Слова на букву gene-high (375) Dictionary of molecular biology
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Слова на букву gene-high (375)

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Harris-Benedict equation
Equation for calculation of basal metabolic rate (BMR).
Hartnup disease
Amino acid transport defect that leads to excessive loss of monoamino monocarboxylic acids (cystine, lysine, ornithine, arginine) in the urine, and poor absorption in the gut. ...
Hashimoto&’s thyroiditis
Autoimmune disease in which there is destruction of the thyroid by autoantibodies usually directed against thyroglobulin and a lipoprotein of thyroid cell endosomes.
Hassell&’s corpuscle
(= thymic corpuscle) Lackie Spherical or ovoid bodies 20-50 m m in diameter in the medulla of the thymus, composed of flattened concentrically-arranged whorls of keratinised or ...
HAT medium
A selective growth medium for animal tissue cells that contains Hypoxanthine, the folate antagonist Aminopterin (or amethopterin) and Thymine. Used for selection of hybrid ...
Hatch-Slack-Kortshak pathway
(= Hatch-Slack pathway) Metabolic pathway responsible for primary CO2 fixation in C4 plant photosynthesis. The enzymes that are found in mesophyll chloroplasts include PEP ...
haustorium
A projection from a cell or tissue of a fungus or higher plant, that penetrates another plant and absorbs nutrients from it. In fungi it is a hyphal projection that penetrates ...
Hayflick limit
See cell death, cell line.
HB-EGF
(= heparin-binding epidermal growth factor) HB-EGF, like amphiregulin, has a long N-terminal extension that seems to confer the ability to bind to heparin and also to other ...
HBGF
(= heparin-binding growth factor) See fibroblast growth factor.
Hck
Haematopoietic cell kinase. A protein tyrosine kinase of the src family found in lymphoid and myeloid cells and is bound to B-cell receptors in unstimulated B cells. Deletion ...
HCP
Histone-rich calcium-binding protein. Major protein of sarcoplasmic reticulum, where it may play a role in sequestering calcium ions. Highly acidic, with multiple repeats of ...
HCV
Hepatitis C virus.
HDL
High density lipoprotein.
Heaf test
A commonly-used tuberculin test in which tuberculin is injected intradermally with a multiple puncture apparatus. A positive reaction indicates the presence of T-cell reactivity ...
heart muscle
See muscle.
heat-shock factor
See heat-shock proteins.
heat-shock proteins
Families of proteins conserved through pro- and eukaryotic cells, induced in cells as a result of a variety of environmental stresses, though some are constitutively expressed. ...
heavy chain
In general, the larger polypeptide in a multimeric protein. Thus the immunoglobulin heavy chain is of 50 kD, the light chain of 22 kD, whereas in myosin the heavy chain is ...
heavy water
(= deuterium oxide; D2O) Most commonly used by cell biologists to stabilize microtubules.
HeLa cells
An established line of human epithelial cells derived from a cervical carcinoma (said to be from Henrietta Lacks).
Helianthus annuus
The sunflower.
helicase
See DNA helicase.
Helicobacter pylori
S-shaped or curved Gram negative bacteria (0.5-0.9 x 3.0 m m), non-spore forming, can be flagellate; found in human stomach. Was originally named Campylobacter pyloridis. ...
helicoidal cell wall
Type of plant cell wall in which each wall layer contains parallel microfibrils, but in which the orientation of the microfibrils changes by a fixed angle from one layer to the ...
Heliozoa
Amoeboid Protozoa, Order Heliozoida. They are generally free-floating, spherical cells with many straight, slender microtubule-supported pseudopods radiating from the cell body ...
Helisoma trivolvis
Pulmonate mollusc whose relatively simple nervous system contains large identifiable cells and is consequently, like Hirudo and Aplysia, a favourite preparation for studying ...
helix-coil transition
See random coil.
helix-destabilizing proteins
(= single-stranded binding proteins) Proteins involved in DNA replication. They bind cooperatively to single-stranded DNA, preventing the reformation of the duplex and ...
helix-loop-helix
A motif associated with transcription factors, allowing them to recognize and bind to specific DNA sequences. Two alpha-helices are separated by a loop. Examples: myoblast ...
helix-turn-helix
A motif associated with transcription factors, allowing them to bind to and recognize specific DNA sequences. Two amphipathic alpha-helices are separated by a short sequence ...
