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Слова на букву cata-conn (375)

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catabolism
The sum of all degradative processes, the opposite of anabolism.
catabolite
Product of catabolism, the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones.
catabolite repression
Inducible enzyme systems in some microorganisms (such as the lac operon) that are repressed when a more favoured carbon source, such as glucose, is available. Repression in E. ...
catalase
Tetrameric haem enzyme (EC 1.11.1.6; 245kD) that breaks down hydrogen peroxide.
catalytic antibody
(= abenzyme) Antibody raised against a transition-state analogue (eg. a phosphate analogue of a carboxylic acid ester transition state) that can then catalyse the analogous ...
catalytic RNA
Species of RNA that catalyse cleavage or transesterification of the phosphodiester linkage. Operates in the self-splicing of group I and group II introns and in the maturation ...
cataract
Opacity of the lens of the eye.
catch muscle
See adductor muscle.
catecholamine
A type of biogenic amine derived from tyramine, characterized as alkylamino derivatives of o -dihydroxybenzene. Catecholamines include adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, ...
catenate
Two or more circular DNA molecules where one or more circles run through the enclosed space of another like links in a chain.
catenins
Proteins associated with the cytoplasmic domain of uvomorulin and presumably involved in linking to the cytoskeleton. ( a -catenin 102 kD; b -catenin 88 kD; g -catenin 80 kD)
cathelin
Protein (11 kD) isolated from porcine neutrophils that was originally described as being a cysteine protease inhibitor though subsequent reports have suggested that this is due ...
cathepsins
Intracellular proteolytic enzymes of animal tissues, such as cathepsin B (EC 3.4.22.1), a lysosomal thiol proteinase; C, dipeptidyl peptidase, (EC 3.4.14.1) ; D, (EC 3.4.23.5) ...
cationic proteins
Proteins of azurophil granules of neutrophils, rich in arginine. A chymotrypsin-like protease found in azurophil granules is also very cationic as is cathepsin G and ...
cationized ferritin
Ferritin, treated with dimethyl propanediamine, and used to show, in the electron microscope, the distribution of negative charge on the surface of a cell. The amount of cationic ...
caudate nucleus
The most frontal of the basal ganglia in the brain. Damage to caudate neurons is characteristic of Huntington&’s chorea and other motor disorders.
Caulobacter
Genus of Gram negative aerobic bacteria that have a stalk or holdfast. Found in soil and fresh water.
caveola
(= caveolae (plural) ) Small invagination of the plasma membrane characteristic of many mammalian cells and associated with endocytosis. The membrane of caveolae contain ...
caveolin
Family of integral membrane proteins including VIP21-caveolin, M-caveolin (from muscle), some of which are tissue specific, and that are associated with caveolae.
Cavia porcellas
Guinea pig.
cbl
Oncogene of a murine retrovirus that induces lymphomas and leukaemias. Protein has N-terminal transforming region with phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain and C-terminal ...
CBP
See CREB binding protein.
CC10
See uteroglobin.
CCAAT box
Consensus sequence for RNA polymerase, found at about -80 bases relative to the transcription start site. Less well conserved than the TATA box.
CCCP
(= m-chloro-carbonylcyanide-phenylhydrazine) An uncoupling agentthat dissipates proton gradients across membranes.
CCK
(= cholecystokinin) Polypeptide hormone (33 residues) secreted by the duodenum. Stimulates secretion of digestive enzymes by the pancreas and contraction of the gall bladder. ...
CD antigens
См. cdc genes.
cdc genes
Cell division cycle genes, of which many have now been defined, especially in yeasts. See cyclin. The cyclin dependent kinases are also known as cdc2 kinases.
CDEP
Human protein containing ezrin-like domain of Band 4.1 superfamily and also DH domain. Found in differentiated chondrocytes and various foetal and adult tissues.
cdk
See cyclin-dependent kinases.
cDNA
(= complementary DNA) Viral reverse transcriptase can be used to synthesize DNA that is complementary to RNA (eg. an isolated mRNA). The cDNA can be used, for example, as a ...
CDP
See cytidine 5\' diphosphate.
CDRP
See calmodulin.
