Слова на букву exci-gene (375) Dictionary of molecular biology
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Слова на букву exci-gene (375)

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excitation-contraction coupling
Name given to the chain of processes coupling excitation of a muscle by the arrival of a nervous impulse at the motor end plate to the contraction of the filaments of the ...
excitatory amino acid
The naturally occurring amino acids L-glutamate and L-aspartate and their synthetic analogues, notably kainate, quisqualate, and NMDA. They have the properties of excitatory ...
excitatory synapse
A synapse (either chemical or electrical) in which an action potential in the presynaptic cell increases the probability of an action potential occurring in the postsynaptic ...
excitotoxin
Class of substances that damage neurons through paroxysmal overactivity. The best known excitotoxins are the excitatory amino acids, that can produce lesions in the CNS similar ...
exendin
Group of peptide hormones, related to the glucagon family, found in the Gila monster. Helospectin is exendin-1; helodermin is exendin-2.
exfoliatin
Epidermolytic toxin produced by some strains of Staphylococcus aureus ; causes detachment of outer layer of skin by disrupting desmosomes of the stratum granulosum.
exine
External part of pollen wall that is often elaborately sculptured in a fashion characteristic of the plant species. Contains sporopollenin. The term is also used for the outer ...
exocrine
Exocrine glands release their secreted products into ducts that open onto epithelial surfaces. See endocrine.
exocytosis
Release of material from the cell by fusion of a membrane-bounded vesicle with the plasma membrane.
exocytotic vesicle
Vesicle, for example a secretory vesicle or zymogen granule, that can fuse with the plasma membrane to release its contents.
exoenzyme
(1) An enzyme attached to the outer surface of a cell (an ectoenzyme) or released from the cell into the extracellular space. (2) An enzyme that only cleaves the terminal ...
exon
The sequences of the RNA primary transcript (or the DNA that encodes them) that exit the nucleus as part of a messenger RNA molecule. In the primary transcript neighbouring ...
exon shuffling
Process by which the evolution of proteins with multifunctional domains could be accelerated. If exons each encoded individual functional domains, then introns would allow their ...
exon trapping
Technique for identifying regions of a genomic DNA fragment that are part of an expressed gene. The genomic sequence is cloned into an intron, flanked by two exons, in a ...
exonuclease
Enzyme that digests the ends of a piece of DNA (cf. endonuclease). The nature of the digestion is usually specified (eg. 5&’ or 3&’ exonuclease).
exonuclease III
(= Exo III) Enzyme that degrades DNA from one end. Used to prepare deletions in cloned DNA, or for DNA footprinting.
exopeptidase
Peptide hydrolases of the class EC3.4 that cleave the N- or C-terminal amino acid from a peptide.
exothermic
Process or reaction in which heat is produced - the opposite of endothermic.
exotoxins
Toxins released from Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria - as opposed to endotoxins that form part of the cell wall. Examples are cholera, pertussis and diphtheria toxins. ...
experimental allergic encephalomyelitis
An autoimmune disease that can be induced in various experimental animals by the injection of homogenized brain or spinal cord in Freund\'s adjuvant. The antigen appears to be ...
expression cloning
Method of gene cloning based on transfection of a large number of cells with cDNAs in an expression vector (eg. a cDNA library), then screening for a functional property ...
expression vector
A vector that results in the expression of inserted DNA sequences when propagated in a suitable host cell, ie. the protein coded for by the DNA is synthesized by the host\'s ...
extensin
Glycoprotein of the plant cell wall, characterized by its high hydroxyproline content. Carbohydrate side-chains are composed of simple galactose residues and oligosaccharides ...
extinction coefficient
Outmoded term for absorption coefficient.
extracellular matrix
(= ecm; ECM) Any material produced by cells and secreted into the surrounding medium, but usually applied to the non-cellular portion of animal tissues. The ecm of ...
extrachromosomal element
Any heritable element not associated with the chromosome(s). It is usually a plasmid or the DNA of organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts.
extremophile
An organism that requires an extreme enviroment in which to flourish - examples are thermophiles and halophiles.
extrinsic pathway
Initiation of blood clotting as a result of factors released from damaged tissue, as opposed to contact with a foreign surface (the intrinsic pathway). Tissue thromboplastin ...
exudate cells
Leucocytes that enter tissues (exude from the blood vessels) during an inflammatory response. See also peritoneal exudate.
ezrin
Microfilament bundling protein (80 kD) from the core of microvilli. Phosphorylated following stimulation of cells.
F-actin
Filamentous actin.
F-box
Motif found in a number of eukaryotic regulatory proteins. Responsible in some cases for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis.