Heloderma horridum horridum
Mexican beaded lizard. See helothermine.
helodermin
See exendin.
helospectin
See exendin.
helothermine
Protein toxin (25 kD) from venom of Heloderma horridum horridum. Probably acts by inhibiting the ryanodine-sensitive calcium release channel of sarcoplasmic reticulum.
helper factor
A group of factors apparently produced by helper T-lymphocytes that act specifically or nonspecifically to transfer T-cell help to other classes of lymphocytes. The existence of ...
helper T-cell
See T-helper cells.
helper virus
A virus that will allow the replication of a co-infecting defective virus by producing the necessary protein.
hema-
См. hemo-.
heme
See haem.
hemicellulose
Class of plant cell-wall polysaccharide that cannot be extracted from the wall by hot water or chelating agents, but can be extracted by aqueous alkali. Includes xylan, ...
hemidesmosome
Specialized junction between an epithelial cell and its basal lamina. Although morphologically similar to half a desmosome (into which intermediate cytokeratin filaments are ...
hemimetabolous
Of an insect, a species without any marked change in body-plan from larval to adult, apart from the development of wings. Examples: grasshoppers and crickets. (cf. ...
hemizygote
Nucleus, cell or organism that has only one of a normally diploid set of genes. In mammals the male is hemizygous for the X chromosome.
hemo-
See haema, haemo.
Hensen's node
(= primitive knot) Thickening of the avian blastoderm at the cephalic end of the primitive streak. Presumptive notochord cells become concentrated in this region. May well be ...
Hep2 cells
Line established from human laryngeal carcinoma in 56 year old Caucasian male. Extensively used in viral studies.
heparan sulphate
(= glycosaminoglycan) Constituent of membrane-associated proteoglycans. The heparan sulphate-binding domain of NCAM is proposed to augment NCAM-NCAM interactions, suggesting ...
heparin
Sulphated mucopolysaccharide, found in granules of mast cells, that inhibits the action of thrombin on fibrinogen by potentiating anti-thrombins, thereby interfering with the ...
hepatitis A
Small (27nm diameter) single-stranded RNA virus with some resemblance to enteroviruses such as polio. Causes " infectious hepatitis".
hepatitis B
Virion (Dane particle), 42nm diameter, with an outer sheath enclosing inner 27nm core particle containing the circular viral DNA. Aggregates of the envelope proteins are found ...
hepatitis C
A fairly high proportion of cases of hepatitis of the non-A, non-B, type, but not all, are now recognized to be caused by hepatitis C virus.
hepatitis non-A
См. hepatitis non-B.
hepatitis non-B
A virus somewhat similar in size to Hepatitis A but has no antigenic cross-reaction with either A or B.
hepatocarcinoma
(= hepatocellular carcinoma) Malignant tumour derived from hepatocytes. Associated with hepatitis B in 80-90% of cases.
hepatocyte
Epithelial cell of liver. Often considered the paradigm for an unspecialised animal cell. Blood is directly exposed to hepatocytes through fenestrated endothelium, and ...
hepatocyte growth factor
Polypeptide mitogen originally shown to cause cell division in hepatocytes. In the liver, the main sources of HGF are non-parenchymal cells. It is now clear that HGF is a ...
hepatoma
Carcinoma derived from liver cells: better term is hepatocarcinoma.
hepatopancreas
Digestive gland of crustaceans with functions approximately analogous to liver and pancreas of vertebrates - enzyme secretion, food absorption and storage.
hepatopancreas
Digestive gland of crustaceans with functions approximately analogous to liver and pancreas of vertebrates - enzyme secretion, food absorption and storage.
HEPES
(= 4-(2-hydroxyethyl) -1-piperazine-ethane-sulphonic acid) Very commonly used buffer for tissue culture medium. Its pKa of 7.5 makes it ideal for most cell culture work. ...
HepG2 cells
Cell line derived from hepatic carcinoma. Epithelial in morphology; produce a variety of proteins such as prothrombin, alpha-fetoprotein, C3 activator and fibrinogen.
HER
Family of receptors (HER2, erbB2; HER3, erbB3; HER4, erbB4) of the EGF-receptor family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Ligands are neuregulins. Overexpression of HER-2, human ...
herbimycin A
Tyrosine kinase inhibitor from Streptomyces hygroscopicus.
herculin
Product of the muscle regulatory gene Myf -6. Also known as MRF4 (muscle regulatory factor-4).
hereditary angio-oedema
Condition in which there seems to be uncontrolled production of C2-kinin because of a deficiency in C1-inhibitor levels.
Herpesviridae
A group of large DNA viruses: Herpes simplex causes cold-sores and genital herpes; Varicella-zoster causes chicken-pox and shingles; cytomegalovirus causes congenital ...
Herring bodies
Granules within axons in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Contain neurosecretory hormones.
Hers disease
Glycogen-storage disease in which there is a deficiency of liver phosphorylase.
