase
(= b-glucuronidase) Enzyme (EC 3.2.1.31) that catalyses hydrolysis of a b -D-glucuronoside to D-glucuronate and the compound to which it was attached. Often used as a marker ...
beta-hairpin
(=b hairpin) Protein motif describing one possible arrangement of strands in a beta sheet. Strands are antiparallel and hydrogen-bonded, lying adjacent in the sheet.
beta-helix
(=b helix) (solenoid) Protein motif comprising a large right-handed coil (or super-helix), containing either 2 or 3 beta sheets.
beta-lactamase
(= b-lactamase) Specifically, the plasmid-coded enzyme secreted by many bacteria that inactivates penicillins by opening the lactam ring.
beta-lactams
Class of antibiotics that includes penicillins, ampicillin, cloxacillin, piperacillin, cephalosporins such as cephalothin, cephamycins such as cefoxitin and monolactams such as ...
beta-oxidation
(= b-oxidation) The process whereby fatty acids are degraded in steps, losing 2 carbons as (acetyl) -CoA. Involves CoA ester formation, desaturation, hydroxylation and ...
beta-pleated sheet
(= b-pleated sheet)
beta-prism
(=b prism) Protein motif comprising 3 antiparallel beta sheetsarranged in a triangular, prism shape. In the orthogonal prism, strands are orthogonal to the prism access; in ...
beta-propellor
(=b propellor) Protein motif comprising 4-8 antiparallel beta sheetsarranged like the blades of a propellor.
beta-sandwich
(=b sandwich) Protein motif comprising two beta sheetsthat pack together face to face, in a layered arrangement.
beta-sheet
(=b sheet) See beta-pleated sheet.
beta-strand
(=b strand) Region of polypeptide chain that forms part of a beta-sheet.
beta-trefoil
(=b trefoil) Protein motif consisting of three beta hairpins forming a triangular shape.
beta-turn
(=b-turn) Protein motif which consists of an abrupt 180º reversal in direction of a polypeptide chain. The turn is defined as being complete within 4 residues.
betaine
A derivative of glycine characterized by high water solubility. Can function as an osmotic agent in plant tissues. See biogenic amines.
bFGF
Basic fibroblast growth factor.
BFU-E
See burst forming unit-erythrocytic.
BHK cells
(= baby hamster kidney cells) A quasi-diploid established line of Syrian hamster cells, descended from a clone (Clone 13) isolated by Stoker & McPherson from an unusually ...
Biacore
Proprietary name for an instrument that uses surface plasmon resonance to detect the binding of a substance to the surface of a flow chamber. Using this machine it is possible ...
bicoid
An egg-polarity gene in Drosophila, concentrated at the anterior pole of the egg, and required for subsequent anterior structures. A maternal-effect gene.
bicuculline
From Dicentra cucullaria and herbs of the genus Corydalis. Specific blocking agent for the action of the amino acid transmitter g -aminobutyric acid (GABA). See amino acid ...
big brain
A neurogenic gene of Drosophila, believed to encode a product involved in cell-cell communication, perhaps via gap junctions. Member of the major intrinsic protein family. ...
biglycan
A small proteoglycan, 150-240 kD, of the extracellular matrix. The core protein has a mass of around 42 kD and is very similar to the core protein of decorin and ...
bilharzia
(= schistosomiasis) Disease caused by the blood fluke Schistosoma spp., a digenean Platyhelminth.
biliproteins
See phycobilins.
bilirubin
Red-brown pigment found in bile, formed by breakdown of haemoglobin.
biliverdin
Green bile pigment formed by haemoglobin breakdown; can be converted into bilirubin by reduction.
bindin
Molecule of around 30 kD normally sequestered in the acrosome of a sea-urchin spermatozoon, and that through its specific lectin-like binding to the vitelline membrane of the ...
bioassay
An assay for the activity or potency of a substance that involves testing its activity on living material.
bioautography
The use of cells to detect by their attachment or other reaction the presence of a particular substance, eg. an adhesion protein on an electrophoretic gel.