F-box proteins
Adapter proteins that are involved in associating proteins with the ubiquitin-driven proteolytic system. The F-box is a motif originally identified within Neurospora crassa ...
F-factor
Plasmid that confers the ability to conjugate (ie. fertility) on bacterial cells, and carries the tra genes; first described in E. coli.
f-met-leu-phe
(= formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine; fMLP) See formyl peptides.
F-spondin
The F-spondin genes are a family of extracellular matrix molecules united by two conserved domains, FS1 and FS2, at the amino terminus plus a variable number of thrombospondin ...
F-type ATPase
(= F1F0 ATPase; ATP synthase; F-ATPase) Multi-subunit proton-transporting ATPase, related to the V-type ATPase. Found in the inner membrane of mitochondria and chloroplasts, ...
F1
See neuromodulin.
F1 hybrid
First filial generation - product of crossing two dissimilar parents. If the parents are sufficiently dissimilar the hybrid may be sterile (for example in the crossing of horse ...
F11
Neural cell recognition molecule with immunoglobulin type C domains and fibronectin type III repeats. Its cDNA sequence is almost identical to contactin except that while F11 ...
Fab
1. Fragment of immunoglobulin prepared by papain treatment. Fab fragments (45 kD) consist of one light chain linked through a disulphide bond to a portion of the heavy chain, ...
FABP
See fatty acid binding protein.
facilitated diffusion
(= passive transport) A process by which substances are conveyed across cell membranes faster than would be possible by diffusion alone. This is generally achieved by proteins ...
facilitation
Greater effectiveness of synaptic transmission by successive presynaptic impulses, usually due to increased transmitter release.
facilitator neuron
A neuron whose firing enhances the effect of a second neuron on a third. This allows the effects of neuronal activity to be modulated.
FACS
See flow cytometry.
Factors I-XII
Blood clotting factors, especially from humans. These factors form a cascade in which the activation of the first factor leads to enzymic attack on the next factor and so on, ...
facultative heterochromatin
That heterochromatin which is condensed in some cells and not in others, presumably representing stable differences in the activity of genes in different cells. The best known ...
FAD
(= flavin adenine dinucleotide) A prosthetic group of many flavin enzymes. See flavin nucleotides.
FADD
Adaptor protein that links death receptors to caspases in the signalling pathway that leads to apoptotic cell death.
FAK
See focal adhesion kinase.
Falconization
Trade name for the treatment of polystyrene to make it appropriate for use in cell culture. The main commercial process is probably corona discharge in air or other gas mixtures ...
familial hypercholesterolemia
Excess of cholesterol in plasma as a result of defects in the recycling process that leads to reduced uptake of LDL (low density lipoprotein) into coated vesicles.
famotidine
Drug that blocks histamine H2 receptors and is used for treatment of gastric ulcers. A Yamanouchi drug.
Fanconi syndrome
Transport disease (recessive defect) in which the renal reabsorption of several substances (phosphate, glucose, amino acids) is impaired.
Fanconi's anaemia
Defect in thymine-dimer excision from DNA predisposing to development of leukaemia.
far Western blot
Form of Western blot in which protein/protein interactions are studied. Proteins are run on a gel and transferred to a membrane as in a normal Western blot. The proteins are ...
FAR1
Yeast gene, induced by a factor, that causes cells to arrest in G1 phase, by interacting with the G1 cyclin, CLN2.
Farber's disease
Lipogranulomatosis caused by deficiency of ceramide degrading enzymes - a storage disease.
Farmer's lung
Type III hypersensitivity response to Micropolyspora faeni, a thermophilic bacterium found in mouldy hay. Conveniently afflicts \'Joe Grundy\' in BBC Radio 4&’s The Archers.
farnesyl transferase
Enzyme (EC 2.5.1.21) that adds a farnesyl group to certain intracellular proteins. See farnesylation.
farnesylation
The farnesyl group is the linear grouping of three isoprene units. It is specifically attached to proteins that contain the C-terminal motif CAAX by cleavage and addition to ...
Farr-type assay
Method of radioimmunoassay in which free antigen remains soluble and antibody-antigen complexes are precipitated.
Fas antigen
Cell surface transmembrane protein (35 kD) that mediates apoptosis. Has structural homology with TNF receptor and NGF receptor. May play a part in negative selection of ...
Fas ligand
Ligand for the Fas antigen which is actually a receptor of the TNF-receptor family.
fascicle
Literally, a bundle. In particular, this is used to describe the tendency of neurites to grow together (fasciculate).
fasciclins
Cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily found in the central nervous system of insects. Involved with fasciculation of axons and probably in pathfinding ...
fascicular cambium
Form of cambium present in the vascular bundles of higher plants.
fasciculation
Tendency of developing neurites to grow along exisiting neurites and hence form bundles or fascicles. Selective fasciculation in developing vertebrate nervous systems is thought ...
fascin
Actin filament-bundling protein (58 kD) from sea-urchin eggs.
