Слова на букву dipt-exci (375) Dictionary of molecular biology
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Слова на букву dipt-exci (375)

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envelope
(1) Lipoprotein outer layer of some viruses - derived from plasma membrane of the host cell. (2) In bacteriology, the plasma membrane and cell wall complex of a bacterium.
envoplakin
Component protein (210 kD) of transglutaminase cross-linked protein layer (cornified envelope) deposited under the plasma membrane of keratinocytes in outer layer of skin. Has ...
enzyme induction
An increase in enzyme secretion in response to an environmental signal. The classic example is the induction of b -galactosidase in E. coli.
eosin
Tetrabromofluorescein, a red dye used extensively in histology, for example in the standard H & E (haematoxylin/ eosin) stain used in routine pathology.
eosinophil
Polymorphonuclear leucocyte (granulocyte) of the myeloid series, of which the granules stain red with eosin. Phagocytic, particularly associated with helminth infections and ...
eosinophil cationic protein
Arginine-rich protein (21 kD) in granules of eosinophils, that damages schistosomula in vitro. Not the same as the MBP (major basic protein) of the granules.
eosinophil chemotactic peptide
(= ECF; ECF of anaphylaxis; ECF-C) Tetrapeptides (of which two are identified: VGSE and AGSE) released by mast cells and that are said to both attract and activate eosinophils.
eosinophilia
Condition in which there are unusually large numbers of eosinophils in the circulation, usually a consequence of helminth parasites or allergy.
eosinophilic
(1) Having affinity for the red dye eosin. (2) Inflammatory lesion characterized by large numbers of eosinophils.
eosinophilopoietin
Small (1500 D) peptide, possibly released by T-lymphocytes, that regulates eosinophil development in the bone marrow. Probably interleukin 5.
eotaxin
Chemokine with specificity for eosinophils.
epalons
Class of neuroactive steroids. Name derived from epiallopregnanolone, an endogenous metabolite of progesterone that has activity on the GABA-A receptor complex. Have ...
ependymal cells
Cells that line cavities in the central nervous system - considered to be a type of glial cell.
EPH
Class of receptor tyrosine kinases (Nuk, ) implicated in control of axon guidance, regulation of cell migration and defining compartments in embryogenesis. Ligands are ...
eph kinases
Family of protein tyrosine kinases. Named from erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma cells in which gene was first identified. Related kinases are elk (EPH-like ...
ephedrine
(= (1R,2S) -1-phenyl-1-hydroxy-2-methylaminopropane) Alkaloid from plants of genus Ephedra. Structural analogue of epinephrine (adrenaline) the effects of which it mimics.
Ephestia kuhniella
Mediterranean flour moth. Easily maintained in the laboratory.
epi-
Prefix indicating something on, above or near. Epi-illumination is from above, epithelia cover (are on top of) other tissues.
epiboly
The process in early embryonic development in which a monolayer of dividing cells (blastoderm) spreads over the surface of a large yolk-filled egg (eg. those of teleosts, ...
epicotyl
The first shoot of a plant embryo or seedling, above the point of insertion of the cotyledon(s). Can be relatively long in some seedlings showing etiolation.
epidermal cell
(1) Cell of epidermis in animals. (2) Plant cell on the surface of a leaf or other young plant tissue, where bark is absent. The exposed surface is covered with a layer of ...
epidermal growth factor
A mitogenic polypeptide (6 kD) initially isolated from male mouse submaxillary gland. The name refers to the early bioassay, but EGF is active on a variety of cell types, ...
epidermis
Outer epithelial layer of a plant or animal. May be a single layer that produces an extracellular material (as for example the cuticle of arthropods), or a complex stratified ...
epididymis
Convoluted tubule connecting the vas efferens, that comes from the seminiferous tubules of the mammalian testis, to the vas deferens. Maturation and storage of sperm occur in the ...
epifluorescence
Method of fluorescence microscopy in which the excitatory light is transmitted through the objective onto the specimen rather than through the specimen; only reflected ...
epigenesis
The theory that development is a process of gradual increase in complexity as opposed to the preformationist view that supposed that mere increase in size was sufficient to ...
epigenetics
The study of mechanisms involved in the production of phenotypic complexity in morphogenesis. According to the epigenetic view of differentiation, the cell makes a series of ...
epiglycanin
Very extensively glycosylated transmembrane glycoprotein found in TA3 Ha mouse mammary carcinoma cells and that may mask histocompatibility antigens. Functionally analogous ...
epiligrin
Lackie Major glycoprotein of epidermal basement membrane, consisting of three disulphide-bonded subunits of 170, 145 and 135 kD. Epiligrin is the major ligand for a3/b1 ...
epimer
Diastereomeric monosaccharides that have opposite configurations of a hydroxyl group at only one position, eg. D-glucose and D-mannose.
epimorphosis
Pattern of regeneration in which proliferation precedes the development of a new part. Opposite of morphallaxis.
epinasty
Asymmetrical growth of a leaf or stem that causes curvature of the structure.
epinemin
Intermediate filament-associated protein (44.5 kD monomer) associated with vimentin in non-neural cells.
