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Слова на букву dipt-exci (375)

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Order of insects with one pair of wings, the second pair being modified into balancing organs, the halteres; the mouthparts are modified for sucking or piercing. The insects show ...
Inducible glycine-rich antibacterial peptides (about 8 kD) from Dipteran haemolymph.
direct B-cells
Lymphocytes responding to a small range of antigens by antibody production without any requirement for T-cells. The antigens include flagellin and pokeweed mitogen.
Sugar formed from two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond. The trehalose type are formed from two non-reducing sugars, the maltose type from two reducing ...
(= death-inducing signalling complex) See death-effector domain.
disc gel
Confusingly, nothing to do with shape; gels in which there is a discontinuity in pH, or gel concentration, or buffer composition.
Anti-tumour drug (a poly-hydroxylated alkatetraene lactone) that, like taxol, promotes formation of stable bundles of microtubules and competes with taxol for binding to ...
A lectin, isolated from the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum (see Acrasidae), that has a binding site for carbohydrate residues related to galactose. The ...
Peptides found in the venoms of various snakes of the viper family, that inhibit the function of some integrins of the b 1 and b 3 classes. They were first identified as ...
disjunction mutant
Drosophila mutant in which chromosomes are partitioned unequally between daughter cells at meiosis, as a result of nondisjunction.
Trade name for a crude protease preparation used for disaggregating tissue in setting up primary cell cultures. Dispase gives less complete disaggreagtion than trypsin but ...
dispersion forces
Forces of attraction between atoms or non-polar molecules that result from the formation of induced dipoles. Sometimes referred to as London dispersion forces. Important in the ...
disseminated intravascular coagulation
Complication of septic shock in which endotoxin (from Gram negative bacteria) induces systemic clotting of the blood, probably indirectly through the effect of endotoxin on ...
Any process by which a tissue is separated into single cells. Enzymic dissociation with trypsin or other proteases is often used.
dissociation constant
In a chemical equilibrium of form A + B = AB, the equilibrium concentrations (strictly, activities) of the reactants are related such that A x B/AB = a constant, Kd, the ...
distemper virus
Paramyxovirus of the genus Morbillivirus. Commonest is the canine distemper virus that causes fever, vomiting and diarrhoea; variant that infects seals (Phocavirus) has caused ...
disulphide bond
The -S-S- linkage. A linkage formed between the SH groups of two cysteine moieties either within or between peptide chains. Each cysteine then becomes a half-cystine residue. ...
Like dithiothreitol is also referred to as Cleland&’s reagent and has same properties.
(= Cleland\'s reagent) Used to protect sulphydryl groups from oxidation during protein purification procedures or to reduce disulphides to sulphydryl groups.
Occurring during the day or repeating on a daily basis. Use of circadian rhythm for the latter avoids ambiguity.
division septum
The cell wall that forms between daughter cells at the end of mitosis in plant cells or just before separation in bacteria.
Twins arising as a result of the fertilization of two ova by two spermatozoa and thus genetically non-identical, in contrast to monozygotic twins.
DLVO theory
Theory of colloid flocculation advanced independently by Derjaguin & Landau and by Vervey & Overbeek and subsequently applied to cell adhesion. There exist distances (primary ...
Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drug. Drug used for treating rheumatoid arthritis that does more than relieve symptoms. Examples include gold, penicillamine, sulphasalazine ...
(= Dulbecco Modified Eagle&’s Medium) Very commonly used tissue culture medium for mammalian cells.
Dimethyl sulphoxide. Much used as a solvent for substances that do not dissolve easily in water and that are to be applied to cells (for example cytochalasin B, formyl ...
(= deoxyribonucleic acid) The genetic material of all cells and many viruses. A polymer of nucleotides. The monomer consists of phosphorylated 2-deoxyribose N-glycosidically ...
DNA annealing
The reformation of double-stranded DNA from thermally denatured DNA. The rate of reassociation depends upon the degree of repetition, and is slowest for unique sequences (this is ...
DNA fingerprinting
See restriction fragment length polymorphism.
DNA footprinting
Technique for identifying the recognition site of DNA-binding proteins: see footprinting.