bioavailability
Relative amount of a drug (or other substance) that will reach the systemic circulation when administered by a route other than direct intravenous injection.
bioblasts
When Altmann first observed mitochondria he considered them to be intracellular parasites and christened them bioblasts.
bioflavonoids
Group of coloured phenolic pigments originally considered vitamins (Vitamins P, C2) but not shown to have any nutritional role. Responsible for the red/purple colours of many ...
biogenic amines
Amines found in both animals and plants that are frequently involved in signalling. There are several groups: ethanolamine derivatives include choline, acetylcholine and ...
bioinformatics
The discipline of using computers to collate and form datasets of interest to biologists. Usually used to refer to databases of DNA and protein sequences, and of mutations, ...
bioluminescence
Light produced by a living organism. The best known system is firefly luciferase (an ATPase), which is used routinely as a sensitive ATP assay system. Many other organisms, ...
biosynthesis
Synthesis by a living system (as opposed to chemical synthesis)
biotin
(= vitamin H) A prosthetic group for carboxylase enzymes. Important in fatty acid biosynthesis and catabolism and has found widespread use as a covalent label for ...
BiP
Molecular chaperone (78 kD) found in endoplasmic reticulum and related to hsp70 family of heat-shock proteins. Originally described as immunoglobulin heavy chain binding ...
bipolar cells
A class of retinal interneurons, named after their morphology, that receive input from the photoreceptors and send it to the ganglion cells. Bipolar cells are non-spiking ...
bipolar filaments
Filaments that have opposite polarity at the two ends; classic example is the thick filament of striated muscle.
Birbeck granules
Characteristic inclusion bodies seen by electron microscopy in histiocytes (Langerhans cells) of patients with histiocytosis X, a group of diseases with uncertain ...
birefringence
Optical property of a material in which the refractive index is different for light polarized in one plane compared to the orthogonal plane. See birefringent.
birefringent
Any material that has different refractive index according to the plane of polarisation of the light. The effect is to rotate the plane of the refracted light so that, using ...
bistatin
A disintegrin found in the venom of the puff adder Bitis arietans.
Biston betularia
Peppered moth; famous for the shift to the melanised form as industrial pollution turned trees black and gave the melanotic form a selective advantage - and for reversion to the ...
bithorax complex
A group of homeotic mutations of Drosophila that map to the bithorax region on chromosome III. The mutations all cause the third thoracic segment to develop like the second ...
Bittner agent
Earlier name, now superseded, for the mouse mammary tumour virus.
bivalent
Used of two homologous chromosomes when they are in synapsis during meiosis.
black membrane
An artificial (phospho) lipid membrane formed by `painting\' a solution of phospholipid in organic solvent over a hole in a hydrophobic support immersed in water. Drainage of ...
black widow spider venom
Potent neurotoxin that induces catastrophic release of acetylcholine from presynaptic terminals of cholinergic chemical synapses.
blast cells
Cells of a proliferative compartment in a cell lineage.
blast transformation
The morphological and biochemical changes in B- and T-lymphocytes on exposure to antigen or to a mitogen. The cells appear to move from G0 to G1 stage of the cell cycle. They ...
blastema
A group of cells in an organism that will develop into a new individual by asexual reproduction, or into an organized structure during regeneration.
blastocoel
(= blastocele (USA) ) The cavity formed within the mass of cells of the blastula of many animals during the later stages of cleavage.
blastocyst
In mammalian development, cleavage produces a thin-walled hollow sphere, whose wall is the trophoblast, with the embryo proper being represented by a mass of cells at one side. ...
blastoderm
In many eggs with a large amount of yolk, cell division (cleavage) is restricted to a superficial layer of the fertilized egg (meroblastic cleavage). This layer is termed the ...
blastomere
One of the cells produced as the result of cell division, cleavage, in the fertilized egg.
blastopore
During gastrulation cells on the surface of the embryo move into the interior to form the mesoderm and endoderm. The opening formed by this invagination of cells is the ...
blastula
Stage of embryonic development of animals near the end of cleavage but before gastrulation. In animals where cleavage (cell division) involves the whole egg, the blastula ...
