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Слова на букву gene-high (375)

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genetic transformation
Genetic change brought about by the introduction of exogenous DNA into a cell. See transformation, germ-line transformation, transfection.
geneticin
(= Antibiotic G418) Used as a selection agent in transfection. Toxic to bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. Vector has geneticin-resistance gene from bacteria so that ...
genistein
(= 4,5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone) Inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases. Competes at ATP binding site and will inhibit other kinases to some extent.
genome
The total set of genes carried by an individual or cell.
genome project
Coordinated programme to completely sequence the genomic DNA of an organism. Usually, genomic sequencing is combined with several associated ventures; the physical mapping of ...
genomic imprinting
Parent-specific expression or repression of genes or chromosomes in offspring. There are an increasing number of recognized chromosomal imprinting events in pathological ...
genomic library
Type of DNA library in which the cloned DNA is from an organism&’s genomic DNA. As genome sizes are relatively large compared to individual cDNAs, a different set of vectors ...
genotype
The genetic constitution of an organism or cell, as distinct from its expressed features or phenotype.
gentamicin
A group of aminoglycoside antibiotics produced by Micromonospora spp. Members include the closely related gentamycins C1, C2 and C1a, together with gentamycin A. They inhibit ...
geotaxis
See gravitaxis. The prefix gravi- is preferable since the gravitational fields used as cues need not necessarily be the Earth\'s.
geotropism
See gravitropism.
gephyrin
Peripheral membrane protein of the cytoplasmic face of the glycinergic synapses in the spinal cord. Appears at developing postsynaptic sites before the glycine receptor and ...
geranyl
Prenyl group ((2E) -3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-yl). Intermediate in cholesterol synthesis and in production of geranyl-geranyl group. Can be post-translationally added to ...
geranyl transferase
(= farnesyl pyrophosphate synthetase) Enzyme (EC 2.5.1.10) responsible for the post-translational transfer of geranyl-geranyl residue to protein.
geranyl-geranyl
(= (2E,6E,10E) -3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2,6,10,14-hexadecatetraen-1-yl group) Prenyl group post-translationally added by geranyl transferase to some cytoplasmic proteins ...
geranylation
The geranoyl group is a linear sequence of 2 isoprenyl residues. The term geranylgeranyl is used for the common unit of 4 residues. See also polyisoprenylation.
GERL
The Golgi-endoplasmic reticulum-lysosome system. See individual entries for each of these membranous compartments of the trans-Golgi network.
germ cell
Cell specialized to produce haploidgametes. The germ cell line is often formed very early in embryonic development.
germ layers
The main divisions of tissue types in multicellular organisms. Diploblastic organisms (eg. coelenterates) have two layers, ectoderm and endoderm; triploblastic organisms (all ...
germ-line transformation
Micro-injection of foreign DNA into an early embryo, so that it becomes incorporated into the germ-line of the individual, and thus stably inherited in subsequent generations of ...
Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome
A familial spongiform encephalopathy. Transgenic mice with a mutant form of the PrP gene from patients with this syndrome develop degenerative brain disease that is similar, ...
GF-1
See erythroid transcription factor.
GFAP
Glial fibrillary acidic protein, a member of the family of intermediate filament proteins, characteristic of glial cells.
ghosts
See erythrocyte ghosts.
GI
Common abbreviation for gastro-intestinal.
Gi
See GTP-binding protein.
giant axons
Extraordinarily large unmyelinated axons found in invertebrates. Some, like the squid giant axon, can approach 1mm diameter. Large axons have high conduction speeds; the giant ...
Giardia
Genus of flagellate protozoans, found as intestinal parasites of vertebrates. The human intestinal parasite is Giardia lamblia. The cells have a large disc or `sucker\' on their ...
giardin
Group of proteins, of 29-38 kD, found in the ventral discs of Giardia lamblia.
gibberellic acids
Diterpenoid compounds with gibberellin activity in plants. At least 70 related gibberellic acids have been described and designated as a series GA1, GA2 etc.
gibberellin
Plant growth substance (phytohormone) involved in promotion of stem elongation, mobilization of food reserves in seeds, and other processes. Its absence results in the dwarfism ...
Giemsa
A Romanovsky-type stain that is often used to stain blood films that are suspected to contain protozoan parasites. Contains both basic and acidic dyes and will therefore ...
Ginkgo biloba
Ornamental tree originally native to China. Sole surviving member of the family Ginkgoales. Source of various bioactive compounds.