DNA glycosylase
(= DNA glycosidase) Class of enzymes involved in DNA repair. They recognize altered bases in DNA and catalyse their removal by cleaving the glycosidic bond between the base ...
DNA gyrase
A type II topoisomerase of Escherichia coli, that is essential for DNA replication. This enzyme can induce or relax supercoiling.
DNA helicase
(= unwindase) An enzyme that uses the hydrolysis of ATP to unwind the DNA helix at the replication fork, to allow the resulting single strands to be copied. Two molecules of ...
DNA hybridization
See hybridization.
DNA iteron
Repeated DNA sequence found near the origin of replication of some plasmids.
DNA library
See genomic library.
DNA ligase
Enzyme involved in DNA replication. The DNA ligase of E. coliseals nicks in one strand of double-stranded DNA, a reaction required for linking precursor fragments during ...
DNA methylation
Process by which methyl groups are added to certain nucleotides in genomic DNA. This affects gene expression, as methylated DNA is not easily transcribed. The degree of ...
DNA polymerases
Enzymes (EC involved in template-directed synthesis of DNA from deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates. I, II and III are known in E. coli ; III appears to be most important ...
DNA rearrangement
Wholesale movement of sequences from one position to another in DNA, such as occur somatically, for example in the generation of antibody diversity.
DNA renaturation
See DNA annealing.
DNA repair
Enzymic correction of errors in DNA structure and sequence that protects genetic information against environmental damage and replication errors.
DNA replication
The process whereby a copy of a DNA molecule is made, and thus the genetic information it contains is duplicated. The parental double stranded DNA molecule is replicated ...
DNA sequence analysis
Determination of the nucleotide sequence of a length of DNA. Typically, this is performed by cloning the DNA of interest, so that enough can be prepared to allow the sequence ...
DNA synthesis
The linking together of nucleotides (as deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates) to form DNA. I n vivo, most synthesis is DNA replication, but incorporation of precursors also occurs ...
DNA topoisomerase
An enzyme capable of altering the degree of supercoiling of double-stranded DNA molecules. Various topoisomerases can increase or relax supercoiling, convert single-stranded ...
DNA transfection
A technique originally developed to allow viral infection of animal cells by uptake of purified viral DNA rather than by intact virus particles. Term, a hybrid between ...
DNA tumour virus
Virus with DNA genome that can cause tumours in animals. Examples are Papovaviridae, Adenoviridae and Epstein-Barr virus.
DNA virus
Lackie A virus in which the nucleic acid is double- or single-stranded DNA (rather than RNA). Major groups of double-stranded DNA viruses are papovaviruses, adenoviruses, ...
DNA-binding proteins
Proteins that interact with DNA, typically to pack or modify the DNA eg. histones, or to regulate gene expression, transcription factors. Among those proteins that recognize ...
dnaA etc.
Genes in E. coli that are involved in coding for replication machinery. dnaA and P produce proteins involved in replication at the chromosome origin; dnaB, C and D are ...
See deoxyribonuclease.
docking protein
See signal recognition particle-receptor.
Terpenoids with 13-24 isoprene units and a terminal phosphorylated hydroxyl group. Function as transmembrane carriers for glycosyl units in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and ...
Used to describe a part of a molecule or structure that shares common physicochemical features, eg. hydrophobic, polar, globular, a -helical domains, or properties eg. ...
dominant negative
A mutation which is capable of exerting an effect even when only one copy is present, as in a heterozygote. Usually explained as a mutation that disrupts one subunit of a ...
domoic acid
An excitatory amino acid transmitter.
Donnan equilibrium
An equilibrium established between a charged, immobile colloid (such as clay, ion exchange resin or cytoplasm) and a solution of electrolyte. Characteristics: ions of like charge ...
donor splice junction
The junction between an exon and an intron at the 5\' end of the intron. When the intron is removed during processing of hnRNA the donor junction is spliced to the acceptor ...
(= L-DOPA; levodopa; 3-hydroxytyrosine) Precursor of the neurotransmitter dopamine, made from L-tyrosine by tyrosine 3-mono-oxygenase and used as a treatment for Parkinsonism. ...
A catecholamine neurotransmitter and hormone (153 D), formed by decarboxylation of dehydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). A precursor of adrenaline and noradrenaline.
