Слова на букву baro-cata (375) Dictionary of molecular biology
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EN-DE-FR →  Dictionary of molecular biology →  1.00-amph amph-barn baro-cata cata-conn conn-dipl dipt-exci exci-gene gene-high high-isop isop-macr macu-mucu muel-nucl nucl-pers pert-prom pron-rici rici-stab stac-toga tolb-west


Слова на букву baro-cata (375)

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calcium dependent regulator protein
(= CDRP) Early name for calmodulin.
calcium pump
A transport protein responsible for moving calcium out of the cytoplasm. See calcium ATPase.
calcivirus
Genus of Picornaviridae.
calcyclin
Prolactin receptor associated protein, one of a family of small (around 10 kD) calcium-binding proteins containing the EF-hand motif, originally isolated from Erlich ascites ...
calcyphosin
(= thyroid protein p24) Calcium binding protein that contains an EF-hand motif.
caldesmon
Protein originally isolated from smooth muscle (h-caldesmon; 120-150 kD on gels but 88.7 kD from sequence) also found in non-muscle cells (l-caldesmon; 70-80 kD on gels but ...
calelectrins
Membrane-associated proteins (70 kD and 32 kD) of the annexin family. Originally from Torpedo, but subsequently found in bovine liver. May regulate exocytosis.
calgranulins
Calcium binding myeloid-associated proteins (8 kD and 14 kD; also known as p8,14 and as MRP-8, MRP-14) expressed at high levels in neutrophils and monocytes but lost during ...
calitoxin
Small toxic peptide (46 residues) from sea anemone Calliactis parasitica that acts on neuronal sodium channels.
Calliactis parasitica
Sea anemone (an anthozoan coelenterate) that lives commensally with hermit crabs. See calitoxin.
callose
A plant cell-wall polysaccharide (a b-(1-3)-glucan) found in phloem sieve plates, wounded tissue, pollen tubes, cotton fibres, and certain other specialized cells.
callus
(1) Bot. Undifferentiated plant tissue produced at wound edge - callus tissue can be grown in vitro and induced to differentiate by varying the ratio of the hormones auxin and ...
calmidazolium
(= Compound R24571) Inhibitor of calmodulin-regulated enzymes; also blocks sodium channel and voltage-gated calcium channel.
calmodulin
Ubiquitous and highly conserved calcium binding protein (17 kD) with four EF-hand binding sites for calcium (3 in yeast). Ancestor of troponin C, leiotonin C, and parvalbumin.
calnexin
Calcium-binding lectin-like protein (67 kD, 592 residues) of endoplasmic reticulum that couples glycosylation of newly synthesized proteins with their folding. Calnexin and ...
calpactins
Calcium-binding proteins from cytoplasm. Calpactin II is identical to lipocortin, and is one of the major targets for phosphorylation by pp60src. See annexin
calpain
Calcium-activated cytoplasmic proteases containing the EF-hand motif. Calpain I is activated by micromolar calcium, Calpain II by millimolar calcium. Calpain has two subunits, ...
calpastatin
Cytoplasmic inhibitor of calcium activated protease, calpain.
calphobindins
Annexins V and VI (35 kD) found in placenta. Have substantial sequence homology with lipocortin and may function like calelectrin.
calphostin C
One of a group of compounds isolated from Cladosporium cladosporioides that will inhibit protein kinase C with some specificity, though inhibits other classes of kinases if ...
calponin
Calcium and calmodulin binding troponin T-like protein (34 kD) isolated from chicken gizzard and bovine aortic smooth muscle. Interacts with F-actin and tropomyosin in a ...
calregulin
See calreticulin
calreticulin
(= calregulin) Calcium-binding protein of the endoplasmic reticulum. Acts as a chaperone for newly synthesized proteins, possibly in conjunction with calnexin. May be more ...
calretinin
Neuronal protein (29 kD) of the calmodulin family isolated from chick retina. Has 58% sequence homology with calbindin, the intestinal cell isoform. Contains an EF-hand ...
calsequestrin
Protein (44 kD) found in the cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum: sequesters calcium.