GIP
Lackie Acronym with too many meanings: (1) Gastric inhibitory polypeptide. (2) Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide; 42 residue peptide that stimulates insulin release ...
gip2
The gip2 oncogene encodes GTPase-deficient alpha-subunits of Gs or Gi-2 proteins and has been identified in tumours of the ovary and adrenal cortex. It will induce neoplastic ...
GIRKs
(= G-protein-gated inward rectifying potassium channels) A newly identified gene family. The gene products are thought to form functional channels through the assembly of ...
gland
Organ specialized for secretion by the infolding of an epithelial sheet. The secretory epithelial cells may either be arranged as an acinus with a duct or as a tubule. Glands ...
glandular fever
Self-limiting disorder of lymphoid tissue caused by infection with Epstein-Barr virus(infectious mononucleosis). Characterized by the appearance of many large lymphoblasts in ...
Glanzmann's thrombasthenia
Platelet dysfunction in which aggregation is deficient. A specific glycoprotein complex (IIb/IIIa) is absent from the plasma membrane: this seems to be the ...
gliadin
Group of proline-rich proteins found in cereal seeds constituting the major storage protein. Associate with glutenin to form gluten.
glial cells
Specialized cells that surround neurons, providing mechanical and physical support, and electrical insulation between neurons.
glial fibrillary acidic protein
(= GFAP) Member of the family of intermediate filament proteins, characteristic of glial cells.
glial filaments
Intermediate filaments of glial cells, made of glial fibrillary acidic protein.
glibenclamide
(= glyburide) Sulphonyl urea that acts via sulphonyl urea receptor (SUR) to regulate inwardly rectifying K+ -ATP channels (Kir6.1) of pancreatic islet cells thereby increasing ...
glicentin
Peptide fragment cleaved from glucagonby prohormone convertase.
gliding motility
Mode of cell motility exhibited by, for example, gregarines. There are no obvious motile appendages, little actin is detectable, and the motor mechanism is poorly understood.
glioblastoma
Highly malignant brain tumour derived from glial cells.
gliomas
Neuroectodermal tumours of neuroglial origin: include astrocytomas, oligodendroglioma, and ependymoma derived from astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells respectively. ...
gliostatin
Cytokine (dimeric, subunits 50 kD) very similar to PD-ECGF. Neurotrophic for cortical neurons and inhibits proliferation of astrocytes (stimulates differentiation). May play ...
globin
The polypeptide moiety of haemoglobin. In the adult human the haemoglobin molecule has two a (141 residues) and two b (146 residues) globin chains.
globoside
(= cytolipin K) Major neutral glycosphingolipid found in kidney and erythrocytes.
globular protein
Any protein that adopts a compact morphology is termed globular. Generally applied to proteins in free solution, but may also be used for compact folded proteins within membranes.
glomerulonephritis
Inflammatory response in the kidney glomerulus that often arises because immune complexes cannot pass through the basement membrane of the fenestrated epithelium where plasma ...
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly (name is onomatopoeic), vector of African trypanosomiasis.
glucagon
A polypeptide hormone (3485 D) secreted by the Acells of the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas in response to a fall in blood sugar levels. Induces hyperglycaemia. A ...
glucans
Glucose-containing polysaccharides, including cellulose, callose, laminarin, starch, and glycogen.
glucocorticoids
Steroid hormones (both natural and synthetic) that promote gluconeogenesis and the formation of glycogen at the expense of lipid and protein synthesis. They also have important ...
glucomannan
Hemicellulosic plant cell-wall polysaccharide containing glucose and mannose linked by b(1-4) -glycosidic bonds. May contain some side-chains of galactose, in which case it ...
gluconeogenesis
Synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate precursors, such as pyruvate, amino acids and glycerol. Takes place largely in liver, and serves to maintain blood glucose under ...
glucosamine
Lackie Amino-sugar (2-amino-2-deoxyglucose) ; component of chitin, heparan sulphate, chondroitin sulphate, and many complex polysaccharides. Usually found as b ...
glucosaminoglycan
See glycosaminoglycan.
glucose
(= dextrose) Six-carbon sugar (aldohexose) widely distributed in plants and animals. Breakdown of glucose (glycolysis) is a major energy source for metabolic processes. In green ...
glucose transporter
(= GLUT-1 etc.) Generic name for any protein that transports glucose. In bacteria these may be ABC proteins, in mammals they belong to a family of 12-transmembrane integral ...
glucose-1-phosphate
Product of glycogen breakdown by phosphorylase. Converted to glucose-6-phosphate by phosphoglucomutase.
glucose-6-phosphate
Phosphomonoester of glucose that is formed by transfer of phosphate from ATP, catalysed by the enzyme hexokinase. It is an intermediate both of the glycolytic pathway (next ...
glucose-related protein
One of the stress-related proteins: identical to endoplasmin.
glucosylation
Transfer of glucose residues, usually from the nucleotide-sugar derivative UDPG. Enzymic glucosylation to generate the glucosyl-galactosyl disaccharide on the hydroxylysine of ...
glucuronic acid
(= GA; GlcA) Uronic acid formed by oxidation of OH group of glucose in position 6. D-glucuronic acid is widely distributed in plants and animals as a subunit of various ...
glucuronoxylan
Hemicellulosic plant cell-wall polysaccharide containing glucuronic acid and xylose as its main constituents. Has a b (1-4) -xylan backbone, with 4- O -methylglucuronic acid ...