Drosophila polarity gene; homologue of the rel proto-oncogene. See tube, pelle and toll.
Protein that stimulates neural crest differentiation, neural crest growth, bone growth and wound healing.
dosage compensation
Genetic mechanisms that allow genes to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of the number of copies at which they are present. Usually invoked for genes that lie on sex ...
double helix
Conformation of a DNA molecule - like a ladder twisted into a helix.
double layer
The zone adjacent to a charged particle in which the potential falls effectively to zero. An excess or deficiency of electrons on the surface (charge; not to be confused with the ...
doublet microtubules
Microtubules of the axoneme. The outer nine sets are often referred to as doublet microtubules, although only one (the A tubule) is complete and has 13 protofilaments. The ...
doubling time
The time taken for a cell to complete the cell cycle.
Down's syndrome
Also known as mongolism, most frequently a consequence of trisomy of chromosome 21. Common (1 in 700 live births) ; incidence increases with maternal age. The cause is usually ...
Reduction in the responsiveness of a cell to a stimulus following first exposure, often by a reduction in the number of receptors expressed on the surface (as a consequence of ...
(1) Portions of DNA or RNA that are more remote from the initiation sites and that will therefore be translated or transcribed later. (2) Shorthand term for things that happen at ...
Cytotoxic antibiotic from Streptomyces peucetius. Blocks topoisomerase and reverse transcriptase by intercalating into the DNA. Has been used in clinical oncology.
Protein product of the Drosophila gene decapentaplegic, related to TGF.
Drebin is a developmentally regulated actin-binding brain protein which in the chicken has characteristic changes in expression related to developmental stage. Contains a single ...
Drickamer motif
Either of the two highly conserved patterns of invariant amino acids found in the carbohdrate recognition domain of C-type and S-type lectins.
A genus of small, American flies, Diptera. The best known species is D. melanogaster, often called the fruit fly, but more correctly termed the vinegar fly. First investigated ...
Drosophila homologues of the gastrin family of peptide hormones.
See serum response element.
dual recognition hypothesis
An outmoded hypothesis that is known to be incorrect now that the structure of the T-cell receptor is known. The proposal was that viral (and some chemical) antigens were ...
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
A sex-linked hereditary disease confined to young males and to females with Turner\'s syndrome. It is characterized by degeneration and necrosis of skeletal muscle fibres, ...
Name for the 16 kD transmembrane subunit of the V-type ATPase, reflecting a (controversial) view that it may be a multifunctional transmembrane pore protein, also involved (for ...
Blood group system. Single gene locus.
Drosophila mutant that is deficient in short-term memory. Gene codes for cAMP-phosphodiesterase and mutation leads to elevated cAMP levels that in turn particularly affect the ...
Dupuytren&’s contracture
Fibroma-like lesion of the palm of the hand that causes flexion contracture. Heritable and commoner in men. Never metastasises.
dura mater
Outermost of the three meningeal membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.
dyad symmetry element
See serum response element.
dye coupling
Measure of intercellular communication, usually through gap junctions. If a fluorescent dye (eg. lucifer yellow) injected into one cell is seen to pass into a neighbouring ...
Dynein activator complex that stimulates vesicle transport. Includes dynactin (160 kD) and polypeptides of 62, 50, 45, 37, and 32, the 45 kD (possibly actin-RPV) being the most ...
A protein isolated from microtubule preparations and shown to cause ATP-mediated microtubule sliding toward the plus ends. A GTP-binding protein with classical G-protein ...
Large multimeric protein (600-800 kD) with ATPase activity; constitutes the side arms of the outer microtubule doublets in the ciliary axoneme and is responsible for the ...
Lackie Opiate peptide derived from the hypothalamic precursor pro-dynorphin (that also contains the neoendorphin sequences). Contains the penta-peptide leu-enkephalin sequence. ...
Dual-specificity protein kinase regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation that may regulate cell cycle. Also has nuclear targeting signal, putative leucine zipper and a very ...
Illness as a result of abnormal material in the blood.
System of breeding or selection that is genetically deleterious or disadvantageous.
Absence of an organized kinetoplast (and of kinetoplast DNA) from a flagellate protozoan cell.