Blattella germanica
German cockroach.
bleb
Protrusion from the surface of a cell, usually approximately hemispherical; may be filled with fluid or supported by a meshwork of microfilaments.
bleomycin
Any of a group of glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus. Blocks cell division in G2: used to synchronize the division of cells in culture and as an ...
Blepharisma
Genus of ciliate protozoans of the order Heterotricha.
blepharoplast
Alternative name for a basal body. An organelle derived from the centriole and giving rise to the flagella. Found chiefly in Protozoa and Algae.
blocking antibody
An antibody used in a reaction to prevent some other reaction taking place, for example one antibody competing with another for a cell surface receptor. See also ...
blood group antigens
The set of cell surface antigens found chiefly, but not solely, on blood cells. More than fifteen different blood group systems are recognized in humans. There may be naturally ...
blood vessels
All the vessels lined with endothelium through which blood circulates.
blood-brain barrier
The blood vessels of the brain (and the retina) are much more impermeable to large molecules (like antibodies) than blood vessels elsewhere in the body. This has important ...
Bloom&’s syndrome
Rare human autosomal recessive defect associated with genomic instability causing short stature, immunodeficiency and increased risk of all types of cancer. Caused by mutation ...
blotting
General term for the transfer of protein, RNA or DNA molecules from a relatively thick acrylamide or agarose gel to a paper-like membrane (usually nylon or nitrocellulose) by ...
blue naevus
A non-malignant accumulation of highly-pigmented melanocytes deep in the dermis.
blue-green algae
Group of prokaryotes that should now be referred to as Cyanobacteria.
blue-white colour selection
Method for identifying bacterial clones containing plasmids with inserts. Many modern vectors have their polycloning site within a part of the LacZ gene encoding ...
Bluescript
(= pBluescript) Proprietary plasmid, sold by Stratagene. Very widely used.
Bluetongue virus
Reovirus that causes serious disease of sheep and milder disease in cattle and pigs. Transmitted by biting flies.
blunt end
End of double stranded DNA that has been cut at the same site on both strands by a restriction enzyme that does not produce sticky ends.
Blym
An oncogene, identified in lymphoma of Bursa of Fabricius.
BM-40
See osteonectin.
Bmax
Amount of drug required to saturate a population of receptors and a measure of the number of receptors present in the sample. Usually derived from Scatchard plotof binding data. ...
BMPs
(= bone morphogenetic proteins) Multifunctional cytokines, members of the TGF b superfamily. Activity of BMPs are regulated by BMP-binding proteins noggin and chordin. ...
BNLF-1
An oncogene from Epstein-Barr virus. Encodes a plasma membrane protein.
BNP
See brain natriuretic peptide.
Bohr effect
Decrease in oxygen affinity of haemoglobin when pH decreases or concentration of carbon dioxide increases.
bombesin
Tetradecapeptide neurohormone with both paracrine and autocrine effects first isolated from skin of fire-bellied toad ( Bombina bombina ) ; mammalian equivalent is ...
Bombyx mori
Commercial silkmoth.
bone marrow
Tissue found in the centre of most bones; site of haematopoiesis. The most radiation-sensitive tissue of the body.
Bordetella pertussis
A small, aerobic, Gram negative bacillus, causative organism of whooping cough. Produces a variety of toxins including a dermonecrotising toxin, an adenyl cyclase, an ...
Borna disease
Virally-induced T cell dependent immunopathological disorder of central nervous system. There are suggestions that Borna disease virus (a broadly distributed unclassified ...
Borrelia burgdorferi
Spirochaete, responsible for Lyme disease. Can be isolated from midgut of ticks ( Ixodes ).