CEA
See carcinoembryonic antigen.
cecropin
One of a group of inducible anti-bacterial proteins purified and characterized from Hyalophora cecropia (silkmoth) pupae, and now found in several other species of endopterygote ...
ced mutant
Genes identified in Caenorhabditis elegans after studies of developmental mutations in which cells did not die when expected. ced ("cell death") genes are thus thought to be ...
celiac
See coeliac.
cell
An autonomous self-replicating unit (in principle) that may constitute an organism (in the case of unicellular organisms) or be a subunit of multicellular organisms in which ...
cell adhesion
See adhesins, cadherins, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), contact sites A, DLVO theory, integrins, sorting out, uvomorulin and various specialized junctions (adherens ...
cell adhesion molecule
Although this could mean any molecule involved in cellular adhesive phenomena, it has acquired a more restricted sense, namely a molecule on the surface of animal tissue cells, ...
cell behaviour
General term for activities of whole cells such as movement, adhesion and proliferation, by analogy with animal behaviour.
cell body
Used in reference to neurons; the main part of the cell around the nucleus excluding long processes such as axons and dendrites.
cell centre
Microtubule organizing centre (MTOC) of the cell, the pericentriolar region.
cell culture
General term referring to the maintenance of cell strains or lines in the laboratory.
cell cycle
The sequence of events between mitotic divisions. The cycle is conventionally divided into G0, G1, (G standing for gap), S (synthesis phase during which the DNA is replicated), ...
cell death
Cells die (non-accidentally) either when they have completed a fixed number of division cycles (around 60; the Hayflick limit) or at some earlier stage when programmed to do so, ...
cell division
The separation of one cell into two daughter cells, involving both nuclear division (mitosis) and subsequent cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis).
cell electrophoresis
Method for estimating the surface charge of a cell by looking at its rate of movement in an electrical field; almost all eukaryotic cells have a net negative surface charge. ...
cell fate
Of an embryonic parent (progenitor) cell or cell type, the range and distribution of differentiated tissues formed by its daughter cells. For example, cells of the neural crest ...
cell fractionation
Strictly this should mean the separation of homogeneous sets from a heterogeneous population of cells (by a method such as flow cytometry), but the term is more frequently used ...
cell free system
Any system in which a normal cellular reaction is reconstituted in the absence of cells - for example, in vitro translation systems that will synthesize protein from mRNA ...
cell fusion
Fusion of two previously separate cells occurs naturally in fertilization and in the formation of vertebrate skeletal muscle, but can be induced artificially by the use of ...
cell growth
Usually used to mean increase in the size of a population of cells though strictly should be reserved for an increase in cytoplasmic volume of an individual cell.
cell junctions
Specialized junctions between cells. See adherens junctions, desmosomes, tight junctions, gap junctions.
cell line
A cell line is a permanently established cell culture that will proliferate indefinitely given appropriate fresh medium and space. Lines differ from cell strains in that they ...
cell lineage
The lineage of a cell relates to its derivation from the undifferentiated tissues of the embryo. Committed embryonic progenitors give rise to a range of differentiated cells: in ...
cell locomotion
Movement of a cell from one place to another.
cell mediated immunity
Immune response that involves effector T-lymphocytes and not the production of humoral antibody. Responsible for allograft rejection, delayed hypersensitivity and in defence ...
cell membrane
Rather imprecise term usually intended to mean plasma membrane.
cell migration
Implies movement of a population of cells from one place to another - as in the movement of neural crest cells during morphogenesis.
cell movement
A more general term than locomotion, that can include shape-change, cytoplasmic streaming etc.
cell plate
Region in which the new cell wall forms after the division of a plant cell. In the plane of the equator of the spindle a disc-like structure, the phragmoplast forms, into ...
cell polarity
(1) In epithelial cells the differentiation of apical and basal specializations. In many epithelia the apical and basolateral regions of plasma membrane differ in lipid and ...
cell proliferation
Increase in cell number by division.
cell recognition
Interaction between cells that is possibly dependent upon specific adhesion. Since the mechanism is not entirely clear in most cases, the term should be used with caution.
cell renewal
Replacement of cells, for example those in the skin, by the proliferative activity of basal stem cells.
cell sap
Effectively equivalent to the term " cytosol".
cell signalling
Release by one cell of substances that transmit information to other cells.
cell sorting
The process or processes whereby mixed populations of cells, eg. in a reaggregate, separate out into two or more populations that usually occupy different parts of the same ...