Literally "wrong growth". Usually used to denote early stage of carcinogenesis, marked by abnormal epithelial morphology.
(= 156DAG) Complex composed of two proteins, a and b -dystroglycans (formerly known as 156DAG and 43DAG/A3a respectively) derived from a single precursor by proteolytic ...
Protein (400 kD) from skeletal muscle that is missing in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Its exact role is not yet clear, though it seems to be associated with the cytoplasmic ...
E classification
Classification of enzymes based on the recommendations of the Committee on Enzyme Nomenclature of the International Union of Biochemistry. The first number indicates the broad ...
In freeze fracture the plasma membrane cleaves between the acyl tails of membrane phospholipids, leaving a monolayer on each half of the specimen. The E-face is the inner face ...
The clustering of sheep erythrocytes (=E) around a leucocyte or other cell. E-rosette formation is used as a marker for T-lymphocytes of humans and most mammals; in this case E ...
See selectin.
E. coli
See Escherichia coli.
Oncogene from an Adenovirus. Interacts with the Rb tumour suppressor gene product, in a manner similar to SV40 large T-antigen.
Oncogene from an Adenovirus. Interacts with the > tumour suppressor gene product.
A class of plasma membrane-localized ion-motive pumps that includes sodium-potassium ATPase. The phosphoenzyme has two conformational states, E1 and E2, and ion exchange is ...
Family of transcription factors originally identified through their role in transcriptional activation of the adenovirus E2 promoter, subsequently found to bind to promoters ...
Oncogene from a papillomavirus. Encodes a small protein that binds and blocks the 16 kD proteolipid of the V-type ATPase, producing abnormal intravesicular processing of ...
Oncogene from a papillomavirus. Encodes a 16 kD protein of unknown function.
Oncogene from a papillomavirus. Interacts with the Rb tumour suppressor gene product, in a manner similar to SV40 large T-antigen.
See E-rosettes. A test for the presence of Fc receptors.
See excitatory amino acid.
EaA cells
Insect cell line derived from haemocytes of the salt marsh caterpillar Estigmene acrea. An alternative line for baculovirus expression. See Sf9 cells.
Rosettes (see E-rosettes formed from erythrocytes (E) coated with antibody (A) and complement(C). A test for C3b or C3bi receptors (CR1 or CR3). The rosettes form more easily ...
Eadie-Hofstee plot
Linear transformation of enzyme kinetic data in which the velocity of reaction (v) is plotted on the ordinate, v/S on the abscissa, S being the initial substrate concentration. ...
early antigens
Virus-coded cell surface antigens that appear soon after the infection of a cell by virus, but before virus replication has begun. See early gene.
early gene
Genes that are expressed soon after viral infection of a host cell.
early region
Part of a viral genome in which early genes genes that are transcribed and expressed early during infection of a cell are clustered.
Ebola virus
Filovirus that causes severe fever and bleeding. Outbreaks are usually in Africa.
See Epstein Barr Virus.
EC number
See E classificationfor enzymes
Effective concentration; concentration at which the substance concerned produces a specified effect in 50% of the organisms treated.
Family of steroid hormones found in insects, crustaceans and plants. In insects, a- ecdysone stimulates moulting. The steadily maturing character of the moults is affected by ...
Erythrocytes that have shrunk (in hypertonic medium) so that the surface is spiky.
Phylum of exclusively marine animals. The phylum is divided into 5 classes: the Asteroidea (starfish), the Echinoidea (sea urchins), the Ophiuroidea (brittle stars and basket ...
Previously Actinosphaerium. A Heliozoan protozoan. The organisms are multinucleate and have a starburst of radiating axopodia, the microtubules of which have been much studied.
Disintegrin found in the venom of the saw-scaled viper, Echis carinatus.
A group of human Picornaviruses. ‘Echo’ is derived from enteric cytopathic human orphan, where orphan implies that they are not associated with any disease, though some are ...
(1) Electrochemiluminescence. production of light during an electrochemical reaction, now being applied to various bioassay systems. (2) Enhanced chemiluminescence. Method for ...
Emergence of an insect from its old cuticle at a moult, particularly from pupa to adult.
Common abbreviation for extracellular matrix.