GLUT
See glucose transporter.
glutamate
Major fast excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. See glutamate receptor. Also the excitatory neuromuscular transmitter in arthropod skeletal ...
glutamate receptor
See amino acid receptor superfamily. Glutamate receptors are implicated in many important brain functions including long-term potentiation (LTP). At least 4 major ...
glutamic acid
(= Glu; E; 147 D) One of the 20 a- amino acids commonly found in proteins. Plays a central role in amino acid metabolism, acting as precursor of glutamine, proline and ...
glutamine
(= Gln; Q; 146 D) One of the 20 amino acids commonly found (and directly coded for) in proteins. It is the amide at the g -carboxyl of the amino acid glutamate. Glutamine can ...
glutaraldehyde
A dialdehyde used as a fixative, especially for electron microscopy. By its interaction with amino groups (and others) it forms cross-links between proteins.
glutathione
The tripeptide g -glutamylcysteinylglycine. It contains an unusual peptide linkage between the g -carboxyl group of the glutamate side chain and the amine group of cysteine. ...
glutathione peroxidase
A detoxifying enzyme that eliminates hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides. Glutathione is an essential cofactor for the enzyme and its reaction involves the oxidation of ...
glutathione reductase
An FAD-containing enzyme, a dimer of 50 kD subunits. It catalyses the NADP-dependent reduction of glutathione disulphide (GSSG) to glutathione (GSH). This is an essential ...
glutathione S transferase
Enzyme that will couple glutathione to a xenobiotic as the first step in removal. Now very commonly used as a fusion with a gene of interest that is being expressed in a ...
glutelin
Group of proteins found in seeds of cereals such as wheat.
gluten
Protein-rich fraction from cereal grains, especially wheat. When hydrated forms a sticky mass responsible for the mechanical properties of bread dough. Glutelins and gliadin ...
glutenin
A glutelin found in endosperm of wheatgrain. Component of gluten and through its tendency to polymerize contributes to properties of dough.
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
Three-carbon intermediate of the glycolytic pathway formed by the cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, catalysed by the enzyme aldolase. Also involved in reversible ...
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase
(= GAPD; GAPDH; G3PD) Glycolytic enzyme (EC 1.2.1.12) that catalyses the reversible oxidative phosphorylation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. Has been shown to interact with ...
glycerination
Permeabilisation of the plasma membrane of cells by incubating in aqueous glycerol at low temperature. The technique was first applied to muscle which, once glycerinated, can ...
glycerol
A metabolic intermediate, but primarily of interest as the central structural component of the major classes of biological lipids, triglycerides and phosphatidyl phospholipids. ...
glycine
(= Gly; G; 75.1 D) The simplest amino acid. It is a common residue in proteins, especially collagen and elastin, and is not optically active. It is also a major inhibitory ...
glycine receptor
Chloride-channel forming receptor. One of a family of neurotransmitter receptors with fast intrinsic ion channels. See amino acid receptors.
glycipan-3
Membrane glycoprotein thought to bind IGF-2. Defective in Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome.
glycocalyx
The region, seen by electron microscopy, external to the outer dense line of the plasma membranethat appears to be rich in glycosidic compounds such as proteoglycans and ...
glycocholate
(= N-cholyl-glycine) Anion of the bile acid, glycholic acid. Usually found in bile as the sodium salt. Has powerful detergent properties.
glycoconjugate
Any biological macromolecule containing a carbohydrate moiety - thus a generic term to cover glycolipids, glycoproteins and proteoglycans.
glycogen
Branched polymer of D-glucose (mostly a (1-4) -linked, but some a (1-6) at branch points). Size range very variable, up to 105 glucose units. Major short-term storage polymer ...
glycolic acid
Hydroxyacetic acid; found in young plants and green fruits. Glycolate is formed from ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate in a seemingly wasteful side reaction of photosynthesis, known as ...