HETE
(= hydroxytetraeicosenoic acid) A family of hydroxyeicosenoic acid (C20) derivatives of arachidonic acid produced by the action of lipoxygenase. Potent pharmacological agents ...
hetero-
Prefix denoting different or varied.
heterochromatin
The chromosomal regions that are condensed during interphase and at the time of nuclear division. They show what is considered an abnormal pattern of staining as opposed to ...
heterochrony
Lack of synchronization.
heterocyst
Specialized cell type found at regular intervals along the filaments of certain Cyanobacteria; site of nitrogen fixation.
heterodimer
A dimer in which the two subunits are different. One of the best known examples is tubulin that is found as an a -tubulin/ b -tubulin dimer. Heterodimers are relatively common, ...
heteroduplex
DNA in which the two strands are different, either of different heritable origin, formed i n vitro by annealing similar strands with some complementary sequences, or formed of ...
heterogenous nuclear RNA
(= hnRNA) Originally identified as a class of RNA, found in the nucleus but not the nucleolus, which is rapidly labelled and with a very wide range of sizes, 2-40 kilobases. ...
heterokaryon
Cell that contains two or more genetically different nuclei. Found naturally in many fungi and produced experimentally by cell fusion techniques, eg. hybridoma.
heterologous
Derived from the tissues or DNA of a different species. cf autologous, homologous.
heterolysosome
Secondary lysosome formed by fusion of a lysosome with another intracellular vesicle.
heterophile antibody
An antibody raised against an antigen from one species that also reacts against antigens from other species. Also used of systems such as the Forssman antigen where antibody ...
heteroplasmy
(= heteroplasia) The occurrence of a tissue in the wrong place in an organism, as a result of inappropriate cellular differentiation.
heterosis
Hybrid vigour, the superiority of a heterozygotic organism over the homozygote.
heterospecific Ab
Artificially produced antibody in which the two antigen binding sites are for different antigens.
heterospory
Condition in vascular plants where the spores are of two different sizes, the smaller producing male prothalli, the larger female prothalli.
heterothallic
Situation in some fungi and algae in which there are two mating types and the individual thallus is self-sterile even if hermaphrodite.
heterotroph
An organism that requires carbon compounds from other plant or animal sources and cannot synthesize them itself - not an autotroph.
heterotypic
Of different types. Thus heterotypic adhesion would be between dissimilar cells, in contrast to homotypic adhesion between cells of the same type.
heterozygosity index
Measure of the number of gene loci for which an individual is heterozygous.
heterozygote
Nucleus, cell or organism with different alleles of one or more specific genes. A heterozygous organism will produce unlike gametes and thus will not breed true.
heuristic
Proceeding by trial and error rather than according to a planned route.
HEV
See high endothelial venule.
hexitol
Sugar alcohol with six carbon atoms. Natural examples are sorbitol, mannitol.
hexokinase
Enzyme that catalyses the transfer of phosphate from ATP to glucose to form glucose-6-phosphate, the first reaction in the metabolism of glucose via the glycolytic pathway. ...
hexon
Subunit of a hexameric structure or with hexameric symmetry, in particular the arrangement of most of the capsomers of Adenoviridae - one capsomer surrounded by six others to ...
hexosaminidase
Enzyme involved in the metabolism of gangliosides. Deficient in Tay-Sachs disease.
hexose
Monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms, eg. glucose, galactose, mannose.
hexose monophosphate shunt
(= pentose phosphate pathway) The main metabolic pathway in activated neutrophils, rendering them relatively insensitive to inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. Congenital ...
Heymann nephritis
Rat model of human membranous nephropathy; an autoimmune disease in which the antigen is megalin.
Hfr
High frequency, in the sense of bacterial conjugation.
HGF
See hepatocyte growth factor.
HGPRT
(= hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase) Enzyme that catalyses the first step in the pathway for salvage of the purines hypoxanthine and guanine. The phosphoribosyl ...
hid
(= head involution defective) Drosophila gene that is involved in positive regulation of apoptosis (like reaper and grim).
high density lipoproteins
Involved in cholesterol transport in serum. See lipoproteins.
high endothelial venule
Venules in which the endothelial cells are cuboidal rather than squamous. Found particularly in lymph nodes where there is considerable extravasation of lymphocytes as part of ...
high mannose oligosaccharide
A subset of the N-glycan chains that are added post-translationally to certain asparagine residues of secreted or membrane proteins in eukaryotic cells; contain 5-9 mannose ...
high-energy bond
Chemical bonds that release more than 25kJ/mol on hydrolysis: their importance is that the energy can be used to transfer the hydrolyzed residue to another compound. The risk in ...
high-mobility group proteins
Family of small, non-histone, nuclear proteins. Some appear to be involved in controlling transcription.

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