cell strain
Cells adapted to culture, but with finite division potential. See cell line.
cell synchronization
A process of obtaining (either by selection, or imposition of a reversible blockade) a population of growing cells that are to a greater or lesser extent in phase with each other ...
cell wall
Extracellular material serving a structural role. In plants the primary wall is pectin-rich, the secondary wall mostly composed of cellulose. In bacteria, cell wall structure ...
cell-surface marker
Any molecule characteristic of the plasma membrane of a cell or in some cases of a specific cell type. 5\'-nucleotidase and Na+/K+ ATPase are often used as plasma membrane ...
cellobiose
Reducing disaccharide composed of two D-glucose moieties b -1,4 linked. The disaccharide subunit of cellulose, though not found as a free compound in vivo.
cellubrevin
Protein involved in regulating vesicle fusion. Has 60% sequence identity with synaptobrevin (VAMP-2) and is a target for tetanus toxin.
cellular engineering
The use of techniques for constructing replacement or additional or experimental parts of cells and tissues for both fundamental investigation and as prosthetic devices. Often ...
cellular immunity
Immune response that involves enhanced activity by phagocytic cells and does not imply lymphocyte involvement. Since the term is easily confused with cell mediated immunity its ...
cellular retinoic acid-binding protein
(= CRABP) A cytoplasmic fatty acid binding protein that acts as an initial receptor for the putative morphogen, retinoic acid.
cellular slime mould
See Acrasidae.
cellulases
Enzymes that break down cellulose, and are involved in cell-wall breakdown in higher plants, especially during abscission. Produced in large amounts by certain fungi and ...
cellulitis
Inflammation of the subcutaneous connective tissues (dermis), mostly affecting face or limbs. Streptococcus pyogenesis commonly the causative agent. Also known as erysipelas.
cellulose
A straight chain polysaccharide composed of b(1-4)-linked glucose subunits. A major component of plant cell walls where it is found as microfibrils laid down in orthogonal ...
cellusome
A cellulose-binding, cellulase-containing, cell surface organelle in certain prokaryotes.
cenocyte
See coenocyte.
CENP antigens
Proteins of the kinetochore (CENP-A 27 kD, CENP-B 80 kD, CENP-C 140 kD and CENP-D 50 kD) that react strongly with antibodies from CREST sera.
centractin
An actin homologue (50% homology with muscle actin, 70% if conservative substitutions are taken into account) associated with the vertebrate centrosome. Highly conserved ...
central lymphoid tissue
See lymphoid tissue.
central nervous system
In vertebrates, the brain and spinal cord. In invertebrates, the CNS is composed of the segmental ganglia of the ventral nerve cord together with the fused ganglia or brain at ...
centrifugation
The process of separating fractions of systems in a centrifuge. The most basic separation is to sediment a pellet at the bottom of the tube, leaving a supernatant at a given ...
centrins
Acidic phosphoproteins (20 kD), homologous to caltractin, found in striated flagella roots of various flagellated algae, centrosomal region of some mammalian cells and basal ...
centriolar region
See pericentriolar region or centrosome.
centriole
Organelle of animal cells that is made up of two orthogonally arranged cylinders each with nine microtubule triplets composing the wall. Almost identical to basal body of ...
centromere
The region in eukaryote chromosomes where daughter chromatids are joined together. The kinetochore, to which the spindle chromosomes are attached, lies adjacent to the ...
centrophilin
A microtubule-binding protein identified by the production of monoclonal antibodies raised against isolated centromeres. In mitotic cells centrophilin is not restricted to the ...
centrosome
The microtubule organizing centre which, in animal cells, surrounds the centriole, and which will divide to organize the two poles of the mitotic spindle. By directing the ...
centrosphere
Alternative (rare) name for centrosome.
Centruroides margaritatus
Scorpion. See margaratoxin.
Centruroides noxius
Scorpion. See noxiustoxin.