calspectin
Non-erythroid spectrin.
calspermin
High affinity calcium/calmodulin binding protein found in postmeiotic male germ cells. Represents the C-terminal 169 amino acids of protein kinase IV and is produced from a ...
caltractin
Calcium-binding (EF-hand) protein (20 kD) from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Major component of the contractile striated rootlet system that links basal bodies to the nucleus in ...
caltrin
Inhibitor of calcium ion transport found in bovine seminal plasma (47 amino acids, MW 5411, on gels 10 kD app.) and that resembles seminal antibacterial protein (confusingly ...
calvarium
One of the bones that makes up the vault of the skull (in humans these are the frontal, 2 parietals, occipital, and 2 temporals). Calvaria are often used in organ culture to ...
Calvin-Benson cycle
(= Calvin cycle) Metabolic pathway responsible for photosynthetic CO2 fixation in plants and bacteria. The enzyme that fixes CO2 is RuDP carboxylase. The cycle is the only ...
calyculin A
Toxin from marine sponge, Discodermia calyx ; potent tumour promoter and an inhibitor of protein phosphatases of Types 1 and 2a.
CAM
See crassulacean acid metabolism or cell adhesion molecule.
CaM kinase II
(= calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II; CaMKII) A multi-substrate calcium-sensitive kinase composed of four homologous subunits, a, b, g, d, all encoded by different genes. ...
cambium
Bot. Meristematic plant tissue, commonly present as a thin layer which forms new cells on both sides. Located either in vascular tissue (vascular cambium), forming xylem on one ...
camera lucida
Attachment for a microscope that permits both a view of the object and, simultaneously, of the viewer&’s hand and drawing implement, thus facilitating accurate drawing of the ...
CaMKI
(= calmodulin-dependent kinase I) Calcium-regulated kinase (37-42 kD) that is known to phosphorylate synapsins, CREB and CFTR. Widely distributed. See CaMKII.
cAMP
Common abbreviation for cyclic AMP.
cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site
Both cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases phosphorylate exposed serine or threonine residues near at least two consecutive N-terminal basic residues, with a consensus ...
camptothecin
Cytotoxic plant alkaloid originally isolated from Camptotheca acuminata. Anti-cancer drug, inhibits DNA topoisomerase I.
Campylobacter
Genus of Gram negative microaerophilic motile bacteria with a single flagellum at one or both poles. Found in reproductive and intestinal tracts of mammals. Common cause of food ...
canaliculi
In bone, channels that run through the calcified matrix between lacunae containing osteocytes. In liver, small channels between hepatocytes through which bile flows to the bile ...
cancellous bone
Adult bone consisting of mineralized regularly-ordered parallel collagen fibres more loosely organized than the lamellar bone of the shaft of adult long bones. Found in the end ...
cancer
Originally descriptive of breast carcinoma, now a general term for diseases caused by any type of malignant tumour.
cancer susceptibility gene
See tumour suppressor gene.
Candida albicans
A dimorphic fungus that is an opportunistic pathogen of humans (causing candidiasis).
candidiasis
Infection by Candida albicans, common on mucous membranes ("Thrush"), but in immunosuppressed patients can opportunistically infect many tissues.
cannabinoid
Group of compounds, all derivatives of 2-(2-isopropyl-5-methylphenyl) -5-pentylresorcinol, found in cannabis. Most important members of the group are cannabidiol, cannabidol and ...
cannabinoid receptors
(= CB1, CB2) Seven membrane-spanning G-protein-coupled receptors for cannabinoids (and endogenous agonists such as anandamide). CB1 receptors are mostly found in brain and may ...
canonical
Classical, archetypal or prototypic. For example, the canonical polyadenylation sequence is AATAAA.
CAP
(= catabolite gene activator protein) Protein from E. coli that regulates the expression of genes for the use of alternative carbon sources if glucose is not available. For ...
cap binding protein
Protein (24 kD) with affinity for cap structure at 5\'-end of mRNA that probably assists, together with other initiation factors, in binding the mRNA to the 40S ribosomal ...