glycolipid
Oligosaccharides covalently attached to lipid as in the glycosphingolipids (GSL) found in plasma membranes of all animal and some plant cells. The lipid part of GSLs is ...
glycolysis
The conversion of a monosaccharide (generally glucose) to pyruvate via the glycolytic pathway (ie. the Embden-Meyerhof pathway) in the cytosol. Generates ATP without ...
glycophorins
A class of abundant transmembrane glycoproteins of the human erythrocyte. The major component is a 131 residue peptide chain that is highly O-glycosylated and is rich in ...
glycoprotein
Proteins with covalently attached sugar units, either bonded via the OH group of serine or threonine (O-glycosylated) or through the amide NH2 of asparagine (N-glycosylated). ...
glycosaminoglycan attachment site
In proteoglycans a number of glycosaminoglycan chains are attached to a core protein through a xyloside residue which is linked to a serine residue at the consensus pattern ...
glycosaminoglycans
(= formerly mucopolysaccharides) Polysaccharide side-chains of proteoglycans made up of repeating disaccharide units (more than 100) of amino sugars, at least one of which has ...
glycosidase
(= glycosylase) Lackie General and imprecise term for an enzyme that degrades linkage between sugar subunits of a polysaccharide. Any of the EC 3.2 class of hydrolases that ...
glycosidic bond
Bond between anomeric carbon of a sugar and the group to which it is attached (which may be in another sugar or in protein or lipid).
glycosome
Microbody containing glycolytic enzymes, found in protozoa of the Kinetoplastida (eg. trypanosomes).
glycosphingolipids
Ceramide derivatives containing more than one sugar residue. If sialic acid is present these are called gangliosides.
glycosyl transferase
Enzyme that catalyses the transfer of a sugar (monosaccharide) unit from a sugar nucleotide derivative to a sugar or amino acid acceptor.
glycosylation
The process of adding sugar units such as in the addition of glycan chains to proteins.
glyoxisome
Organelle found in plant cells, containing the enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle. Also contains catalase and enzymes for beta-oxidation of fatty acids. Together with the ...
glyoxylate cycle
Metabolic pathway present in bacteria and in the glyoxisome of plants, in which two acetyl-CoA molecules are converted to a 4-carbon dicarboxylic acid, initially succinate. ...
glypiation
See GPI-anchor.
GM-CSF
(= granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor) A cytokine that stimulates the formation of granulocyte or macrophage colonies from myeloid stem cells isolated from bone ...
gnotobiotic
Organism or environment completely or almost completely depleted of all organisms or all other organisms. Animals that are SPF (specific pathogen free) are gnotobiotic.
goblet cell
(1) Cell of the epithelial lining of small intestine that secretes mucus and has a very well-developed Golgi apparatus. (2) Cell type characteristic of larval lepidopteran ...
Golber-Hogness box
See TATA-box.
Goldmann equation
(= Goldmann constant field equation) Equation that describes the electrical potential across a membrane in terms of the distributions and relative permeabilities of the main ...
Golgi apparatus
Also known as the Golgi body, Golgi vesicles; in plants, the dictyosome; in flagellate protozoa, the parabasal body. Intracellular stack of membrane-bounded vesicles in which ...
Gomori procedure
Cytochemical staining procedure used to localize acid phosphatases. Depends upon the production of phosphate ions from organic phosphoesters such as b -glycerophosphate. The ...
gonadotrophin-releasing hormones
(= GnRH) Peptide hormones that act on the pituitary to stimulate production of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. Decapeptides: consensus QHXSXXXXPG ...
gonadotrophins
(= gonadotropins) Group of glycoprotein hormones from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. They stimulate growth of the gonads and the secretion of sex hormones. ...
Gonyaulax
Genus of dinoflagellates. Responsible for ‘red tides’ and associated shellfish poisoning due to saxitoxin. Some species are bioluminescent.
Goodpasture's syndrome
Disease in which there is accumulation of a very uniform layer of autoantibodies to components of basement membrane on the kidney glomerular basement membrane.
gooseberry
A segment-polarity gene of Drosophila. Contains the paired box domain.
GOS19-1
Human macrophage inflammatory protein 1 a.
Gossypium
Genus of plants that includes cotton.
gout
Recurrent acute arthritis of peripheral joints caused by the accumulation of monosodium urate crytals. Usually due to overproduction of uric acid but may be a result of ...
Gp-Ib
(= Glycoprotein Ib) Integral protein of platelets that binds to von Willebrand factor and is involved in thrombus formation. Disulphide-linked heterodimer ( a 68 kD; b 22 kD) ...
GPI-anchor
(= glypiation) Common modification of the C-terminus of membrane-attached proteins in which a phosphatidyl inositol moiety is linked through glucosamine and mannose to a ...