Eco RI
Probably the most commonly used type II restriction endonuclease isolated from Escherichia coli. It cuts the sequence GAATTC between G and A thus generating 5\' sticky ends.
Type II restriction endonuclease isolated from Escherichia coli. It cuts the sequence CC(T/A) GG in front of the first C giving 5\' sticky ends.
ecotropic virus
Retrovirus which can only replicate in its original host species, cf. amphotropic.
Slang for MDMA, a drug of abuse.
The outer of the three germ layers of the embryo (the other two being mesoderm and endoderm). Ectoderm gives rise to epidermis and neural tissue.
Enzyme that is secreted from a cell or located on the outer surface of the plasma membrane and therefore able to act on extracellular substrates.
Misplaced, not in the normal location.
Granule-free cytoplasm of amoeba lying immediately below the plasma membrane.
ectoplasmic tube contraction
Model for amoeboid movement in which it is proposed that protrusion of a pseudopod is brought about by contraction of the sub-plasmalemmal region everywhere else in the cell ...
Congenital absence or gross shortening of long bones of limb or limbs.
(= ED50) Median effective dose, that dose that produces a response in 50% of individuals or 50% of the maximal response.
See oedema.
Multiprotein complex (27S) involved in RNA processing.
Edman reagent
Phenyl isothiocyanate. The classic method for sequence determination of peptides using sequential cleavage of the N-terminal residue after reaction with Edman reagent. The ...
See endothelium-derived relaxation factor.
(= ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) Often used as the disodium salt. Chelator of divalent cations; log10 Kapp for calcium at pH7 is 7.27 (5.37 for magnesium) See EGTA.
EDTA-light chain
Myosin light chains (18 kD) from scallop muscle (two per pair of heavy chains), easily extracted by calcium chelation. Although the EDTA-light chains do not bind calcium they ...
Edward&’s syndrome
Complex of abnormalities caused by trisomy 18.
(= electroencephalograph; electroencephalogram.) Record of electrical activity of the brain obtained using external electrodes.
A very common calcium-binding motif. A 12 amino acid loop with a 12 amino acid a -helix at either end, providing octahedral coordination for the calcium ion. Members of the ...
See epidermal growth factor, EGF-like domain.
EGF-like domain
Region of 30-40 amino acids containing 6 cysteines found originally in EGF, and also in a range of proteins involved in cell signalling. Examples: TGF a, amphiregulin, ...
egg-polarity gene
A gene whose product distribution in the egg determines the anterior-posterior axis of subsequent development. Best characterized in Drosophila : see bicoid, maternal-effect ...
eglin C
A proteinase inhibitor (70 amino acids) from leech.
(= ethyleneglycol-bis(2-aminoethyl) N,N,N&’,N&’,-tetraacetic acid) ) Like EDTAa chelator of divalent cations but with a higher affinity for calcium (log Kapp 6.68 at pH 7) ...
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
See dermatosparaxis.
Ehringhaus compensator
Device used in interference or polarization microscopy to reduce the brightness of the object to zero in order to measure the phase retardation (optical path difference). The ...
EHS cells
(= Englebreth-Holm-Swarm sarcoma cells) A line of mouse cells that produce large amounts of basement membrane-type extracellular matrix (ecm), rich in laminin, collagen type ...
Useful generic term for compounds derived from arachidonic acid. Includes leukotrienes, prostacyclin, prostaglandins and thromboxanes.
Coccidian protozoan. All coccidians are intracellular parasites of various vertebrates and invertebrates. Eimeria tenella infects chick intestinal epithelial cells and is of ...
An algorithm for calculating a hydropathy plot.
Method in which cells (usually erythrocytes) are exposed to increasing shear-stress and the laser diffraction pattern through the suspension is recorded; it goes from circular ...
Unpigmented type of plastid modified as an oil-storage organelle.
(= CD62E; E-selectin) One of the selectin family; upregulated on endothelial cells at sites of inflammation and partly responsible for trapping of neutrophils. The C-type ...
Serine protease that will digest elastin and collagen Type IV; inhibited by alpha-1-protease inhibitor of plasma.
Alternate form of the commoner term viscoelastic.