Bos taurus
Domestic cow.
bottle cells
The first cells to migrate inwards at the blastopore during amphibian gastrulation. The "neck" of the bottle is at the outer surface of the embryo.
botulinolysin
Cholesterol binding toxin from Clostridium botulinum.
botulinum toxin
Neurotoxin (50 kD; 7 distinct serotypes) produced by certain strains of Clostridium botulinum. The bacterium produces the toxin as a complex with a haemagglutinin that ...
botulinus toxin C2
Binary toxin with binding subunit (100 kD) and enzymatic subunit (50 kD) that ADP-ribosylates monomeric G-actin and blocks the formation of microfilaments. Produced by C and D ...
botulinus toxin C3
(= exoenzyme C3) Toxin (24 kD) produced by C and D strains of Clostridium botulinum. An ADP-ribosyl transferase that inactivates Rho. Needs to be injected into cells and is a ...
Bouin&’s solution
Picric acid-based fixative that also contains formaldehyde and acetic acid. It has the advantage that specimens can be stored indefinitely and generally preserves nuclear ...
Bowman-Birk protease inhibitors
Family of serine protease inhibitors found in seeds of leguminous plants and cereals.
box
Casual term for a DNA sequence that is a characteristic feature of regions that bind regulatory proteins eg. homeobox, TATA box and CAAT box.
Boyden chamber
Simple chamber used to test for chemotaxis, especially of leucocytes. Consists of two compartments separated by a millipore filter (3-8 m m pore size) ; chemotactic factor is ...
Bq
The Systeme Internationale (SI, MKS) unit of radioactivity, named after the discoverer of radioactivity, and equal to 1 disintegration per second. Use is fairly recent, ...
Brachydanio rerio
(= Danio rerio) See zebrafish.
brachyury
Mouse gene encoding a transcription factor, one of the T-box genes. Product of the gene is important in tissue specification, morphogenesis and organogenesis. Mouse mutant ...
Bradford method
Method for estimating the protein content by using the change in absorption of Coomassie blue dye when it binds to proteins.
bradycardia
Condition in which the heart beats unusually slowly. Opposite of tachycardia.
bradykinin
Vasoactive nonapeptide (RPPGFSPFR) formed by action of proteases on kininogens. Very similar to kallidin (which has the same sequence but with an additional N-terminal lysine). ...
brain natriuretic peptide
Brain peptide that induces diuresis; related to atrial natriuretic peptide. See also natriuretic peptides.
brain regions
The central nervous system of mammals is complex and the terminology often confusing. In development the brain is generated from the most anterior portion of the neural tube ...
brain-derived growth factor
(= BDGF) See brain-derived neurotrophic factor.
brain-derived neurotrophic factor
(= BDNF; BDGF) Small basic protein purified from pig brain; a member of the family of neurotrophins that also includes nerve growth factor and neurotrophin-3. In contrast to ...
Branchiostoma
Genus of lancelets - includes Amphioxus.
Brassica napus
Oil-seed rape (canola in US). Source of edible oil (see erucic acid).
brca
(= breast cancer related gene) Two genes (BRCA-1 and BRCA-2) associated with familial breast carcinoma have now been identified.
brefeldin A
A macrocyclic lactone synthesized from palmitic acid by several fungi including Penicillium brefeldianum. It was initially described as an antiviral antibiotic, but it was ...
Brevibacterium
Genus of Gram positive aerobic coryneform bacteria.
bride of sevenless
(= boss) In Drosophila eye development, the ligand for the sevenless tyrosine kinase receptor. Boss is expressed by the central R8 cell. It is unusual as a ligand for a ...
bright-field microscopy
Optical microscopy, in which absorption to a great extent and diffraction to a minor extent give rise to the image, as opposed to phase contrast or interference methods of ...
Brilliant Cresyl Blue
(= Brilliant Blue C) Dye used in staining of bone marrow smears.
bromelain
Thiol protease (EC 3.4.22.4) from pineapple.
bromophenol blue
Dye used as pH indicator: changes from yellow to blue in the range 3.0-4.6
bromophenol red
Dye used as pH indicator: changes from yellow to red in range 5.2-6.8
Bromoviruses
Plant viruses with a genome of three linear, positive sense ssRNA molecules. Named originally after brome grass.
brown fat cells
Brown fat is specialized for heat production and the adipocytes have many mitochondria in which an inner-membrane protein can act as an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation ...