epinephrine
Synonym for adrenaline.
episialin
(= polymorphic epithelial mucin, PEM; epithelial membrane antigen, EMA) Heavily glycosylated membrane glycoprotein. Encoded by the MUC- 1 gene; has a molecular weight of ...
episome
Piece of hereditary material that can exist as free, autonomously replicating DNA or be attached to and integrated into the chromosome of the cell, in which case it replicates ...
epistasis
Non-reciprocal interaction of non-allelic genes - for example when the expression of one gene masks the expression of another. Thus a gene that blocks development of an organ ...
epitectin
Mucin-like glycoprotein found on surface of human tumour cells (also known as CA antigen) but not non-tumorigenic cell lines. It is present on the surface of some specialized ...
epithelioid cells
In a general sense, a cell that has an appearance that is similar to that of epithelial cells: used specifically of the very flattened macrophages found in granulomas (eg. in ...
epithelium
One of the simplest types of tissues. A sheet of cells, one or several layers thick, organized above a basal lamina (see basement membrane), and often specialized for ...
epitope
That part of an antigenic molecule to which the T-cell receptor responds; a site on a large molecule against which an antibody will be produced and to which it will bind. See ...
epitope library
Large collection (hundreds of millions) of peptides each encoded by a randomly mutated piece of DNA in a phage genome and expressed on the surface of that bacteriophage, ...
epitope tag
Short peptide sequence that constitutes an epitope for an existing antibody. Widely used in molecular biology to ‘tag’ transgenic proteins (as a translational fusion ...
epizootic
Veterinary equivalent of an epidemic.
EPO
See erythropoietin.
epothilones
Compounds (epothilone A and B) isolated from myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum Str 90. Cytotoxic to tumour cells as a result of inducing microtubule assembly and stabilization.
Epstein-Barr virus
Species of Herpetoviridae, that binds CR2 and that causes infective mononucleosis and, in the presence of other factors, tumours such as Burkitt\'s lymphoma and nasopharyngeal ...
equatorial plate
Region of the mitotic spindle where chromosomes are aligned at metaphase: as its name suggests, it lies midway between the poles of the spindle.
equilibrium constant
(= equilibrium dissociation constant; dissociation constant) The ratio of the reverse and forward rate constants for a reaction of the type A + B = AB. At equilibrium the ...
equilibrium dialysis
Technique used to measure the binding of a small molecule ligand to a larger binding partner. The macromolecule is contained within a dialysis chamber and the diffusible ...
equinatoxins
Small peptide toxins (19 kD) from Actinia equina. Form cation-selective pores and are cytolytic.
equivalence
The situation where two interacting molecular species are present in concentrations just sufficient to produce occupation of all binding sites. Only used to describe high ...
ERAB
(= endoplasmic reticulum associated binding protein) Protein (262 residues, 27 kD) in the ER that binds amyloid b ( A b). Found ubiquitously but more extensively in liver, ...
erabutotoxins
Curaremimetic polypeptide toxins (62 residues) from venom of Laticauda semifasciata. Bind to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.
erb
Two oncogenes, erb A and erb B, associated with erythroblastosis virus (an acute transforming retrovirus). The cellular homologue of erb B is the structural gene for the ...
ergastic substances
Metabolically inert products of photosynthesis, such as starch grains and fat globules.
ergodic
System or process in which the final state is independent of the initial state.
ERKs
See MAP kinases.
error-prone repair
See SOS system.
erucic acid
(= (Z) -docos-13-enoic acid) Trivial name for 22:1 fatty acid. Found in rape-seed (canola) oil.
Erwinia chrysanthemi
Phytopathogenic bacterium that causes soft-rot. Virulence factors include pectinases coded by pelB, pelC, pelD, pelE, ogl, kduI and kdgT that degrade the cell walls of the plant ...
Eryf1
See erythroid transcription factor.
erysipelas
A spreading infection of the dermis possibly associated with an allergic reaction to products of the causative organism, Streptococcus pyogenes.
erythema nodosum
Eruption of pink or red nodules, usually on the lower limbs as a result of infection with any of a range of bacteria, viruses or fungi. Often associated with IBD and in some ...
erythroblast
Rather non-committal name for a nucleated cell of the bone marrow that gives rise to erythrocytes. See also normoblasts, BFU-E, CFU-E, primitive and definitive erythroblasts
erythroblastosis fetalis
Severe haemolytic disease of the neonate as a result of transplacental passage of maternal antibodies mainly directed against Rhesus blood group antigens.
erythrocyte
A red blood cell.
erythrocyte ghost
The membrane and cytoskeletal elements of the erythrocyte devoid of cytoplasmic contents, but preserving the original morphology.
erythrogenic toxin
Toxin produced by strains of Streptococcus pyogenes responsible for scarlet fever. Three antigenic variants of the toxin are known. It is a small protein that is complexed with ...
erythroid cell
Cell that will give rise to erythrocytes.
erythroid Kruppel-like factor
(= EKLF) Red cell-specific transcriptional activator essential for establishing high levels of adult beta-globin expression.