Glycoprotein (70 kD) randomly coiled and cross-linked to form elastic fibres that are found in connective tissue. Like collagen, the amino acid composition is unusual with 30% ...
Elastin-binding protein (120 kD) found in extracellular matrix, produced by skin fibroblasts.
ELAV proteins
(= embryonic lethal abnormal visual proteins) RNA-binding proteins that regulate mRNA stability.The ELAV family of RNA-binding proteins is highly conserved in vertebrates and in ...
electrical coupling
Of two physically touching cells, denoting the presence of a junction that allows the passage of electrical current. Usually tested by impaling both cells with microelectrodes, ...
electrical synapse
A connection between two electrically excitable cells, such as neurons or muscle cells, via arrays of gap junctions. This allows electrical coupling of the cells, and so an ...
electrochemical potential
Defined as the work done in bringing 1 mole of an ion from a standard state (infinitely separated) to a specified concentration and electrical potential. Measured in joules/mole. ...
electrodynamic forces
London-Van der Waals forces: see DLVO theory.
Any technique whereby chemical species are concentrated using an applied electric field. See isoelectric focusing.
electrogenic pump
Ion pump that generates net charge flow as a result of its activity. The sodium-potassium exchange pump transports two potassium ions inward across the cell membrane for each ...
electron microprobe
A technique of elemental analysis in the electron microscope based on spectral analysis of the scattered X-ray emission from the specimen induced by the electron beam. Using this ...
electron microscopy
Any form of microscopy in which the interactions of electrons with the specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In transmission ...
electron paramagnetic resonance
(= EPR; electron spin resonance; ESR) Form of spectroscopy in which the absorption of microwave energy by a specimen in a strong magnetic field is used to study atoms or ...
electron transport chain
A series of compounds that transfer electrons to an eventual donor with concomitant energy conversion. One of the best studied is in the mitochondrial inner membrane, that takes ...
Separation of molecules based on their mobility in an electric field. High resolution techniques normally use a gel support for the fluid phase. Examples of gels used are ...
Result of a zone electrophoresis separation or the analytical record of such a separation.
A stack of specialized muscle fibres found in electric eels, arranged in series. The fibres have lost the ability to contract; instead they generate extremely high voltages (ca ...
Method for temporarily permeabilising cell membranes so as to facilitate the entry of large or hydrophilic molecules (as in transfection). A brief (ca 1 msec) electric pulse is ...
Record of electrical activity in the retina made with external electrodes.
electrospray mass spectroscopy
Method of mass spectroscopy in which the sample is introduced as a fine spray from a highly charged needle so that each droplet has a strong charge. Solvent rapidly evaporates ...
electrostatic forces
Like charges in close proximity produce forces of repulsion between them. Consequently if two surfaces bear appreciable and approximately equal densities of charged groups on ...
See disintegrin.
Tricyclic compound that, like taxol, will stabilize microtubule bundles. Isolated from a marine soft coral, Eleutherobia aurea.
Class of compounds with anti-inflammatory activity.
Substance that induces the formation of phytoalexins in higher plants. May be exogenous (often produced by potentially pathogenic microorganisms), or endogenous (possibly ...
(= enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay) A very sensitive technique for the detection of small amounts of protein or other antigenic substance. The basis of the method is the ...
Proprietary name for elixir (syrup) containing theophylline as its active ingredient.
Elk proteins
(= Eph-like kinases) Family of cell surface receptor tyrosine kinases restricted to brain and testis. Not to be confused with Elk-1.
Gene-regulating protein found in lung and testis. Binds to DNA at purine-rich sites. Substrate for MAP kinases; once phosphorylated forms complex with other transcription ...
Membrane-anchored ligand (38 kD) for EPHclass receptor tyrosine kinases. Becomes tyrosine phosphorylated once bound to receptor (Nuk).
Membrane-bounded compartment containing cytochrome-like pigment and found in the retinal cones of some fish.
elongation factor
Peptidyl transferase components of ribosomes that catalyse formation of the acyl bond between the incoming amino acid residue and the peptide chain. There are three classes of ...
Separation of particles on the basis of their differential sedimentation rate.
Embden-Meyerhof pathway
(= glycolysis; Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway) The main pathway for anerobic degradation of carbohydrate. Starch or glycogen is hydrolyzed to glucose-1-phosphate and then ...