Brownian motion
Random motion of small objects as a result of intermolecular collisions. First described by the 19th-century microscopist, Brown.
Brownian ratchet
Mechanism proposed to explain protein translocation across membranes and force generation by polmerizing actin filaments. Relies upon asymmetry of cis and trans sides of the ...
Brucella
Genus of Gram negative aerobic bacteria which occur as intracellular parasites or pathogens in man and other animals. Brucella abortus is responsible for spontaneous abortion in ...
brush border
The densely packed microvilli on the apical surface of, for example, intestinal epithelial cells.
Bruton's disease
Sex-linked recessive agammaglobulinaemia caused by a deficiency in B-lymphocyte function. See btk.
Brx
Dbl family member that modulates oestrogen receptor activity. May thus integrate cytoplasmic signalling mediated by rho (for which it is a GEF) and nuclear receptors.
Bryophyta
Plant phylum that includes mosses and liverworts.
bryostatin
General name for a group of compounds isolated from bryozoans; activate Protein Kinase C (PKC), though after longer-term exposure cells down-regulate their PKC.
BSE
Bovine spongiform encephalopathy. A transmissible encephalopathy that affected large numbers of cattle in the UK during the 1990s and is widely believed to have arisen through ...
btk
(= Bruton&’s tyrosine kinase) Tyrosine kinase of tec family, defective in Bruton&’s agammaglobulinaemia. Mutations in btk lead to B-cell immunodeficiencies XLA in humans, ...
budding
A type of cell division in fungi and in protozoa in which one of the daughter cells develops as a smaller protrusion from the other. Usually the position of the budding cell is ...
BUdR
(= bromo-deoxyuridine; deoxynucleoside of 5-bromo-uracil) Analogue of thymidine that induces point mutations because of its tendency to tautomerization: in the enol form it ...
buffer
A system that acts to minimize the change in concentration of a specific chemical species in solution against addition or depletion of this species. pH buffers: weak acids or ...
buffy coat
Thin yellow-white layer of leucocytes on top of the mass of red cells when whole blood is centrifuged.
bufotenine
(= 3-(2-(dimethylamino) ethyl) -1H-indol-5-ol; mappine) ) An indole alkaloid with hallucinogenic effects, isolated from Piptadenia spp. (Mimosidae) ; first isolated from skin ...
bullous pemphigoid
Form of pemphigoid (which also affects mucous membranes), in which blisters (bulli) form on the skin. Patients have circulating antibody (usually IgG) to basement membrane of ...
bungarotoxins
Toxins found in the venom of Bungarus multicinctus. a -bungarotoxin: polypeptide toxin (74 residues). A powerful antagonist of acetylcholine it causes virtually ...
Bungarus multicinctus
Formosan snake (banded krait). See bungarotoxins.
Bunyaviridae
Single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) enveloped viruses infecting vertebrates and arthropods. Genome consists of negative sense RNA molecules. Virion spherical or oval, 90-100 m m ...
Burkitt's lymphoma
Malignant tumour of lymphoblasts derived from B-lymphocytes. Most commonly affects children in tropical Africa: both Epstein-Barr virus and immunosuppression due to malarial ...
burr cells
Triangular helmet-shaped cells found in blood, usually indicative of disorders of small blood vessels.
Bursa of Fabricius
A lymphoid tissue found at the junction of the cloaca and the gut of birds giving rise to the so-called B-lymphocyte series.
burst forming unit
(= BFU-E) A bone marrow stem cell lineage detected in culture by its mitotic response to erythropoietin and subsequent erythrocytic differentiation in about 12 mitotic ...
butyric acid
(= CH3.CH2.CH2.COOH) Acid from which butyrate ion is derived. Smells of rancid butter, hence the name.
butyrophilin
Integral membrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily (59 kD) of mammary secretory epithelium. Secreted in association with milk-fat globule membrane. The ...
bystander help
Lymphokine-mediated nonspecific help by T-lymphocytes, stimulated by one antigen, to lymphocytes stimulated by other antigens.
bZip
See basic leucine zipper.