Cepaea
Genus of land snails. Two species, C. hortensis and C. nemoralis have been much studied as convenient examples of polymorphism in colour and banding pattern.
cephalosporin
Tetracyclic triterpene antibiotics isolated from culture filtrates of the fungus Cephalosporium sp. Effective against Gram positive bacteria.
ceramide
An N-acyl sphingosine, the lipid moiety of glycosphingolipids.
cercidosome
Specialized organelle of trypanosomes, site of terminal oxidative metabolism.
cerebellum
Part of the vertebrate hindbrain, concerned primarily with somatic motor function, the control of muscle tone and the maintenance of balance. Important model for cell migration ...
cerebroside
Glycolipid found in brain (11% of dry matter). Sphingosine core with fatty amide or hydroxy fatty amide and a single monosaccharide on the alcohol group (either glucose or ...
cereolysin
Cytolytic (haemolytic) toxin released by Bacillus cereus. Inactivated by oxygen, reactivated by thiol reduction (hence thiol-activated cytolysin). Binds to cholesterol in the ...
ceruloplasmin
A blue copper-containing dehydrogenase protein (135 kD) found in serum (200-500 m g/ml). Apparently involved in copper detoxification and storage, and possibly also in mopping ...
cesium chloride
See caesium chloride.
CFTR
See cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.
CFU-E
Colony forming unit for cell lines of erythrocytes.
CG island
(= CpG island) Region of genomic DNA rich in CG dinucleotides. Frequently found near genes that are transcribed at high level.
cGMP
See cyclic GMP.
CGRP
See calcitonin gene related peptide.
chaeotropic
(= chaotropic) An agent that causes chaos, usually in the sense of disrupting or denaturing macromolecules. For example, iodide is often used in protein chemistry to break up and ...
chaetoglobosins
Chaetoglobosin J is a fungal metabolite related to cytochalasins that will inhibit elongation at the barbed end of an actin microfilament. Chaetoglobosin A is produced by ...
chalone
Cell-released tissue-specific inhibitor of cell proliferation thought to be responsible for regulating the size of a population of cells. Contentious.
Chang liver cells
Derived from non-malignant human tissue. Extensively used in virology and biochemistry. Cells epithelial in morphology and grow to high density.
channel gating
See gating current.
channel protein
A protein that facilitates the diffusion of molecules/ions across lipid membranes by forming a hydrophilic pore. Most frequently multimeric with the pore formed by subunit ...
channel-forming ionophore
An ionophore that makes an amphipathic pore with hydrophobic exterior and hydrophilic interior. Most known types are cation selective.
Chaos chaos
Giant multinucleate fresh-water amoeba (up to 5mm long) much used for studies on the mechanism of cell locomotion.
chaperones
Cytoplasmic proteins of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes (and organelles such as mitochondria) that bind to nascent or unfolded polypeptides and ensure correct folding or ...
chaperonins
Subset of chaperone proteins found in prokaryotes, mitochondria and plastids - major example is prokaryotic GroEL (the eukaryotic equivalent of which is hsp60).
CHAPS
(= 3-((3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio) -1-propane sulphonate) Zwitterionic detergent used for membrane solubilization.
Chara
See Characean algae.
Characean algae
(= Charophyceae) Class of filamentous green algae exemplified by the genus Chara, in which the mitotic spindle is not surrounded by a nuclear envelope. Probably the closest ...
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
Hereditary degenerative motor and sensory neuropathy affecting peripheral nerves and inherited as an autosomal dominant.
chartins
Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) of 64, 67 and 80 kD, distinct from tau protein. Isolated from neuroblastoma cells. They are regulated by nerve growth factor (NGF) and ...
charybdotoxin
Peptide (37 residues) isolated from Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus (scorpion) venom that is a selective blocker of high conductance Ca2+-activated K+ -channel.
checkerboard assay
Variant of the Boyden chamber assay for leucocyte chemotaxis introduced by Zigmond. By testing different concentrations of putative chemotactic factor in non-gradient ...
checkpoint
Any stage in the cell cycle at which the cycle can be halted and entry into the next phase postponed. Two major checkpoints are at the G1/S and G2/M boundaries. These are the ...