Tissue is embedded in wax or plastic in order to prepare sections for microscopical examination. The embedding medium provides mechanical support.
A clot formed by platelets or leucocytes that blocks a blood vessel.
The developmental stages of an animal or, in some cases a plant, during which the developing tissue is effectively isolated from the environment by, for example, egg membranes, ...
The processes leading to the development of an embryo from egg to completion of the embryonic stage.
embryonic induction
The induction of differentiation in one tissue as a result of proximity to another tissue arising, for example, during gastrulation. One of the best known examples is the ...
embryonic stem cell
(= ES cell) Totipotent cell cultured from early embryo. Have the advantage that following modification in vitrothey can be used to produce chimeric embryos and thus transgenic ...
Pulmonary emphysema is associated with chronic bronchitis and may be caused by excessive leucocyte elastase activity in the alveolar walls (possibly as a result of the ...
Either of a pair of stereoisomers of a compound that has chirality.
end plate potential
Depolarization of the sarcolemma as a result of acetylcholine release from the motoneuron causing an influx of sodium ions. The end plate potential is the sum of quantal ...
Chronic inflammation of the arterial intima, often a late result of syphilis
An endergonic reaction requires the input of energy.
Inflammation of the membrane lining the heart, that over the valves being particularly susceptible. May be caused by viral or bacterial infection, or indirectly as a response to ...
endocrine gland
Gland that secretes directly into blood and not through a duct. Examples are pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands, ovary and testis, placenta and B cells of ...
Uptake of material into a cell by the formation of a membrane-bound vesicle.
endocytotic vesicle
See endocytosis.
A germ layer lying remote from the surface of the embryo that gives rise to internal tissues such as gut. Contrast mesoderm and ectoderm.
Single layer of cells surrounding the central stele (vascular tissue) in roots. The radial and transverse walls contain the hydrophobic Casparian band, that prevents water flow ...
Product or activity arising in the body or cell, as opposed to agents coming from outside.
endogenous pyrogen
Fever-producing substance released by leucocytes (and Kuppfer cells in particular) that acts on the hypothalamic thermoregulatory centre. Now known to be interleukin 1.
(= CD105) Homodimeric glycoprotein (180 kD) with TGF- binding activity, expressed on endothelial cells and pre-B cells.
Enzyme of the subclass EC 3.2 that has the ability to hydrolyze non-terminal glycosidic bonds in oligosaccharides or polysaccharides. Endoglycosidases F and H are often used as ...
Glycoprotein (78 kD) present in membranes of endosomes and lysosomes but relatively scarce in other membranes.
Mucous membrane that lines the uterus and that thickens during the menstrual cycle ready for implantation of the embryo. If implantation does not occur the endometrium returns ...
Chromosome replication without mitosis, leading to polyploidy. Many rounds of endomitosis give rise to the giant polytene chromosomes of Dipteran salivary glands, though in ...
Lackie Endogenous peptides (endomorphin-1, YPWF-NH2; endomorphin-2, YPFF-NH2) with high selective affinity for m-opiate receptor.
Connective tissue sheath surrounding individual muscle fibres.
Connective tissue sheath surrounding individual nerve fibres in a nerve bundle.
Calcium-dependent membrane-binding protein located on the endoplasmic reticulum of fibroblasts. Isolated protein will bind to liposomes if 1-10 m M calcium is present but not if ...
One of a large group of enzymes that cleave nucleic acids at positions within the chain. Some act on both RNA and DNA (eg. S1 nuclease, EC., that is specific for single ...
An enzyme that cleaves protein at positions within the chain. Formally, the enzymes are peptidyl-peptide hydrolases, more usually known as proteinases or proteolytic enzymes.
Inner, granule-rich cytoplasm of amoeba.
endoplasmic reticulum
Membrane system that ramifies through the cytoplasm. The membranes of the ER are separated by 50-200nm and the cisternal space thus enclosed constitutes a separate compartment. ...
Most abundant protein in microsomal preparations from mammalian cells (100-fold more concentrated in ER than elsewhere). A glycoprotein (100 kD) with calcium-binding properties. ...