C banding
(= centromeric banding) Method of defining chromosome structure by staining with Giemsa and looking at the banding pattern in the heterochromatin of the centromeric regions. ...
C polysaccharide
(= C substance) Polysaccharide released by pneumococci which contains galactosamine-6-phosphate and phosphoryl choline. C-reactive protein is so called because it will ...
C value paradox
Comparison of the amount of DNA present in the haploid genome of different organisms (the C value) reveals two problems: the value can differ widely between two closely related ...
c-
Prefix used to denote the normal cellular form of, for example, a gene such as src that is also found as a viral gene.
C-EBP
(= CCAAT-enhancer binding protein) Group of transcription factors (alpha-delta) particularly implicated in adipocyte differentiation.
c-myc tag
Epitope tag (EQKLISEEDL) derived from the c-myc protein.
C-proteins
Striated muscle thick filament-associated proteins (140-150 kD) that show up in the C-zone of the A-band as 43nm transverse stripes. Structurally related to various other ...
C-reactive protein
A protein of the pentraxin family found in serum in various disease conditions particularly during the acute phase of immune response. C reactive protein is synthesized by ...
C-region
The parts of the heavy or light chains of immunoglobulin molecules that are of constant sequence, in contrast to variable or V regions. The constancy of sequence is relative ...
c-strand
An abbreviation for the term "complementary strand" used of nucleic acids.
C-subfibre
The third partial microtubule associated with the A- and B- tubules of the outer axonemal doublets in the basal body (and in the centriole) to form a triplet structure.
C-type lectins
One of two classes of lectin produced by animal cells, the other being the S-type. The C-type lectins require disulphide-linked cysteines and Ca2+ ions in order to bind to a ...
C-type virus
Originally C-type particles identified in mouse tumour tissue and later shown to be oncogenic RNA viruses (Oncovirinae) that bud from the plasma membrane of the host cell ...
C1
First component of complement; actually three subcomponents, C1q, C1r and C1s, that form a complex in the presence of calcium ions. C1q, the recognition subunit, has an unusual ...
C1-C9
Proteins of the mammalian complement system. See also under individual numbered components.
C2
Second component of complement. A beta-2-globulin.
C2-kinin
A kinin-like fragment generated from complement C2; causes vasodilation and increased vascular permeability. Distinct from bradykinin.
C3
Third component of complement, present in plasma at around 0.5-1mg ml-1. Both classical and alternate pathways converge at C3, which is cleaved to yield C3a, an anaphylotoxin, ...
C3 plants
Plants that fix CO2 in photosynthesis by the Calvin-Benson cycle. The enzyme responsible for CO2 fixation is RuDP carboxylase, whose products are compounds containing three ...
C3G
Guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that activates Rap1. C3G is involved in signalling from Crk to JNK.
C4
Fourth component of complement, although the third to be activated in the classical pathway. Becomes activated by cleavage (by C1) to C4b, which complexes with C2a to act as a ...
C4 plants
Plants found principally in hot climates whose initial fixation of CO2 in photosynthesis is by the HSK pathway. The enzyme responsible is PEP carboxylase, whose products ...
C5
Fifth component of complement, which is cleaved by C5-convertase to form C5a, a 74-residue anaphylotoxin and potent chemotactic factor for leucocytes, and C5b. C5a rapidly ...
C6
См. C7.
C7
Sixth and seventh components of the complement cascade. Contain EGF-like motifs. See C5 and C9.
C8
Eighth component of complement: three peptide chains, a, b and g.
C9
Ninth component of complement. Complexed with C5b, 6, 7, 8 it forms a potent membranolytic complex (sometimes referred to as the membrane attack complex, MAC). membranes that ...