GPS
(1) Gps1 and gps2 suppress ras and MAPK-mediated signalling and interfere with JNK activity suggesting that they are signal repressors. (2) gps1-4 are glycoprotein synthesis ...
Graafian follicle
Final stage in the differentiation of follicles in the mammalian ovary. Consists of a spherical fluid-filled blister on the surface of the ovary that bursts at ovulation to ...
gradient perception
Problem faced by a cell that is to respond directionally to a gradient of, for example, a diffusible attractant chemical. In a spatial mechanism the cell would compare receptor ...
graft-versus-host response
When a graft of lymphocytes or a graft containing lymphocytes is made into an animal these may, if appropriately mismatched at MHC Class I to their host, produce lymphocyte ...
Gram negative bacteria
Bacteria with thin peptidoglycan walls bounded by an outer membrane containing endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide). See Gram stain.
Gram positive bacteria
Bacteria with thick cell walls containing teichoic and lipoteichoic acid complexed to the peptidoglycan. See Gram stain.
Gram stain
A heat-fixed bacterial smear is stained with crystal violet (methyl violet), treated with 3% iodine/potassium iodide solution, washed with alcohol and counterstained. The method ...
Gramicidin A
A linear peptide of alternate D- and L-amino acids that acts as a cation ionophore in lipid bilayer membranes. It is proposed that two molecules form a membrane-spanning helix ...
Grammostola spatulata
Chilean pink tarantula. See grammotoxin.
grammotoxin
(= w-grammotoxin SIA) Toxin (peptide, 36 residues) from spider, Grammostola spatulata, that inhibits non-L-type voltage-regulated calcium channels, thus resembling w -conotoxins ...
granins
(= chromogranins; secretogranins) Family of related acidic proteins (400-600 residues) found in many endocrine cell secretory vesicles. Secretogranin 1 = chromogranin B; ...
granular component of nucleolus
Area of nucleolus that appears granular in the electron microscope and contains 15nm diameter particles that are maturing ribosomes. In contrast to the pale-staining and ...
granulation tissue
Highly vascularized tissue that replaces the initial fibrin clot in a wound. Vascularization is by ingrowth of capillary endothelium from the surrounding vasculature. The ...
granule cell
Type of neuron found in the cerebellum.
granulocyte
Leucocyte with conspicuous cytoplasmic granules. In humans the granulocytes are also classified as polymorphonuclear leucocytes and are subdivided according to the staining ...
granulocyte colony stimulating factor
См. macrophage colony stimulating factor.
granulocytopenia
Low granulocyte number in circulating blood.
granuloma
Chronic inflammatory lesion characterized by large numbers of cells of various types (macrophages, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, giant cells), some degrading and some repairing the ...
granulopoiesis
The production of granulocytes in the bone marrow.
granum
(= grana (plural) ) Stack of thylakoids in the chloroplast, containing the light-harvesting system and the enzymes responsible for the light-dependent reactions of ...
granzyme
Family of serine proteases found in cytotoxic T-cells and NK cells and involved in perforin-dependent cell killing.
Grave&’s disease
Autoimmune disease characterized by goitre, exophthalmia and thyrotoxicosis. Autoantigen is probably TSH-receptor or closely associated protein in thyroid. In Caucasians is ...
gravitaxis
Directed locomotory response to gravity.
gravitropism
Directional growth of a plant organ in response to a gravitational field - roots grow downwards, shoots grow upwards. Achieved by differential growth on the sides of the root or ...
GRB-2
(= growth factor receptor bound protein 2) Protein that links the cytoplasmic domain of growth factor receptor to sos and to shc through its SH2 and SH3 domains, and thus is ...
Greek key
Protein motif in which 4 beta strands (in one or 2 beta sheets) form a twisted arrangement similar to a pattern often seen on Greek vases.
Green algae
See Chlorophyta.
green fluorescent protein
Protein from luminous jellyfish. Excited by blue light (as produced from aequorin luminescence), it emits green light. The gene has been cloned and mutagenised to give brighter ...
gregarine movement
Peculiar gliding movement shown by gregarines (Protozoa), the mechanism of which is poorly understood.
grex
The multicellular aggregate formed by cellular slime moulds (Acrasidae) : the slug-like grex migrates, showing positive phototaxis and negative gravitaxis, until culmination ...
grey crescent
A region near the equator of the surface in the fertilized egg of various amphibia, often of greyish colour, that appears to contain special morphogenetic properties.
GRF
See growth hormone releasing factor.
Grim
Regulator of apotosis in Drosophila. Like reaper and hid effect is blocked by caspase inhibitors and Drosophila homologues of mammalian IAPs.