erythroid transcription factor
(= Eryf1; GF-1; NF-E1) Transcription factor that binds to regulatory regions of genes expressed in erythroid cells.
erythroleukaemic cell
Abnormal precursor (virally transformed) of mouse erythrocytes that can be grown in culture and induced to differentiate by treatment with, for example, DMSO. See Friend ...
erythromycin
General name for a variety of wide-spectrum macrolide antibiotics isolated from Streptomyces erythreus. Inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the prokaryotic 50S ribosomal ...
erythrophores
Chromatophores that have red pigment.
erythropoiesis
Process of production of erythrocytes in the marrow in adult mammals. A pluripotent stem cell (CFU) produces, by a series of divisions, committed stem cells (BFU-Es) that give ...
erythropoietin
Glycoprotein (46 kD) produced in the kidney and that regulates the production of red blood cells in the marrow. Higher concentrations are required to stimulate BFU-Es than CFU-Es ...
ES cells
See embyonic stem cells.
Escherichia coli
The archetypal bacterium for biochemists, used very extensively in experimental work. A rod-shaped Gram negative bacillus (0.5 x 3-5 m m) abundant in the large intestine (colon) ...
Escherichia coli hemolysin
(= a-hemolysin; HlyA) Exotoxin of the RTX family of bacterial cytolysins. Synthesized as an inactive 110 kD precursor that is activated by fatty acid acylation by accessory ...
essential amino acids
Those amino acids that cannot be synthesized by an organism and must therefore be present in the diet. The term is often applied anthropocentrically to those amino acids ...
essential fatty acids
The three fatty acids required for growth in mammals, arachidonic, linolenic and linoleic acids. Only linoleic acid needs to be supplied in the diet; the other two can be made ...
established cell line
See cell line.
esterase
An enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of organic esters to release an alcohol or thiol and acid. The term could be applied to enzymes that hydrolyze carboxylate, phosphate and ...
estradiol
See oestradiol,
ET
See endothelin.
ethidium bromide
A dye that intercalates into DNA and to some extent RNA. Intercalation into linear DNA is easier than into circular DNA and the addition of ethidium bromide to DNA prior to ...
ethylene
Plant growth substance (phytohormone, plant hormone), involved in promoting growth, epinasty, fruit ripening, senescence and breaking of dormancy. Its action is closely linked ...
etiolation
Growth habit adopted by germinating seedlings in the dark. Involves rapid extension of shoot and/or hypocotyl and suppression of chlorophyll formation and leaf growth.
etioplast
Form of plastid present in plants grown in the dark. Lacks chlorophyll, but contains chlorophyll precursors and can develop into a functional chloroplast in the light.
etoposide
Lignan derivative synthesized from podophyllotoxin. Used as an anti-tumour drug and probably works by inhibiting topoisomerase II.
ets
An oncogene found in E26 transforming retrovirus of chickens. Encodes a nuclear protein that regulates the initiation of transcription from a range of cellular and viral ...
ETS domain
DNA binding domain, formed of three alpha-helices. Named after the DNA-binding domain of the human ETS-1 transcription factor.
Eubacteria
A major subdivision of the prokaryotes (includes all except Archaebacteria. Most Gram positive bacteria, cyanobacteria, mycoplasmas, enterobacteria, pseudomonads and ...
Eucaryote
See Eukaryote.
euchromatin
The chromosomal regions that are diffuse during interphase and condensed at the time of nuclear division. They show what is considered to be the normal pattern of staining (eu = ...
Eudorina
Simple multicellular alga of the Order Volvocida - often quoted as illustrating the path to multicellularity. Small spherical or ovoid colonies of between 4-64 flagellated cells ...
Euglena
Euglena gracilis and E. viridis are phytoflagellate protozoa of the algal order Euglenophyta (zoological order Euglenida). An elongate cell with two flagella, one emerging from ...
Eukaryote
Organism whose cells have (1) chromosomes with nucleosomal structure and separated from the cytoplasm by a two-membrane nuclear envelope, and (2) compartmentalisation of a ...
eumelanin
Form of melanin found in animals - particularly in skin and hair and in pigmented retinal epithelium of the eye..
Eumycetozoida
Order of Protozoa, includes true slime moulds (not the cellular slime moulds).
Eumycota
Division of fungi having defined cell walls and forming hyphae. The other main group are the Myxomycota.
euploidy
Polyploidy in which the chromosome number is an integer multiple of the starting number.
Euplotes
Genus of free living hypotrich Protozoa. Do not have cilia but may have undulating membranes for propulsion.
even-skipped
A pair-rule gene of Drosophila.
evi-1
Putative oncogene from mouse myeloid leukemias.
Ewing&’s sarcoma
Sarcoma that develops in bone marrow.
excision repair
Mechanism for the repair of environmental damage to one strand of DNA (loss of purines due to thermal fluctuations, formation of pyrimidine dimers by UV irradiation). The site ...
excitable cell
A cell in which the membrane response to depolarizations is non-linear, causing amplification and propagation of the depolarisation (an " action potential"). Apart from neurons ...

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