CAAT box
Nucleotide sequence in many eukaryotic promoters usually about 75bp upstream of the start of transcription. Binds NF-1.
cachectin
Protein produced by macrophages that is responsible for the wasting (cachexia) associated with some tumours. Now known to be identical to tumour necrosis factor (TNF). Has three ...
Caco cells
(= CAC0) Cell line derived from a primary colonic carcinoma of a 72-year-old male Caucasian. Epithelial morphology.
CADASIL
(= cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) Hereditary adult-onset condition causing stroke and dementia, mapped to Chr 19 and ...
cadaverine
(= 1,5-pentanediamine) Substance formed by microbial action in decaying meat and fish by decarboxylation of lysine. The smell can be imagined. Like many of the other diamines ...
cadherins
Integral membrane proteins involved in calcium dependent cell adhesion. There are three types, named after their distributions: N-cadherin (neural) ; E-cadherin (epithelial) ...
Caenorhabditis elegans
Nematode much used in lineage studies since the number of nuclei is determined, and the nervous system is relatively simple. The organism can be maintained axenically and there ...
caerulin
Amphibian peptide hormone related to gastrin and cholecystokinin.
caesium chloride
(= cesium chloride (USA) ) Salt that yields aqueous solutions of high density. When equilibrium has been established between sedimentation and diffusion during ...
caffeine
A xanthine derivative that elevates cAMP levels in cells by inhibiting phosphodiesterases.
caged-ATP
A derivative of ATP that is not biologically active until a photosensitive bond has been cleaved.
Cairns mechanism
A mechanism for the replication of a double-stranded circular DNA molecule. Replication is initiated at a fixed point and proceeds either uni- or bi-directionally.
calbindin
Vitamin-D induced calcium-binding protein (28 kD) found in primate striate cortex and other neuronal tissues. Contains an EF-hand motif.
calcein
A calcium-chelating agent that fluoresces brightly in the presence of bound calcium. The acetomethoxy derivative can be transported into live cells and the reagent is useful as a ...
calcicludine
Polypeptide toxin (60 residues) from Dendroaspis angusticeps. Blocks most high-threshold calcium channels (L-, N- or P-type). Structurally homologous to Kunitz-type serine ...
calciferol
(= vitamin D.)
calcimedins
Annexins.
calcineurin
Calmodulin-stimulated protein-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.16), the major calmodulin-binding protein in brain. Enzymic activity is inhibited by binding of immunophilin-ligand complex ...
calciosome
Now discredited. A membrane compartment proposed to contain the intracellular calcium store released in response to hormonal activity and thought to be distinct from the ER.
calciseptine
Polypeptide toxin (60 residues) from Dendroaspis polylepis. Specific blocker of some L-type calcium channels that will cause relaxation of smooth muscle and inhibition of ...
calcitonin
A polypeptide hormone produced by C-cells of the thyroid that causes a reduction of calcium ions in the blood.
calcitonin family peptides
(= ADM; CGRP1; CGRP2; amylin; calcitonin) Family of small (32-51 residue) highly homologous peptides that act through seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors. ...
calcitonin gene related peptide
(= CGRP) Neuropeptide of 37 amino acids with structural homology to salmon calcitonin. Co-localizes with substance P in neurons. Intracerebral administration of CGRP leads ...
calcitriol
(= 1a, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3.) The form of vitamin D3 that is biologically active in intestinal transport and calcium resorption by bone.
calcium ATPase
Usually used of the calcium-pumping ATPase present in high concentration as an integral membrane protein of the sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle. This pump lowers the ...
calcium binding proteins
There are two main groups of calcium-binding proteins, those that are similar to calmodulin, and are called EF-hand proteins, and those that bind calcium and phospholipid (eg. ...
calcium channel
Membrane channel that is specific for calcium. Probably the best characterized is the voltage-gated channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum which is ryanodine-sensitive. See ...
calcium current
Inflow of calcium ions through specific calcium channels. Critically important in release of transmitter substance from presynaptic terminals.

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