FAST
(= forkhead activin signal transducer) DNA-binding component (60 kD) of the ARF complex, binds to activin response element in mix gene promoter. A winged helix ...
fat cell
See adipocyte.
fat droplets
Micro-aggregates of (mainly) triglycerides visible within cells.
fate map
Diagram of an early embryo (usually a blastula) showing which tissues the cells in each region will give rise to (ie. their developmental fate). Fate maps are normally ...
fats
A term largely applied to storage lipids in animal tissues. The primary components are triglyceride esters of long-chain fatty acids.
fatty acid binding proteins
(= FABP) Group of small cytosolic proteins that bind fatty acids or other organic solutes.
fatty acids
Chemically R-COOH where R is an aliphatic moiety. The common fatty acids of biological origin are linear chains with an even number of carbon atoms. Free fatty acids are present ...
fatty streak
Superficial fatty patch in the artery wall caused by the accumulation of cholesterol and cholesterol oleate in distended foam cells.
Favism
Haemolytic anaemia induced in individuals who are glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient by eating fava beans (from Vicia fava ).
Fc
That portion of an immunoglobulin molecule (Fragment crystallizable) that binds to a cell when the antigen binding sites (Fab) of the antibody are occupied or the antibody is ...
Fc receptors
Receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulins.
FCS
See fetal calf serum.
FDA
(= Food and Drug Authority) American drug regulatory authority responsible for assuring the safety of prescription drugs. FDA approval is essential for a new drug to be launched ...
feedback regulation
Control mechanism that uses the consequences of a process to regulate the rate at which the process occurs: if, for example, the products of a reaction inhibit the reaction from ...
feeder layer
In order to culture some cells, particularly at low or clonal density, it is necessary to use a layer of less fastidious cells to condition the medium. Often the cells of the ...
feline immunodeficiency virus
Widespread lentivirus (retrovirus) that causes an immunodeficiency in domestic cats.The immunodeficiency may be due to failure to generate an IL-12-dependent Type I response. ...
Felis catus
Cat that is said to be domesticated.
fermentation
Breakdown of organic substances, especially by microorganisms such as bacteria and yeasts, yielding incompletely oxidized products. Some forms can take place in the absence of ...
ferrichromes
(= siderochromes) Ligands for iron binding secreted by microorganisms to sequester and transport iron.
ferridoxins
Low molecular weight iron-sulphur proteins that transfer electrons from one enzyme system to another without themselves having enzyme activity.
ferritin
An iron storage protein of mammals, found in liver, spleen, and bone marrow. Morphologically a shell of apoferritin (protein) with a core of ferrous hydroxide/phosphate. It is ...
fertilization
The essential process in sexual reproduction, involving the union of two specialized haploid cells, the gametes, to give a diploid cell, the zygote, which then develops to ...
ferulic acid
Phenolic compound present in the plant cell wall that may be involved in cross-linking polysaccharide.
fes
An oncogene, identified in avian and feline sarcomas, encoding a tyrosine protein kinase.
fetal calf serum
Expensive component of standard culture media for many types of animal tissue cells.
fetuin
(= a2-HS-glycoprotein) An a -globulin constituting up to 45% of the total protein in fetal calf serum. Very carbohydrate-rich and a growth factor for many cells. Protein portion ...
Feulgen reaction
Specific staining procedure for DNA: mild acid hydrolysis makes the aldehyde group of deoxyribose available to react with Schiff\'s reagent to give a purple colour.
FGF
See fibroblast growth factor.
fgf-5
Oncogene encoding a member of the FGF family.
fgr
Oncogene identified in a feline sarcoma, encoding a tyrosine protein kinase.
fibre cell
Greatly elongated type of plant cell with very thick lignified wall. Usually dead at maturity, this cell type is specialized for the provision of mechanical strength. Fibre cells ...
fibrillar centres
Location of the nucleolar ribosomal chromatin at telophase: as the nucleolus becomes active the ribosomal chromatin and associated ribonucleoprotein transcripts compose the ...
fibrillarin
Highly conserved nucleolar protein (34-36 kD) that associates with U3-snoRNP and is found in the coiled body of the nucleolus. The N terminus contains a glycine and ...
fibrillin
Widely-distributed connective tissue protein (350 kD) associated with microfibrils (10nm diameter).
fibrin
Monomeric fibrin (323 kD) is produced from fibrinogen by proteolytic removal of the highly charged (aspartate- and glutamate-rich) fibrinopeptidesby thrombin, in the presence ...