Chediak-Higashi syndrome
Autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the presence of giant lysosomal vesicles in phagocytes and in consequence poor bactericidal function. Some perturbation of ...
chelation
Binding of a metal ion by a larger molecule such as EDTA or protein (iron in haem is held as a chelate). The binding is strong but reversible and chelating agents can be used ...
chemical potential
The work required (in J mol-1) to bring a molecule from a standard state (usually infinitely separated in a vacuum) to a specified concentration. More usually employed as ...
chemical synapse
A nerve-nerve or nerve-muscle junction where the signal is transmitted by release from one membrane of a chemical transmitter that binds to a receptor in the second membrane. ...
chemiluminescence
Light emitted as a reaction proceeds. Becoming used increasingly to assay ATP (using firefly luciferase) and the production of toxic oxygen species by activated phagocytes ...
chemiosmosis
A theoretical mechanism (proposed by Mitchell) to explain energy transduction in the mitochondrion. As a general mechanism it is the coupling of one enzyme-catalysed reaction ...
chemiosmotic hypothesis
See chemiosmosis
chemoattractant
A substance that elicits accumulation of cells.
chemoattraction
Non-committal description of cellular response to a diffusible chemical - not necessarily by a tactic response. Term preferable to " chemotaxis" when the mechanism is unknown.
chemoautotroph
(= chemotroph) Chemotrophic autotroph. Organism in which energy is obtained from endogenous light-independent reactions involving inorganic molecules.
chemodynesis
Induction of cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells by chemicals rather than by light (photodynesis).
chemokine receptors
Chemokine receptors are G-protein-linked serpentine receptors that, in addition to binding chemokines, are used as co-receptors for the binding of immunodeficiency viruses ...
chemokines
Small secreted proteins that stimulate chemotaxis of leucocytes. Chemokines can be subdivided into classes on the basis of conserved cysteine residues. The a -chemokines (IL-8, ...
chemokinesis
A response by a motile cell to a soluble chemical that involves an increase or decrease in speed (positive or negative orthokinesis) or of frequency of movement, or a change in ...
chemolithotroph
Alternative name for a chemoautotroph.
chemoreceptor
A cell or group of cells specialized for responding to chemical substances in the environment.
chemorepellant
Opposite of chemoattractant.
chemostat
Apparatus for maintaining a bacterial population in the exponential phase of growth by regulating the input of a rate-limiting nutrient and the removal of medium and cells.
chemosynthesis
Synthesis of organic compounds by an organism using energy derived from oxidation of inorganic molecules rather than light (see chemotrophy and photosynthesis).
chemotactic
See chemotaxis.
chemotaxis
A response of motile cells or organisms in which the direction of movement is affected by the gradient of a diffusible substance. Differs from chemokinesis in that the gradient ...
chemotherapy
Treatment of a disease with drugs that are designed to kill the causative organism or, in the case of tumours, the abnormal cells.
chemotrophy
Systems of metabolism in which energy is derived from endogenous chemical reactions rather than from food or light-energy, eg. in deep-sea hot-spring organisms.
chemotropism
Growth or possibly bending of an organism in response to an external chemical gradient. Sometimes used in error when the terms chemotaxis or chemokinesis should have been used. ...
CHF
See chick heart fibroblasts.
chi-squared
(= c-squared) Common statistical test to determine whether the observed values of a variable are significantly different from those expected on the basis of a null hypothesis.
chiasma
(= chiasmata (plural) ) Junction points between non-sister chromatids at the first diplotene of meiosis, the consequence of a crossing-over event between maternal and ...
chick heart fibroblasts
The cells that emigrate from an explant of embryonic chick heart maintained in culture. Often used as archetypal normal cell.
chimera
Organism composed of two genetically distinct types of cells. Can be formed by the fusion of two early blastula stage embryos or by the reconstitution of the bone marrow in an ...
Chinese hamster ovary cells
(= CHO cells) Cell line that is often used for growing viruses or for transfection;
Chironomus
Genus of flies (midges). Larvae live in fresh water and have been much studied because of the giant polytene chromosomes in the salivary glands; haemolymphcontains haemoglobin ...
chitin
Polymer (b-1,4 linked) of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, extensively cross-linked and the major structural component of arthropod exoskeletons and fungal cell walls. Widely distributed ...
chitinase
Enzyme (EC 3.2.1.14) that catalyses the hydrolysis of 1,4- b linkages of chitin.
chitosan
A polymer of 1-4- b -D-glucosamine found in the cell wall of some fungi.
chitosome
Membrane-bound vesicular organelle (40-70nm diameter) found in many fungi. Contains chitin sythetase that produces chitin microfibrils that are released and incorporated into ...
Chlamydia
Genus of minute prokaryotes that replicate in cytoplasmic vacuoles within susceptible eukaryotic cells. Genome about one-third that of E. coli. C. trachomatis causes trachoma ...