CAP proteins
CAP1 = FADD; CAP2 = hyperphosphorylated FADD; CAP3 = unknown; CAP4 = pro-FLICE; CAP5, CAP6 = cleaved prodomains of FLICE.
CAP-18
Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (18 kD) isolated from rabbit neutrophils. May mediate interaction of antimicrobial protegrins with surfaces of Gram negative bacteria.
capacitance flicker
Brief closings of an ion channel during its open phases, observed during patch clamp; or rapid transition of an ion channel between open and closed states such that the ...
capacitation
A process occurring in mammalian sperm after exposure to secretions in the female genital tract. Surface changes take place probably involved with the acrosome which are ...
capillary
The small blood vessels that link arterioles with venules. Lumen may be formed within a single endothelial cell, and have a diameter less than that of an erythrocyte, which ...
capnine
Sulphonolipid isolated from the envelope of the Cytophaga/Flexibacter group of Gram negative bacteria. The acetylated form of capnine seems to be necessary for gliding ...
capping
(1) Movement of cross-linked cell-surface material to the posterior region of a moving cell, or to the perinuclear region. (2) The intracellular accumulation of intermediate ...
capsaicin
(= 8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) Molecule in chilli peppers that makes them hot and will stimulate release of neurogenic peptides (Substance P, neurokinins) from sensory ...
capsazepine
Competitive capsaicin antagonist.
Capsicum
Genus that includes red peppers, pimentoes and green peppers. See capsaicin.
capsid
A protein coat that covers the nucleoprotein core or nucleic acid of a virion. Commonly shows icosahedral symmetry and may itself be enclosed in an envelope (as in the ...
capsomeres
See capsid.
capsule
Bact. Thick gel-like material attached to the wall of Gram positive or Gram negative bacteria, giving colonies a "smooth" appearance. May contribute to pathogenicity by ...
capZ
Microfilament capping protein (32-36 kD) found in Dictyostelium and Acanthamoeba and that binds to the barbed ends of thin filaments in the Z-disc of striated muscle. ...
Carassius auratus
The goldfish, one of the carp family.
carbachol
(= carbamoyl choline) Parasympathomimetic drug formed by substituting the acetyl of acetylcholine with a carbamoyl group; acts on both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine ...
carbamoyl
Acyl group, -CO-NH2.
carbamoylcholine
See carbachol.
carbamyl
(= carbamoyl) Obsolete: use carbamoyl.
carbohydrates
Very abundant compounds with the general formula Cn(H2O) n. The smallest are monosaccharides like glucose; polysaccharides (eg. starch, cellulose, glycogen) can be large and ...
carboxyglutamate
(= g-carboxyglutamate) An amino acid found in some proteins, particularly those that bind calcium. Formed by post-translational carboxylation of glutamate.
carboxypeptidase
Enzymes (particularly of pancreas) that remove the C-terminal amino acid from a protein or peptide. Carboxypeptidase A, (EC 3.4.17.1) will remove any amino acid; carboxypeptidase ...
carboxysome
Inclusion body (polyhedral body; 90-500nm diameter) found in some Cyanobacteria and autotrophic bacteria; contains ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (RUBISCO) and is involved ...
carcinoembryonic antigen
Antigen found in blood of patients suffering from cancer of colon and some other diseases, that is otherwise normally found in foetal gut tissue.
carcinogen
An agent capable of initiating development of malignant tumours. May be a chemical, a form of electromagnetic radiation, or an inert solid body.
carcinogenesis
The generation of cancer from normal cells, correctly the formation of a carcinoma from epithelial cells, but often used synonymously with transformation, tumorigenesis.
carcinoid
Intestinal tumour arising from specialized cells with paracrine functions (APUD cells), also known as argentaffinoma. The primary tumour is commonly in the appendix, where it ...
carcinoma
Malignant neoplasia of an epithelial cell: by far the commonest type of tumour. Those arising from glandular tissue are often called adenocarcinomas. Carcinoma cells tend to be ...
carcinosarcoma
A mixed tumour with features of both carcinoma and sarcoma.