fibrinogen
Lackie Soluble plasma protein (340 kD; 46nm long), composed of 6 peptide chains (2 each of A a, B b, and g ) and present at about 2-3 mg/ml.
fibrinolysis
Solubilization of fibrin in blood clots, chiefly by the proteolytic action of plasmin.
fibrinopeptides
Very negatively-charged peptide fragments cleaved from fibrinogen by thrombin. Two peptides (A and B) are produced from each fibrinogen molecule.
fibroblast
Resident cell of connective tissue, mesodermally derived, that secretes fibrillar procollagen, fibronectin and collagenase.
fibroblast growth factor
(= FGF; aFGF; bFGF; HBGF) Also known as heparin-binding growth factor (HBGF). Acidic FGF (a-FGF, HBGF 1) and basic FGF (b-FGF, HBGF 2) are the two founder members of a ...
fibroblast growth factor receptor
Family of receptor tyrosine kinases for fibroblast growth factor.
fibroblastic
Many types of cultured cell become fibroblastic in appearance - this does not mean that they are fibroblasts.
fibroin
Structural protein of silk, one of the first to be studied with X-ray diffraction. It has a repeat sequence GSGAGA and is unusual in that it consists almost entirely of stacked ...
fibromodulin
A small proteoglycan, around 60 kD, of the extracellular matrix. The core protein has a mass of around 42 kD and is very similar to the core protein of biglycan and decorin. ...
fibronectin
Glycoprotein of high molecular weight (2 chains each of 250 kD linked by disulphide bonds) that occurs in insoluble fibrillar form in extracellular matrix of animal tissues, and ...
fibrosarcoma
Malignant tumour derived from connective tissue fibroblast.
fibrosis
Deposition of avascular collagen-rich matrix (fibrous tissue) in a wound, usually as a consequence of slow fibrinolysis or extensive tissue damage as in sites of chronic ...
fibrous lamina
Alternative name for the nuclear lamina, the region lying just inside the inner nuclear membrane.
fibrous plaque
Thickened area of arterial intima with accumulation of smooth muscle cells and fibrous tissue (collagen etc.) produced by the fat-laden smooth muscle cells. Below the ...
fibrous tissue
Although most connective tissue has fibrillar elements, the term usually refers to tissue laid down at a wound site - well-vascularized at first (granulation tissue) but later ...
fibulin
Calcium-binding, cysteine-rich glycoprotein found in the extracellular matrix and in plasma. Alternative splicing generates three forms of fibulin with 566, 601 and 683 amino ...
Fick&’s law
Equation that describes the process of diffusion. The flux is proportional to the concentration gradient, times the diffusion constant for the molecule in that particular ...
Ficoll
Synthetic branched co-polymer of sucrose and epichlorhydrin. Ficoll solutions have high viscosity and low osmotic pressures. Often used for preparing density gradients for cell ...
Ficoll-Paque
Proprietary name for premixed Ficoll and diatrizoate (Hypaque) with a density of g/cm3 used as a cushion for separating lymphocytes (which do not pass through the Ficoll-Paque ...
field ion microscope
Type of microscopy in which the specimen is `illuminated\' with ions, often gallium ions, that are focused electrostatically. The ions remove components of the specimen, lower ...
filaggrins
Basic protein components of keratohyalin granules of the suprabasal cells of the skin. Family of intermediate filament-associated cationic proteins found in mammalian ...
filamentous phage
(= Inovirus) Single-stranded DNA bacteriophages of the genus Inoviridae. Examples that infect E. coli : M13, f1.
filaments
See thick filaments, thin filaments, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments.
filamin
A protein that binds to F-actin, cross-linking it to form an isotropic network; the binding does not require Ca2+. It was originally isolated from smooth muscle and is a ...
Filaria
Genus of nematode worms causing elephantiasis and filariasis.Transmitted by insects.
filiform papillae
Curved tapering cone-shaped body on the tongue of rodents, of which the epithelial cell columns have been investigated in detail.
filipin
Polyene antibiotic from Streptomyces filipinensis. Polymers of filipin associated with cholesterol in the cell membrane form pores which lead to cytolysis (as does ...
filopodium
(= filopodia (plural) ) A thin protrusion from a cell, usually supported by microfilaments; may be functionally the linear equivalent of the leading lamella.