Chlamydomonas
A genus of unicellular green algae, usually flagellated. Easily grown in the laboratory and have often been used in studies on flagellar function - a range of paralysed ...
chloragosome
Cytoplasmic granule of unknown function found in the coelomocytes of annelids.
chloramphenicol
An antibiotic from Streptomycetes venezuelae that inhibits protein synthesis in prokaryotes and in mitochondria and chloroplasts by acting on the 50S ribosomal subunit. It is ...
chloramphenicol acetyltransferase
Enzyme that inactivates the antibiotic chloramphenicol by acetylation. Widely used as a reporter gene.
Chlorella
Genus of green unicellular algae extensively used in studies of photosynthesis.
chlorenchyma
Form of parenchyma tissue active in photosynthesis, in which the cells contain many chloroplasts; found especially in leaf mesophyll.
chloride channel
Ion channels selective for chloride ions. Various types including ligand-gated Cl-channels at synapses (the GABA- and glycine-activated channels), as well as voltage-gated ...
chloride current
Flow of chloride ions through chloride-selective ion channels.
chlorophyll
The photosynthetic pigments of higher plants, but closely related to bacteriochlorophylls. Magnesium complexes of tetrapyrolles.
Chlorophyta
(= Green algae) Division of algae containing photosynthetic pigments similar to those in higher plants and having a green colour. Includes unicellular forms, filaments and ...
chloroplast
Photosynthetic organelle of higher plants. Lens-shaped and rather variable in size but approximately 5µm long. Surrounded by a double membrane and contains circular DNA ...
chloroquine
Antimalarial drug that has the interesting property of increasing the pH within the lysosomewhen added to intact cells in culture.
chlorosis
Yellowing or bleaching of plant tissues due to the loss of chlorophyll or failure of chlorophyll synthesis. Symptomatic of many plant diseases, also of deficiencies of light or ...
chlorosome
Elongated membranous vesicles attached to the plasma membrane of green photosynthetic bacteria; contain the light-harvesting antenna complexes of bacteria in the sub-Order ...
chlorpromazine
Neuroleptic aliphatic phenothiazine, thought to act primarily as dopamine antagonist, but also antagonist at a -adrenergic, H1 histamine, muscarinic and serotonin ...
CHO cells
See Chinese hamster ovary cells.
choanocytes
Cells that line the radial canals of sponges. Have long flagella that are responsible for generating the feeding current.
cholate
In practice, the sodium salt of cholic acid, that has strong detergent properties and can replace membrane lipids to generate soluble complexes of membrane proteins.
cholecalcin
See calbindin.
cholecystitis
Inflammatory condition of the wall of the gallbladder caused by Salmonella typhi.
cholera toxin
A multimeric protein toxin from Cholera vibrio. The toxic A subunit (27 kD) activates adenyl cyclase irreversibly by ADP-ribosylation of a Gs protein. The B subunit (57 kD) has ...
cholesterol
The major sterol of higher animals. An important component of cell membranes, especially of the plasma (outer) membrane, most notably the myelin sheath. Transported in the ...
cholesterol binding toxins
Family of 50-60 kD pore-forming toxins from various genera of bacteria including Streptococcus, Listeria, Bacillus and Clostridium. Apparently bind to cholesterol and ...
choline
Esterified in the head group of phospholipids (phosphatidyl choline and sphingomyelin) and in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Otherwise a biological source of methyl ...
cholinergic neurons
Neurons in which actylcholine is the neurotransmitter.
chondro-
Prefix: cartilage related/associated.
chondroblast
Embryonic cartilage-producing cell.
chondrocyte
Differentiated cell responsible for secretion of extracellular matrix of cartilage.
chondroitin sulphates
Major components of the extracellular matrix and connective tissue of animals. They are repeating polymers of glucuronic acid and sulphated N-acetyl glucosamine residues ...
chondronectin
A 180 kD protein isolated from chick serum that specifically favours attachment of chondrocytes to Type II collagen if present with the appropriate cartilage proteoglycan.
