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high-voltage electron microscopy
(= HVEM) HVEM has two advantages, the increased voltage shortens the wavelength of the electrons (and therefore increases resolving power) but, more importantly for the ...
Hill coefficient
A measure of cooperativity in a binding process. A Hill coefficient of 1 indicates independent binding, a value of greater than 1 shows positive cooperativity - binding of one ...
Hill reaction
Reaction, first demonstrated by Robert Hill in 1939, in which illuminated chloroplasts evolve oxygen when incubated in the presence of an artificial electron acceptor (eg. ...
Hind II
(= HindII;Hind II) First type II restriction endonuclease identified, by Hamilton Smith in 1970. Isolated from Haemophilus influenzae Rd, it cleaves the sequence `GTPyPuAc\' ...
Hind III
(= HindIII;Hind III) Commonly used type II restriction endonuclease isolated from Haemophilus influenzae Rd, it cleaves the sequence `AAGCTT\' between the two As generating " ...
hinge region
Flexible region of a polypeptide chain - for example, as in immunoglobulins between Fab and Fc regions, and in myosin the S2 portion of heavy meromyosin.
Calcium binding protein related to recoverin. Found exclusively in pyramidal cells of the hippocampus.
Area of mammalian brain, and an important preparation for the study of neuronal plasticity. The hippocampus has been known since the 1950s to be important for long-term memory ...
Hirano bodies
Paracrystalline inclusions found in the brain of patients with neurodegenerative disorders.
Hirschsprung&’s disease
(= HSCR) See Waardenburg&’s syndrome. Aganglionic megacolon - a congenital malformation caused by absence of ganglion cells in myenteric and submucosal neural plexuses of gut. ...
Hirudo medicinalis
The medicinal leech. The central nervous system of this annelid contains a relatively small number of large, identifiable cells. This has made the leech, like the molluscs ...
his tag
(= histidine tag) Epitope tag based on a short stretch (ca 6) of histidine residues. In addition to detection with anti-polyhistidine antibodies, such tags permit easy protein ...
Actin binding protein (13.5 kD) from Dictyostelium discoideum. Promotes F-actin polymerization and binds to microfilament bundles but is very pH sensitive as a result of ...
hispid flagella
Eukaryotic flagella with two rows of stiff protrusions (mastigonemes) at right-angles to the long axis of the shaft. In hispid flagella, the normal relationship between the ...
Formed by decarboxylation of histidine. Potent pharmacological agent acting through receptors in smooth muscle and in secretory systems. Stored in mast cells and released by ...
Family of small histidine-rich cationic proteins (ranging from 7- 8 amino acids in length) secreted into saliva by parotid and sub-mandibular glands. Have potent antifungal ...
(= His; H; 155D) An amino acid with an imidazole side chain with a pKa of 6-7. Acts as a proton donor or acceptor and has high potential reactivity and diversity of chemical ...
Long-lived resident macrophages found within tissues.
Population of small diploid epithelial cells in Dipteran larvae that do not form typical imaginal discs, yet resemble them in some ways.
Study of the chemical composition of tissues by means of specific staining reactions.
If tissues of two organisms are histocompatible, then grafts between the organisms will not be rejected. If, however, major histocompatibility antigens are different then an ...
histocompatibility antigen
A set of plasmalemmal glycoproteins that are crucial for T-cell recognition of antigens. Particularly the HLA system in humans and the H2 system in mice. There are two classes ...
The process of formation of a tissue, involving differentiation, morphogenesis, and other processes such as angiogenesis, growth control, cellular infiltration etc.
Proteins found in the nuclei of all eukaryotic cells where they are complexed to DNA in chromatin and chromosomes. They are of relatively low molecular weight and are basic, ...
Filtrate of a mycelial culture of Histoplasma capsulatum, the causative agent of histoplasmosis. Histoplasmin is intradermally injected in a skin test for the disease.
A site on an MHC Class I or Class II antigen (see histocompatibility antigen) recognized by a T-cell.
(= human immunodeficiency virus) Previously known as HTLV-III, human lymphotrophic virus type III, and also referred to as LAV, lymphadenopathy-associated virus; the retrovirus ...
HL60 cells
Human promyelocytic cell line that can be induced to differentiate into neutrophil or eosinophil-like cells by various treatments. Have some, but not all, of the features of ...
(= human leucocyte antigen) Refers to the histocompatibility antigens found in humans.
See high-mobility group proteins.
HMG-CoA reductase
(EC Integral membrane protein (97 kD) of ER and peroxisomes that catalyses reaction between hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-CoA and two molecules of NADPH to produce ...
(= heavy meromyosin) Soluble tryptic fragment of myosin that retains the ATPase activity and that will bind to F-actin to produce a characteristic arrowhead pattern (unless ...
See heterogeneous nuclear RNA.
Hodgkin's disease
A human lymphoma that appears to originate in a particular lymph node and later spreads to the spleen, liver and bone marrow. Giant cells, the Sternberg-Reed cells, with ...
Hoechst 33258 dye
A fluorescent dye that is a specific stain for DNA, and can therefore be used to visualize chromosomes, and to monitor animal cell cultures for contamination by microorganisms ...
Hogness box
See TATA box.
Inheritance of characters borne on the male chromosome and therefore only expressed in the male.
Description of a chromosome in which the centromere is diffuse rather than discrete.
Form of secretion in which the whole cell is shed from the gland, usually after becoming packed with the main secretory substance. In mammals, sebaceous glands are one of the ...
The complete enzyme complex composed of the protein portion (apoenzyme) and cofactor or coenzyme.
Hololena curta
Funnel web spider. See hololena toxin.
hololena toxin
Toxin from the spider Hololena curta that irreversibly blocks insect presynaptic calcium channels. A heterodimer with subunits of 7 and 9 kD.