GRIP
(= glutamate receptor interacting protein.) Protein (120 kD, 1112 residues) found in postsynaptic terminal, contains 7 PDZ domains and is involved in the clustering of AMPA ...
griseofulvin
Polyketide antibiotic from Penicillium griseofulvum. Used therapeutically as an antifungal. Blocks microtubule assembly and thus mitosis.
gRNA
(= Guide RNA) Small RNA molecules (60-80 nucleotides) that are found in the editosome. Guide RNAs are complementary to edited portions of the mature mRNA and contain poly-U ...
gro
See melanoma growth stimulatory activity protein.
groEL
See chaperonins.
groucho
An adaptor molecule that acts as a co-repressor for some negative regulators in Drosophila development but not others (does not act on repressor regions of even-skipped, ...
ground tissue
Plant tissues other than those of the vascular system and the dermal tissues. Composed of relatively undifferentiated cells.
growth cone
A specialized region at the tip of a growing neurite that is responsible for sensing the local environment and moving toward the neuron\'s target cell. Growth cones are ...
growth cone collapse
Loss of motile activity and cessation of advance by growth cones. There are now thought to be specific molecules that inhibit the motility of particular growth cones, and that ...
growth control
When applied to cells usually means control of growth of the population, ie. of the rate of division rather than of the size of an individual cell.
growth factors
Polypeptide hormones that regulate the division of cells, for example EGF (epidermal growth factor), PDGF (platelet-derived GF), FGF (fibroblast GF). Insulin and somatomedin ...
growth factors
См. differentiation factors.
growth hormone
(= somatotropin) Polypeptide (191 amino acids) produced by anterior pituitary that stimulates liver to produce somatomedins 1 and 2.
growth hormone releasing factor
Peptide hormone related to the glucagon family, released from the pituitary, acts on the adenohypophysis to release growth hormone.
growth substances
See plant growth substances.
growth-associated proteins
(= GAPs) Group of developmentally regulated polypeptides thought to be critical for the formation of neural circuitry. The acidic membrane phosphoprotein GAP-43 is synthesized ...
growth-hormone regulating hormone
Hypothalamic hormones that induce (somatoliberin) or inhibit (somatostatin) the release of growth hormone (somatotropin).
GRP
See glucose-related protein or gastrin-releasing peptide.
GRP-1
Guanine nucleotide exchange factor with PH domain that binds PtdIns(3,4,5) P3 and also has domain with homology to yeast Sec7. See cytohesin, ARNO, Gea-1 and Gea-2, other ...
Gs
See GTP-binding protein.
GSK
(= glycogen synthase kinase) GSK3 is a serine-threonine protein kinase that plays an important part in various intracellular signalling pathways including the control of ...
GST
See glutathione S transferase.
GST fusion protein
One way of purifying proteins expressed by a cloned gene is to insert the gene of interest into a vector in-frame with a gene encoding glutathione S-transferase; this is then ...
GST-P
Glutathione S-transferase P gene that is strongly and specifically expressed during chemical hepatocarcinogenesis. The promoter region has a silencer (GPS1) to which various ...
GTBP
(= G/T binding protein) Protein (160 kD) important in mismatch recognition in human cells. The heterodimer of GTBP with hMSH2 (one of the MSH family) binds mismatches (G ...
GTP
(= guanosine 5\'-triphosphate) Like ATP a source of phosphorylating potential, but is separately synthesized and takes part in a limited, distinct set of energy-requiring ...
GTP-binding proteins
(= G-proteins)
GTPase-activating protein
Originally purified as a 125 kD protein from bovine brain (1044 amino acids) ; stimulates the GTPase activity of ras-p21 and thereby switches it to the inactive state. GAP may ...
guanidinium chloride
(= guanidine hydrochloride) Chloride salt of guanidinium (C(NH2) 3) +, a powerful chaotropic agent that is used to denature proteins.
guanine
(= 2-amino 6-hydroxy purine) One of the constituent bases of nucleic acids, nucleosides and nucleotides.
guanosine
(= 9-b-D-ribofuranosyl guanine) The nucleoside formed by linking ribose to guanine.
guanylate cyclase
Enzyme catalysing the synthesis of guanosine 3\',5\'- cyclic monophosphate from guanosine 5\'-triphosphate (cyclic GMP (cGMP) is used as a second messenger in heart muscle ...
guanylin
Peptide occuring in vertebrate gut that elevates the second messenger cyclic GMP in a variety of tissues (including gut) via a membrane guanylate cyclase. The receptor is also ...
guard cell
Plant cells occurring in pairs in the epidermis, flanking each stoma. Changes in turgor in the guard cells cause the stoma to open and close.