Filoviridae
Lackie Family of single-stranded RNA viruses, similar in some respect to rhabdoviruses. Marburg and Ebola viruses are the only two members of the family at present. Filovirus ...
filovirus
Virus of family Filoviridae. Includes Marburg and Ebola viruses. Both cause severe haemorrhagic fevers in humans.
fimbriae
(= fimbria (singular) ) See pili.
fimbrillin
Major subunit protein of bacterial pili (fimbriae). Binds to fibronectin and statherin. Coded by Fim genes. In Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis fimbrillins are around 43 ...
fimbrin
(= plastin) Actin-binding protein (68 kD) from the core of epithelial brush-border microvilli. Contains the EF-hand motif.
finasteride
Drug that inhibits 5-alpha-reductase, the enzyme that converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone in the prostate. Used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic ...
fingerprinting
The basic principle of the technique is to digest a large molecule with a sequence-specific hydrolase to produce moderate size fragments that can then be run on an ...
FISH analysis
See in situ hybridization.
fission yeast
See Schizosaccharomyces pombe.
FITC
(= fluorescein isothiocyanate) FITC is used as a reagent to conjugate fluorescein to protein. FITC-labelled antibodies are extensively used for fluorescence microscopy: the ...
FIV
Feline immunodeficiency virus. A lentivirus that, like HIV and SIV, uses chemokine receptors (CXCR4) on cells as a co-receptors for infection. FIV can use human chemokine ...
fixation
Any chemical or physical treatment of cellular material that tends to result in its insolubilization, thus making it suitable for various types of processing for microscopy, such ...
FK506
Immunosuppressive drug (tacrolimus) that acts in a very similar way to cyclosporin, binding to an immunophilin and affecting calcineurin-mediated activation of the ...
FKBP
(= FK506 binding protein) A family of small intracellular proteins (around 11 kD) that bind the immunosuppressive drug FK506 (tacrolimus), thus are immunophilins. Like ...
flag tagging
Molecular biology technique, in which the gene encoding a protein of interest is mutagenised to include an epitope for which there is a good antibody. The fate of the protein ...
flagellin
Subunit protein (40 kD) of the bacterial flagellum.
flagellum
(= flagella (plural) ) Long thin projection from a cell used in movement. In eukaryotes flagella (like cilia) have a characteristic axial ‘9+2’ microtubular array (axoneme) ...
flame cells
Specialized excretory cells found in Platyhelminthes (flatworms). The basal nucleated cell body has a distal cylindrical extension that surrounds an extracellular cavity lined ...
flanking sequence
Short DNA sequences bordering a transcription unit. Often these do not code for proteins.
FLAP
(= 5-lipoxygenase activating protein) Activator of the enzyme responsible for the production of 5-HPETE from arachidonic acid, the first step in leukotriene synthesis.
flare streaming
Phenomenon described in isolated cytoplasm of giant amoeba when the medium contains Ca2+ and ATP. A loop of cytoplasm flows outward and then returns to the main mass - the ...
flat revertant
Variant of a malignant-transformed animal tissue cell in which the characteristic high saturation density and piled-up morphology have reverted to the flatter morphology ...
flavan
(= 2,3-dihydro-2-phenylbenzopyran) Parent ring compound on which flavanols, flavanones, flavones, flavonols and flavonoids are based. Should be distinguished from flavin which ...
flavin
Group of variously substituted derivatives of 7,8-dimethylisoalloxazine. Yellow coloured. The flavin group is found in FAD, FADH and flavoproteins. Not to be confused with ...
flavin adenine dinucleotide
See flavin nucleotides.
flavin nucleotides
General term for flavin-adenine dinucleotide (FAD) or flavin mononucleotide (FMN). Act as prosthetic groups (covalently linked cofactors) for flavin enzymes.
Flaviviridae
Family of enveloped RNA viruses with spherical particles 40-50nm in diameter. Only genus is Flavivirus. Cause dengue haemorrhagic fever, Japanese encephalitis, tick-borne ...
flavone
(= 2-phenylchromen-4-one; 2-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) Specifically the compound and more generally a group of hydroxylated derivatives. Flavone glycosides occur widely as ...
flavoproteins
Enzymes or proteins that have a flavin nucleotide as a coenzyme or prosthetic group. Oxidoreductases or electron carriers in the terminal portion of the electron transport ...
flavoridin
See disintegrin.
Flemming-without-acetic
An excellent cytoplasmic fixative that contains chromic acid and osmium tetroxide.
FLICE
Caspase 8;
FLIP
(FLICE-inhibitory protein) Family of proteins that inhibit the caspase, FLICE, and thus protect from apoptotic death. Viral FLIPs (v-FLIPs) contain two death-effector domains ...
flip-flop
A term used to describe the coordinated transfer of two phospholipid molecules from opposite sides of a lipid bilayer membrane. Now used to mean the passage of a phospholipid ...
flippase
See flp-frp recombinase.