cardiac cell
Strictly speaking any cell of or derived form the cardium of the heart, but often used loosely of heart cells.
cardiac glycoside
Specific blockers of the > especially of heart muscle, eg. strophanthin.
cardiac jelly
Gelatinous extracellular material that lies between endocardium and myocardium in the embryo.
cardiac muscle
See muscle.
cardiolipin
A diphosphatidyl glycerol that is found in the membrane of Treponema pallidum and is the antigen detected by the Wasserman test for syphilis.
cardiotrophin-1
(= CT-1) Cytokine (201 amino acids) belonging to the IL-6 cytokine family. Binds to hepatocyte cell lines and induces synthesis of various acute phase proteins, is a potent ...
cardiovirus
Genus of viruses belonging to the Family Picornaviridae, isolated mostly from rodents, cause encephalitis and myocarditis.
carditis
Inflammation of the heart, including pericarditis, myocarditis and endocarditis, according to whether the enveloping outer membrane, the muscle or the inner lining is ...
carnitine
(= b-hydroxy-b-trimethyl-aminobutyric acid) Compound that transports long chain fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane in the form of acyl-carnitine. Sometimes ...
carnosine
(= b-Ala-His) Dipeptide found at millimolar concentration in vertebrate muscle.
Carnoy
Fixative containing ethanol, chloroform and acetic acid. Better for nuclear structure than for cytoplasm.
carotenes
Hydrocarbon carotenoids usually with 9 conjugated double bonds. Beta-carotene is the precursor of Vitamin A, each molecule giving rise to two Vitamin A molecules.
carotenoids
Accessory lipophilic photosynthetic pigments in plants and bacteria, including carotenes and xanthophylls; red, orange or yellow, with broad absorption peaks at 450-480nm. Act ...
carotid body cell
Cells derived from the neural crest, involved in sensing pH and oxygen tension of the blood.
carrageenan
(= carrageenin) Sulphated cell-wall polysaccharide found in certain red algae. Contains repeating sulphated disaccharides of galactose and (sometimes) anhydrogalactose. It is ...
cartilage
Connective tissue dominated by extracellular matrix containing collagen type II and large amounts of proteoglycan, particularly chondroitin sulphate. Cartilage is more ...
Cas
(= p130Cas) Protein encoded by Crkas gene (Crkassociated protein). Adaptor molecule with SH3 domain, multiple YXXP motifs and proline-rich region. Involved in induction of ...
casein
Group of proteins isolated from milk. as and b-caseins are amphipathic polypeptides of around 200 amino acids with substantial hydrophobic C-terminal domains that associate to ...
casein kinase
(= CKII) Casein kinase II is thought to regulate a broad range of transcription factors in which it binds the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) DNA-binding domains. CKII is present ...
casein kinase II phosphorylation site
Casein kinase II phosphorylates exposed Ser or sometimes Thr residues, provided that an acidic residue is present three residues from the phosphate acceptor site. Consensus ...
caseous necrosis
(= caseation) The development of a necrotic centre (with a cheesy appearance) in a tuberculous lesion.
Casparian band
Region of plant-cell wall specialized to act as a seal to prevent back-leakage of secreted material (analogous to tight junctionbetween epithelial cells). Found particularly ...
caspases
Family of proteases involved in processing of IL-1 b and in apoptosis.
cassette
A pre-existing structure into which an insert can be moved. Fashionably used to refer to certain vectors.
cassette mechanism
Term used for genes such as the a and b genes that determine mating-type in yeast; either one or the other is active. In this gene conversion process, a double-stranded ...
castanospermine
Alkaloid inhibitor of a -glucosidase I of which the effect is to leave N-linked oligosaccharides in their "high-mannose", unmodified state.
Castleman&’s disease
Disease characterized by lymph node swelling, hypergammaglobulinaemia, increased levels of acute phase proteins and increased numbers of platelets. Probably caused by excess ...
CAT
See chloramphenicol acetyltransferase.
catabolin
Protein, later shown to be interleukin-1 IL-1, that stimulates the breakdown of connective tissue extracellular matrix.

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