Guarnieri body
Acidophilic inclusion body found in cells infected with vaccinia virus; composed of viral particles and proteins, it is the location of virus replication and assembly.
guidance
See contact guidance.
guide RNA
Small RNA molecules that hybridize to specific mRNAs and direct their RNA editing.
Guillain-Barre syndrome
(= Landry-G-B syndrome) Acute infective polyneuritis, associated with cytomegalovirus infection, in which there is cell-mediated immunity to a component of myelin; the disease ...
GUS
Glucuronidase; widely used as a reporter gene.
gustducin
Taste-cell specific GTP-binding protein. Novel G a subunit; resembles transducin more than any other G a.
gut-associated lymphoid tissue
(= GALT) Peripheral lymphoid organ consisting of lymphoid tissue associated with the gut (Peyer\'s patches, tonsils, mesenteric lymph nodes, and the appendix).
Gymnospermae
One of the two major division of seed-bearing vascular plants of which the most common members are conifers. See Angiospermae.
gyrus
Any of the ridge-like folds of the cerebral cortex.
H zone
Central portion of the A-band of the sarcomere, the region that is not penetrated by thin (actin) filaments when the muscle is only partially contracted. The M-line is in the ...
H-chain
Heavy chain of immunoglobulin; see IgG, IgM, etc.
H2 antigen
An antigen of the H2 region of the major histocompatibility complex of mice. Divided into Class I and Class II antigens.
H2 blocker
Antagonist of the histamine type 2 (H2) receptor. Drugs of this type block gastric acid secretion and are therefore clinically useful in treating duodenal ulcers.
H2 complex
Mouse equivalent of the human MHC (major histocompaiability complex) system, a set of genetic loci coding for Class I and Class II MHC antigens and for complement components. ...
H400
See macrophage inflammatory protein 1 b.
HA tag
(= haemagglutinin tag; hemagglutinin tag (USA) ) Epitope tag (YPYDVPDYA) derived from the haemagglutinin molecule.
ha-ras
Harvey-ras
HACBP
See calreticulin.
haem
(= heme (USA) ) Compounds of iron complexed in a porphyrin (tetrapyrrole) ring that differ in side chain composition. Haems are the prosthetic groups of cytochromes and are ...
haemagglutination
Agglutination of red blood cells, often used to test for the presence of antibodies directed against red-cell surface antigens or carbohydrate-binding proteins or viruses in a ...
haemagglutinin
Substance that will bring about the agglutinationof erythrocytes.
haemangioblast
Earliest mesodermal precursor of both blood and vascular endothelial cells. Described in embryonic yolk-sac blood-islands of birds.
Haemanthus katherinae
The African blood lily, chiefly known because of classic time-lapse studies done on mitosis in endosperm cells.
haematocrit
Relative volume of blood occupied by erythrocytes. An average figure for humans is 45ml per cent, ie. a packed red cell volume of 45ml in 100ml of blood.
haematopoiesis
Production of blood cells involving both proliferation and differentiation from stem cells. In adult mammals usually occurs in bone marrow.
haematopoietic stem cell
Cell that gives rise to distinct daughter cells, one a replica of the stem cell, one a cell that will further proliferate and differentiate into a mature blood cell. Pluripotent ...
haematoxylin
Basophilic stain that gives a blue colour (to the nucleus of a cell for example), commonly used in conjunction with eosin that stains the cytoplasm pink/red. Various ...
haemocyanin
(= hemocyanin (USA) ) Blue, oxygen-transporting, copper-containing protein found in the blood of molluscs and crustacea. A very large protein with 20-40 subunits and molecular ...
haemocytes
Blood cells, associated with a haemocoel, particularly those of insects and crustacea. Despite the name they are more leucocyte-like, being phagocytic and involved in defence and ...
haemoglobin
(= hemoglobin (USA) ) Four-subunit globular oxygen-carrying protein of vertebrates and some invertebrates. There are two a and two bchains (very similar to myoglobin) in adult ...
haemoglobinopathies
Disorders due to abnormalities in the haemoglobin molecule, the best known being sickle-cell anaemia in which there is a single amino acid substitution (valine for glutamate) ...
haemolymph
Circulating body fluid of invertebrates such as insects that have a haemocoel - sinuses and spaces between organs - rather than a closed circulatory system. Cells in the ...
haemolysins
Bacterial exotoxins that lyse erythrocytes.
haemolysis
Leakage of haemoglobin from erythrocytes due to membrane damage.
haemolytic anaemia
(= hemolytic anemia (USA) ) Anaemia resulting from reduced red-cell survival time, either because of an intrinsic defect in the erythrocyte (hereditary spherocytosis or ...
haemonectin
A 60 kD protein found in the bone marrow matrix of mice specifically aiding adhesion of granulocyte-lineage cells.
haemopexin
Single-chain haem-binding plasma b1-glycoprotein (57 kD) ; unlike haptoglobin does not bind haemoglobin. Present at around 1mg/ml in plasma. Responsible for transporting haem ...
haemophilia
Sex-linked congenital deficiency of blood-clotting system, usually of factor VIII.