Christmas disease
Congenital deficiency of blood-clotting factor IX (first described in the Christmas issue of British Medical J., 1952). Inherited in similar sex-linked way to classical ...
chromaffin cell
See granins.
chromaffin tissue
Tissue in medulla of adrenal gland containing two populations of cells, one producing adrenaline, the other noradrenaline. The catecholamine is associated with carrier ...
chromatic aberration
When using white light through a lens system, it is inevitable that different wave-lengths (colours) are brought to a focus at slightly different points. As a consequence, there ...
chromatid
Single chromosome containing only one DNA duplex. Two daughter chromatids become visible at mitotic metaphase, though they are present throughout G2.
chromatin
Stainable material of interphase nucleus consisting of nucleic acid and associated histone protein packed into nucleosomes. Euchromatin is loosely packed and accessible to ...
chromatin body
Barr body; condensed X chromosome in female mammalian cell.
chromatography
Techniques for separating molecules based on differential absorption and elution. Term for separation methods involving flow of a fluid carrier over a non-mobile absorbing phase.
chromatophores
(1) Pigment-containing cells of the dermis, particularly in teleosts and amphibians. By controlling the intracellular distribution of pigment granules the animal can blend with ...
chromobindin
See annexin.
chromocentre
Condensed heterochromatic region of a chromosome that stains particularly strongly although in the polytene chromosomes of Drosophila the chromocentre is of under-replicated ...
chromogranins
See chromaffin tissue and granins.
chromomere
Granular region of condensed chromatin. Used of chromosomes at leptotene and zygotene stages of meiosis, of the condensed regions at the base of loops on lampbrush ...
chromophore
The part of a visibly coloured molecule responsible for light absorption over a range of wavelengths thus giving rise to the colour. By extension the term may be applied to UV or ...
chromoplast
Plant chromatophore filled with red/orange or yellow carotenoid pigment. Responsible for colour of carrot and of many petals.
chromosome
The DNA of eukaryotes is subdivided into chromosomes, presumably for convenience of handling, each of which has a long length of DNA associated with various proteins. The ...
chromosome condensation
The tight packing of DNA into chromosomes in metaphase, in preparation for cell division.
chromosome painting
See in situ hybridization.
chromosome segregation
The orderly separation of one copy of each chromosome into each daughter cell at mitosis.
chromosome synapsis
The close apposition of homologous chromosomes before cell division, or permanently in giant polytene chromosomes.
chromosome translocation
The fusion of part of one chromosome onto part of another. Largely sporadic and random, there are some translocations at "hot-spots" that occur often enough to be clinically ...
chromosome walking
A procedure to find and sequence a gene whose approximate position in a chromosome is known by classical genetic linkage studies. Starting with the known sequence of a gene ...
chronic
Persistent, long-lasting (as opposed to acute). Chronic inflammation is generally a response to a persistant antigenic stimulus.
chronic granulomatous disease
Disease, usually fatal in childhood, in which the production of hydrogen peroxide by phagocytes does not occur because of a lesion in an NADP-dependent oxidase. ...
Chrysophyta
(= Chrysophyceae: golden algae) Division or Class of algae, coloured golden-brown due to high levels of the xanthophyll, fucoxanthin. Mostly single-celled or colonial. Also ...
CHUK
(= conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase) Kinase responsible for phosphorylation of IkappaB thus triggering degradation of I k B and allowing NF kB to move to the ...
Churg-Strauss syndrome
ANCA-associated vasculitis in which there is no complement consumption and no deposition of immune complexes. Affects predominantly small vessels.
chylomicron
Colloidal fat globule found in blood or lymph; used to transport fat from the intestine to the liver or to adipose tissue. Has a very low density, a low protein and high ...
chymosin
(EC 3.4.23.4) Protease from abomasum (fourth stomach) of calf that has properties similar to pepsin. Will cleave casein to paracasein and is used in cheesemaking.
chymostatin
Low molecular weight peptide-fatty acid compound of microbial origin that inhibits chymotrypsins and papain.
chymotrypsin
Serine proteases from pancreas. Preferentially hydrolyze Phe, Tyr, or Trp peptide and ester bonds.
cicatrisation
Contraction of fibrous tissue, formed at a wound site by fibroblasts, reducing the size of the wound but causing tissue distortion and disfigurement. Once thought to be due to ...
CIG
(= cold insoluble globulin) Obsolete synonym for fibronectin.