FLIPR
(= fluorescence imaging plate reader) Machine for fluorescence imaging using a laser that is capable of illuminating a 96-well plate and a means of simultaneously reading each ...
flk-1
(= VEGFR-2; KDR) One of the receptors for VEGF, binds VEGF-121 and VEGF-C. See flt-1 and cloche.
florigen
Hypothetical plant growth substance (hormone) postulated to induce flowering. Existence not proven: recently suggested that it might be an oligosaccharin.
flow cytometry
Slightly imprecise but common term for the use of the Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter (FACS). Cells are labelled with fluorescent dye and then passed, in suspending medium, ...
flp-frp recombinase
(Pronounced: "flip-furp") Yeast system for DNA rearrangement. In the presence of " flippase", a stretch of DNA flanked by matching frp sites is excised, and the ends rejoined. ...
FLRF-amide
Phe-Leu-Arg-Phe-NH2, a tetrapeptide neurotransmitter found in invertebrates that is a member of a diverse family of RF-amide peptides; all members of which share the same ...
flt
Receptors for VEGF isoforms. Flt-1 is VEGF Receptor-1; flt-3 (Flk2; STK-1; CD135) has a ligand of 24 kD similar to c-kit ligand and M-CSF; flt-4 (VEGFR-3) binds VEGF-C and is ...
fluctuation analysis
Method used to determine (for example) how many ion channels contribute to the transmembrane current. On the assumption that each channel is either open or shut, the noise in the ...
fluctuation test
Test devised by Luria & Delbruck to determine whether genetic variation in a bacterial population arises spontaneously or adaptively. In the original version the statistical ...
fluid bilayer model
Generally accepted model for membranes in cells. In its original form, the model held that proteins floated in a sea of phospholipids arranged as a bilayer with a central ...
fluorescein
Fluorophore commonly used in microscopy. Fluorescein di-acetate can be used as a vital stain, or can be conjugated to proteins (particularly antibodies) using isothiocyanate. ...
fluorescence
The emission of one or more photons by a molecule or atom activated by the absorption of a quantum of electro-magnetic radiation. Typically the emission, that is of longer ...
fluorescence activated cell sorter
(= FACS) See flow cytometry.
fluorescence energy transfer
(= fluorescence resonant energy transfer) Transfer of energy from one fluorochrome to another. The emission wavelength of the fluorochrome excited by the incident light must ...
fluorescence in situ hybridization
(= FISH; chromosome painting) Technique of directly mapping the position of a gene or DNA clone within a genome by in situ hybridization to metaphase spreads, in which ...
fluorescence microscopy
Any type of microscopy in which intrinsic or applied reagents are visualized. Intrinsic fluorescence is often referred to as auto-fluorescence. The applied reagents typically ...
fluorescence recovery after photobleaching
(= FRAP) Many fluorochromes are bleached by exposure to exciting light. If, for example, the cell surface is labelled with a fluorescent probe and an area bleached by laser ...
fluoride
The fluoride ion F-. Low levels of fluoride in drinking water markedly decrease the incidence of dental caries, probably because bacterial metabolism is much more sensitive to ...
fluorite objective
Microscope objective corrected for spherical and chromatic aberration at two wavelengths. Better than an ordinary objective corrected at one wavelength but inferior to (and ...
fluorochromes
Those molecules that are fluorescent when appropriately excited; fluorochromes such as fluorescein or tetramethyl rhodamine are usually used in their isothiocyanate forms (FITC, ...
fMLP
See formyl peptides.
FMN
(= flavine adenine nucleotide) See flavine nucleotides.
FMRF-amide
Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2, a tetrapeptide neurotransmitter, a member of the same family of RF-amide peptides as FLRF-amide, sharing the same C-terminal RF-amide sequence.
fms
An oncogene, identified in a feline sarcoma, encoding a tyrosine protein kinase, as part of a mutant receptor for macrophage colony-stimulating factor.
Fnr
Fnr (fumarate nitrate reductase) protein activates a number of operons in E. coli during anaerobic growth and is a transcriptional regulator.
foam cells
Lipid-laden macrophages and, to a lesser extent smooth muscle cells, found in fatty streaks on the arterial wall.
focal adhesion kinase
Protein kinase which is found at focal adhesionsand is thought to mediate the adhesion or spreading processes.
focal adhesions
Areas of close apposition, and thus presumably anchorage points, of the plasma membrane of a fibroblast (for example) to the substratum over which it is moving. Usually 1 x ...
focus
Group of (frequently neoplastic) cells, identifiable by distinctive morphology or histology.
fodrin
Tetrameric protein ( a 240 kD, b 235 kD) found in brain: an isoform of spectrin.
folate
(= tetrahydrofolate) Molecule that acts as a carrier of one-carbon units in intermediary metabolism. It contains residues of p -aminobenzoate, glutamate, and a substituted ...