Movement of water into a cell as a result of greater internal osmotic pressure. The water potential within the vascular sap of a plant cell must be lower than that in the ...
(1) Endocytotic vesicle derived from the plasma membrane. More specifically an acidic non-lysosomal compartment in which receptor-ligand complexes dissociate. (2) A chromatinic ...
Tissue present in the seeds of angiosperms, external to and surrounding the embryo, that it provides with nourishment in the form of starch or other food reserves. Formed by ...
endosperm mother cell
Cell of the higher plant embryo sac. Contains two "polar nuclei", and fuses with the sperm cell from the pollen grain. Gives rise to the endosperm.
(1) An asexual spore formed within a cell. (2) Inner part of the wall of a fungal spore.
endosymbiont hypothesis
The hypothesis that semi-autonomous organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts were originally endosymbiotic bacteria or cyanobacteria. The arguments are convincing and ...
endosymbiotic bacteria
Bacteria that establish a symbiotic relationship within a eukaryotic cell. Eg. the nitrogen-fixing bacteria of legume root nodules. See also endosymbiont hypothesis.
endothelin converting enzyme
ECE-1 is an integral membrane protein belonging to the family of metalloproteinases that also includes ECE-2, neprilysin (endopeptidase 24.11) and Kell blood group protein. The ...
endothelin receptor
There are thought to be two G-protein coupled receptors for endothelin, ET(A) (427 residues) and ET(B) (427 residues in human), present on vascular smooth muscle cells ...
(= ET-1, ET-2, ET-3) Group of peptide hormones (all 21 residues) released by endothelial cells. All have two disulphide bridges that hold them in a conical spiral shape. They are ...
Simple squamous epithelium lining blood vessels, lymphatics and other fluid-filled cavities (such as the anterior chamber of the eye). Mesodermally derived, unlike most ...
endothelium-derived relaxation factor
(= EDRF) See nitric oxide.
Process or reaction that absorbs heat and thus requires a source of external energy in order to proceed.
Heat-stable polysaccharide-like toxin bound to a bacterial cell. The term is used more specifically to refer to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of the outer membrane of Gram negative ...
The area of sarcolemma immediately below the synaptic region of the motor neuron in a neuromuscular junction.
Drosophila gene that controls segmental polarity. It is the archetype for one of three subfamilies of homeobox-containing genes.
enhancement effect
Property of higher plant photosynthesis, discovered by Robert Emerson. The quantum yield of red light (less than 680nm) and far-red light (700nm), when shone simultaneously on a ...
A DNA control element frequently found 5\' to the start site of a gene, which when bound by a specific transcription factor, enhances the levels of expression of the gene, but ...
enhancer trap
Technique for mapping gene expression patterns, classically in Drosophila. A transposon element carrying a reporter gene (usually beta-galactosidase), linked to a very weak ...
Natural opiate pentapeptides isolated originally from pig brain. Leu-enkephalin (YGGFL) and Met-enkephalin (YGGFM) bind particularly strongly to d -type opiate receptors.
(= nidogen) A dumbbell shaped 150 kD sulphated glycoprotein that is found in all basement membranes. It binds to laminin, forming a very stable 1:1 complex (KD = 10nM) and ...
Relating to the intestine.
Genus of enteropathic bacilli of the Klebsiella group. Not to be confused with the Family Enterobacteria of which they are members.
A large family of Gram negative bacilli that inhabit the large intestine of mammals. Commonest is Escherichia coli ; most are harmless commensals but others can cause intestinal ...
Alternative name for enterochelin.
Iron-binding compound (siderophore) of E. coli and Salmonella spp. A cyclic trimer of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoylserine.
Cells of the intestinal epithelium.
Group of bacterial exotoxins produced by enterobacteria and that act on the intestinal mucosa. By perturbing ion and water transport systems they induce diarrhoea. Cholera ...
A genus of Picornaviridae that preferentially replicate in the mammalian intestinal tract. It includes the polioviruses and Coxsackie viruses.
Entner-Doudoroff pathway
Metabolic pathway for degradation of glucose in a wide variety of bacteria. Differs from the Embden-Meyerhoff pathway although end result is similar.
Retroviral gene encoding viral envelope glycoproteins.

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