CIG
Name, now obsolete, originally given to fibronectin prepared from cryoprecipitate.
ciliary body
Tissue that includes the group of muscles that act on the eye lens to produce accommodation and the arterial circle of the iris. The inner ciliary epithelium is continuous with ...
ciliary ganglion
Neural crest-derived ganglion acting as relay between parasympathetic neurons of the oculomotor nucleus in the midbrain and the muscles regulating the diameter of the pupil of ...
ciliary neurotrophic factor
(= CNTF) Neurotrophin originally characterized as a survival factor for chick ciliary neurons in vitro. Subsequently shown to promote the survival of a variety of other neuronal ...
cilium
(= cilia (plural) ) Motile appendage of eukaryotic cells that contains an axoneme, a bundle of microtubules arranged in a characteristic fashion with nine outer doublets and a ...
CINC
Rat homologue of melanoma growth stimulatory activity protein.
cingulin
Rod-shaped dimeric protein (108 kD subunit) found in cytoplasmic domain of vertebrate tight junctions.
circadian rhythm
Regular cycle of behaviour with a period of approximately 24 hours. In most animals the endogenous periodicity, which may be of longer or shorter duration, is entrained to 24h ...
circular dichroism
Differential absorption of right-hand and left-hand circularly polarized light resulting from molecular asymmetry involving a chromophore group. CD is used to study the ...
circular DNA
DNA arranged as a closed circle. This brings serious topological problems for replication that are solved with DNA topoisomerase. Characteristic of prokaryotes but also found ...
cirrhosis
Irreversible condition affecting the whole liver involving loss of parenchymal cells, inflammation, disruption of the normal tissue architecture, and eventually hepatic failure.
cirri
(= cirrus (singular_) Large motor organelles of hypotrich ciliates: formed from fused cilia.
CIS
(= cytokine-inducible immediate early gene) Gene activated by cytokine signals, the product of which may inhibit the signalling pathway. One of the SOCS family.
cis- activation
Activation of a gene by an activator located on the same chromosome ie. not by a diffusible product.
cis-dominance
When a gene or promoter affects only gene activity in the DNA duplex molecule in which it is placed the effect is referred to as cis, as opposed to trans effects when a gene or ...
cis-trans test
The complementation test with two or more interacting genes placed in cis and in trans relationships to each other. A double mutant genome is used in the cis test made from ...
cisplatin
(= cis-diammineplatinum dichloride) Cytotoxic drug used in tumour chemotherapy. Binds to DNA and forms platinum-nitrogen bonds with adjacent guanines.
cisternae
Membrane-bounded saccules of the smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. Operationally might almost be considered as an extra-cytoplasmic compartment since ...
cistron
A genetic element defined by means of the cis-trans complementation test for functional allelism; broadly equivalent to the sequence of DNA that codes for one polypeptide ...
citric acid cycle
Also known as tricarboxylic acid cycleor Krebs cycle.
citrulline
(= 2-amino-5-ureiodovaleric acid) An a -amino acid not found in proteins. L-citrulline is an intermediate in the urea cycle.
CJD
See Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease.
clamp connection
In many basidiomycete fungi a short lateral branch of a binucleate cell develops. This is the developing clamp connection. One of the nuclei migrates into it. Both nuclei then ...
class switching
Phenomenon that occurs during the maturation of an immune response in which, for example, B cells cease making IgM and begin making IgG that has the same antigen specificity. ...
clathrin
Protein composed of 3 heavy chains (180 kD) and 3 light chains (34 and 36 kD), that forms the basketwork of "triskelions" around a coated vesicle. There are two genes for light ...
clathrin adaptor proteins
(= HA1 and HA2 adaptors) Family of proteins that bind to clathrin and promote its assembly into vesicle coats. Different adaptor proteins are associated with coated vesicles ...
cleavage
The early divisions of the fertilized egg to form blastomeres. The cleavage pattern is radial in some phyla, spiral in others.
Cleland's reagent
Dithiothreitol.
cli
See clusterin.
climacteric
A particular stage of fruit ripening, characterized by a surge of respiratory activity, and usually coinciding with full ripeness and flavour in the fruit. Its appearance is ...
CLIP-170
(= cytoplasmic linker protein-170) Phosphorylation-regulated microtubule-binding protein that accumulates towards the plus ends of cytoplasmic microtubules; isolated from HeLa ...
CLL
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
CLN2
A yeast cyclin. See FAR1.
cloche
Zebrafish mutation that affects differentiation of endothelial and haematopoietic cells and probably acts upstream of flk-1

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