folic acid
Pteridine derivative that is abundant in liver and green plants, and is a growth factor for some bacteria. The biochemically active form is tetrahydrofolate (see folate).
follicle
Generally a small sac or vesicle. Bot. A kind of fruit formed from a single carpel, that splits to release its seeds. Zool. Its use includes: hair follicle, an invagination of ...
follicle-stimulating hormone
(= FSH; follitropin) Pituitary hormone that is an acidic glycoprotein. It induces development of ovarian follicles and stimulates the release of oestrogens.
follistatin
Originally identified as an activin-binding protein, follistatin inhibits BMP activity in early Xenopus development.
footprinting
A technique used to identify the binding site of, for example, a protein on a nucleic acid sequence. The basic principle is to carry out a very limited hydrolysis of the DNA with ...
Foraminifera
Group of Rhizopod Protozoa that secrete a test (‘shell’) and have slender pseudopods that extend beyond the test and unite to form networks. Allogromia is a genus within ...
foreign body giant cell
Syncytium formed by the fusion of macrophages in response to an indigestible particle too large to be phagocytosed (eg. talc, silica or asbestos fibres). There may be as many as ...
forkhead
Drosophila homeotic gene. The forkhead gene family of transcription factors belong to the winged helix class of DNA-binding proteins. More than 40 members of the family have ...
formaldehyde
Commonly used fixative and antibacterial agent. As a fixative it is cheap and tends to cause less denaturation of proteins than does glutaraldehyde, particularly if used in a ...
formins
A set of protein isoforms encoded by alternatively spliced ld locus of the mouse. Mutations in ld lead to disruption in pattern formation, small size, fusion of distal bones ...
formyl peptides
Informal term for small peptides with a formylated N-terminal methionine and usually a hydrophobic amino acid at the carboxy-terminal end (fMetLeuPhe is the most commonly used). ...
forskolin
(= colforsin) Diterpene from the roots of Coleus forskohlii that stimulates adenylate cyclase and is often used in conjunction with inhibitors of phosphodiesterase to ...
Forssman antigen
A glycolipid heterophil antigen present on tissue cells of many species. It was first described for sheep red cells, and is not present on human, rabbit, rat, porcine or bovine ...
fos
An oncogene, identified in a mouse osteosarcoma, encoding a transcription factor. Fos and Jun proteins dimerise via a leucine zipper to form the AP-1 transcription factor. ...
founder cell
Cell that gives rise to tissue by clonal expansion. For most mammalian tissues there are considerably more than two founder cells, as can be determined by forming chimeras from ...
four helix bundle
Common protein motif in which 4 alpha-helices bundle closely together to form a hydrophobic core.
Fourier analysis
Loosely, the use of Fourier transformations to convert a time-based signal to a frequency spectrum and back, allowing any periodic property of the signal to be identified.
fovea
Small pit or depression on the surface of a structure or organ; the fovea centralis is the most cone-rich region of the retina with maximum acuity and colour sensitivity.
FPLC
Fast protein liquid chromatography. Chromatographic method for protein purification that is much less commonly used now that recombinant proteins can be purified by affinity ...
fps
See fes.
fra-1
(= Fos-related antigen-1) Related to fos.
fractalkine
Membrane-bound chemokinewith CX3C motif. Chemokine domain (76 amino acids) is bound to membrane through mucin-like stalk (241 amino acids) or can be released as a 95 kD ...
fraction I protein
See ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxidase (RUBISCO).
fractionation
A term used to describe any method for separating and purifying biological molecules. See also cell fractionation.
fragile X syndrome
Most frequent cause of mental retardation. There is an expanded trinucleotide repeat, CGG, in the fra (X) gene.
fragmentin-2
See granzyme B.
fragmin
An actin-binding protein (42 kD) from the slime mould Physarum polycephalum, that has calcium-sensitive severing and capping properties.
frame-shift mutation
Insertion or deletion of a number of bases not divisible by three in an open reading frame in a DNA sequence. Such mutations usually result in the generation, downstream, of ...
Frankia
Genus of Actinomycetales capable of nitrogen fixation, both independently and in symbiotic association with roots of certain non-leguminous plants, notably alder.