Haemophilus influenzae
Bacterium sometimes associated with influenza virus infections, causes pneumonia and meningitis.
haemorrhagic
(= hemorrhagic (USA) ) Related to or causing haemorrhage (bleeding).
haemosiderin
A mammalian iron-storage protein related to ferritin but less abundant.
haemostasis
Arrest of bleeding through blood clotting and contraction of the blood vessels.
Hagemann factor
Plasma b -globulin (110 kD), blood-clotting factor XII, which is activated by contact with surfaces to form Factor XIIa, that in turn activates factor XI. Factor XIIa also ...
Hailey-Hailey disease
(= familial chronic benign pemphigus) A blistering disease of the skin apparently due to a defect in epidermal cell junctions, even though apparently normal desmosomes and ...
hair cells
(1) Cells found in the epithelial lining of the labyrinth of the inner ear. The hairs are stereovilli up to 25 m m long that restrict the plane in which deformation of the apical ...
hairpin
(= alpha hairpin; a hairpin; beta hairpin; b hairpin) Protein motif formed by two adjacent regions of a polypeptide chain that lie antiparallel and alongside each other. ...
hairy
A pair-rule gene of Drosophila.
hairy cell leukaemia
Clinically associated with severe T-cell dysfunction possibly as a result of defects in the responsiveness to activation although there is also a very restricted repertoire of ...
half-life
(= t1/2) The period over which the activity or concentration of a specified chemical or element falls to half its original activity or concentration. Typically applied to the ...
halobacteria
Bacteria that live in conditions of high salinity.
Halobacterium halobium
Photosynthetic (halophilic) bacterium that has patches of purple membrane containing the pigment bacteriorhodopsin.
halophile
Literally, salt-loving: organism that tolerates saline conditions, in extreme cases in concentrations considerably in excess of those found in normal sea water such as salt ...
halophyte
Plant that grows in or tolerates salt-rich environments.
halorhodopsin
Light-driven chloride ion pump of halobacteria, a retinylidene protein very similar to bacteriorhodopsin.
halothane
(= 2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluorethane) Widely used volatile anaesthetic given by inhalation.
halysin
See disintegrin.
hamartin
Protein encoded by tumour suppressor gene TSC1. See tuberous sclerosis.
hamartoma
Tumour-like but non-neoplastic overgrowth of tissue that is disordered in structure. Examples are haemangiomas (that include the vascular naevus or birthmark) and the pigmented ...
Hanks&’ BSS
(= HBSS) Balanced salt solution made up according to the recipe given originally by Hanks. Phosphate-buffered to pH 7.0-7.2. Suitable for mammalian and avian cells in temporary ...
Hansenula wingei
Yeast, used for studies on mating type.
Hanta virus
Hantaviruses are responsible for haemorrhagic fevers and exist in various serotypes with different pathogenicity for human beings, varying from asymptomatic infection to highly ...
haploid
Describes a nucleus, cell or organism possessing a single set of unpaired chromosomes. Gametes are haploid.
haplotype
The set, made up of one allele of each gene, comprising the genotype. Also used to refer to the set of alleles on one chromosome or a part of a chromosome, ie. one set of ...
hapten
Could be considered an isolated epitope: although a hapten (by definition) has an antibody directed against it, the hapten alone will not induce an immune response if injected ...
haptoglobin
Acid a2-plasma glycoprotein that binds to oxyhaemoglobin that is free in the plasma, and the complex is then removed in the liver. Tetrameric (2 a, 2 b subunits) : the ...
haptonema
Filament extending between the paired flagella of certain unicellular algae (haptophytes). Supported by 6 or 7 microtubules (not in an axoneme-like array) and apparently used ...
haptotaxis
Strictly speaking, a directed response of cells in a gradient of adhesion, but often loosely applied to situations where an adhesion gradient is thought to exist and local ...
Hardy-Weinberg law
Mathematical formula that gives the relationship between gene frequencies and genotype frequencies in a population. If genotypes are AA, Aa, aa and the frequency of alleles A,a ...

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