FRAP
See fluorescence recovery after photobleaching.
frataxin
Product of the X25 gene: deficiency leads to Friedreich\'s ataxia.
fraxin
(= 7-hydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin 8-glucoside) Coumarinic glucoside from Fraxinus excelsiorthat has anti-inflammatory and antimetastatic properties, the former probably because of ...
free energy
(= Gibbs free energy, G) A thermodynamic term used to describe the energy that may be extracted from a system at constant temperature and pressure. In biological systems the most ...
free radical
Highly reactive and usually short-lived molecular fragment with one or more unpaired electrons.
freeze cleavage
See freeze fracture.
freeze drying
Method commonly adopted to produce a dry and stable form of biological material that has not been seriously denatured. By freezing the specimen, often with liquid nitrogen, and ...
freeze etching
If a freeze fractured specimen is left for any length of time before shadowing, then water will sublime off from the specimen etching (lowering) those surfaces that are not ...
freeze fracture
Method of specimen preparation for the electron microscope in which rapidly frozen tissue is cracked so as to produce a fracture plane through the specimen. The surface of the ...
French flag problem
The French flag (tricolor) is used to illustrate a problem in the determination of pattern in a tissue, that of specifying three sharp bands of cells with discrete properties ...
frequenin
Synaptic calcium-binding protein originally found in Drosophila. Homologous to recoverin and visinin.
Freund's adjuvant
A water-in-oil emulsion used experimentally for stimulating a vigorous immune response to an antigen (that is in the aqueous phase). Complete Freund\'s adjuvant contains ...
Friedreich's ataxia
Autosomal recessive disorder caused by trinucleotide (GAA) repeats that, unlike those in Huntington\'s chorea and fragile X syndrome, are within an intron of the gene 25 that ...
Friend helper virus
Mouse (lymphoid) leukaemia virus present in stocks of Friend virus, that was believed at one time to assist its replication. Molecular cloning of Friend virus has since shown ...
Friend murine erythroleukaemia cells
Lines of mouse erythroblasts transformed by the Friend virus, that can be induced to differentiate terminally, producing haemoglobin, by various agents such as dimethyl ...
Friend murine leukaemia virus
Murine leukaemia virus isolated by Charlotte Friend in 1956 whilst attempting to transmit the Erlich ascites tumour by cell-free extracts. Causes an unusual ...
Friend spleen focus-forming virus
Defective virus found in certain strains of Friend helper virus, detected by its ability to form foci in spleens of mice, and believed to be responsible in those strains for the ...
fringe
Protein that regulates the location-specific expression of the Notch ligands serrate protein and Delta protein in the developing Drosophila wing.
frizzled
Drosophila tissue-polarity gene encoding a serpentine receptor that responds to a polarity signal. Downstream signalling seems to involve JNK/SAPK-like kinases, Rho factor A ...
frontal zone contraction theory
Model proposed to account for the movement of giant amoebae in which cytoplasmic contraction at the front of the leading pseudopod (fountain zone) pulls viscoelastic cytoplasm ...
frozen stock
Because cell lines tend to change their properties with continuous rounds of subculturing, it is common practice to keep stocks of cells frozen (either in liquid nitrogen or at ...
fructose
A 6-carbon sugar (hexose) abundant in plants. Fructose has its reducing group (carbonyl) at C2, and thus is a ketose, in contrast to glucose that has its carbonyl at C1 and thus ...
FSH
See follicle-stimulating hormone.
ftsZ
Filamentous temperature sensitive gene from E. coli, the product of which is a novel GTP-binding protein (43 kD) that may be involved in signalling. The protein has GTPase ...
ftz
See fushi tarazu.
fuchsin
Synthetic rosaniline dye. Used as a red dye (in Schiff&’s reagent) and as an anti-fungal agent.
fucose
L-fucose (6-deoxy-L-galactose) is found as a constituent of N-glycan chains of glycoproteins; it is the only common L-form of sugar involved. D-fucose is usually encountered as a ...
fucosyl transferase
An enzyme catalysing the transfer of fucosyl residues from the nucleotide sugar GDP-fucose.
fucoxanthin
Carotenoid pigment of certain brown algae (Phaeophyta) and bacteria: absorbs at 500-580nm.
Fucus
Genus of brown algae common on shore-line of Northern seas.
Fugu rubripes
Japanese Puffer fish. Notorious for the poison (tetrodotoxin) found in lethal amounts in the poison gland (that must be removed before the fish can safely be eaten) and at low ...
fumagillin
Naturally secreted antibiotic from Aspergillus fumigatus that inhibits endothelial cell proliferation and is therefore potentially anti-angiogenic.
fumarate
A dicarboxylic acid intermediate in the Krebs cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle). Can be derived from aspartate, phenylalanine and tyrosine for input to the Krebs cycle.
functional cloning
(= expression cloning) Strategy for cloning a desired gene that is based on some property (antigenicity, ligand binding, etc.) of the expressed gene. For example, a cDNA ...
Fundulus heteroclitus
The killifish. A teleost much used for the study of early embryonic development because the egg and embryo are transparent.
fura-2
A fluorescent dye, used in measurement of intracellular free calcium levels.

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