Of an insect, a species with a marked change in body-plan from larval to pupa to adult.. Examples: flies and wasps. (cf. hemimetabolous.)
Class of the Phylum Echinodermata. Sea cucumbers are holothurians.
(= homoeobox) Conserved DNA sequence originally detected by DNA-DNA hybridization in many of the genes that give rise to homeotic mutants and segmentation mutants in ...
See homeobox.
(= homoeostasis) The tendency towards a relatively constant state. A variety of homoeostatic mechanisms operate to keep the properties of the internal environment of organisms ...
homeotic gene
Gene, containing homeobox, the level of expression of which is set during embryogenesis in response to positional cues, and which then directs the later formation of tissues ...
homeotic mutant
(= homoeotic mutant) A mutant in which one body part, organ or tissue, is transformed into another part normally associated with another segment. Examples are the antennapedia ...
Protein (28 kD) found in postsynaptic terminal, contains a single unusual PDZ domain and is involved in the clustering of a subset of metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluR1 ...
Recessive condition in which the enzyme (cystathione synthetase) that converts homocysteine and serine into cystathione, a precursor of cysteine, is missing. Deficiency of ...
Outmoded term for a graft from one of an individual species to another. Includes allogeneic grafts (allografts) between genetically dissimilar individuals, and syngeneic grafts ...
(1) Derived from the tissues or DNA of a member of the same species. cf heterologous, autologous, homologous recombination. (2) Of genes, similar in sequence, cf. analogous. ...
homologous chromosomes
Chromosomes that are identical with respect to genetic loci, and that tend to pair or synapse during mitosis. The two chromosomes (maternal and paternal) of each of the pairs ...
homologous recombination
Genetic recombination involving exchange of homologous loci. Important technique in the generation of null alleles (knockouts) in transgenic mice.
Nucleus, cell or organism with identical alleles of one or more specific genes.
(1) Basal portion of bacterial flagellum, to which is distally attached the flagellin filament. Proximally the hook is attached to the rotating spindle of the motor. In some ...
Hopp Wood
An algorithm for calculating a hydropathy plot.
Hordeum vulgare
Cultivated barley, very important for the brewing industry.
A substance secreted by specialized cells that affects the metabolism or behaviour of other cells possessing functional receptors for the hormone. Hormones may be hydrophilic, ...
horseradish peroxidase
A large enzyme, frequently used in conjunction with diaminobenzidine as an intracellular marker to identify cells both at light- and electron-microscopic levels.
host-range mutant
A mutant of phage or animal virus that grows normally in one of its host cells, but has lost the ability to grow in cells of a second host type.
host-versus-graft reaction
The normal lymphocyte-mediated reactions of a host against allogeneic or xenogeneic cells acquired as a graft or otherwise, which lead to damage or/and destruction of the ...
A region of DNA that is particularly prone to mutation or transposition.
housekeeping genes
Genes that code for proteins or RNAs that are important for all cells and are thus constitutively active. Term used by contrast with ‘luxury’ proteins, those that are only ...
housekeeping proteins
Those sets of proteins involved in the basic functioning of a cell or the set of cells in an organism, eg. enzymes involved in synthesis and processing of DNA, RNA, proteins or ...
hox genes
Homeobox-containing genes of vertebrates.
(= 5-HPETE; 5-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid) Intermediate in leukotriene synthesis. Generated from arachidonic acid by 5-lipoxygenase; the starting point for the formation ...
(= high pressure liquid chromatography) Chromatographic method in which the sample is forced at high pressure through a tightly-packed column of finely-divided particles that ...
Human Papillomavirus; causes warts.
(= hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein) Class of plant glycoproteins and proteoglycans rich in hydroxyproline, that includes AGP, extensin and certain lectins. Found in the ...
HSK pathway
See Hatch-Slack-Kortshak pathway.
See heat-shock protein.
Widely distributed group of conserved heat-shock proteins of average weight 70 kD. Possess ATP binding domains, and may be involved in protein folding or export.
Widely distributed group of conserved heat-shock proteins of average weight 90 kD. Exact function unknown, but are found associated with steroid receptors and tyrosine kinase ...
Human oncogene that encodes a member of the FGF family.
Membrane-anchored ligand (37 kD) for EPH class receptor tyrosine kinases. Becomes tyrosine phosphorylated once bound to receptor (Nuk).
(= human T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma virus type I) A retrovirus causing leukaemia and sometimes a mild immunodeficiency. In addition to gag, pol and env, the virus carries a ...
(= human T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma virus type II) Originally isolated from a T-cell line from a patient with hairy cell leukaemia. It has only partial homology with HTLV-I, ...
See HIV.
(= homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence) Assay methodology increasingly being used in high throughput screening. An absorbing fluorochrome is coupled to one component, the ...
humanized antibody
Usually a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against a target of particular therapeutic value that has been modified to have all regions except the antigen-binding portion ...
humoral immune responses
Immune responses mediated by antibody.
Key regulatory gene in the early segmentation gene hierarchy of Drosophila. Codes for a transcription factor of the Cys2-His2 zinc fingertype.
Hunter syndrome
Recessive mucopolysaccharidosis, X-linked, in which dermatan and heparan sulphates are not degraded. Because two lysosomal enzymes (heparan sulphate sulphatase and a ...
(= huntingtin-associated protein-1) Protein product of the IT15 gene that has variable numbers of polyglutamine repeats in Huntington\'s chorea. The IT15 gene is widely expressed ...
Huntington's chorea
(= Huntington&’s disease) Mature onset disease characterized by progressive loss of neuronal functioning. Caused by unstable amplification of a trinucleotide (CAG) n repeat ...
HuP genes
Human equivalents of the Paxgenes.
Hurler's disease
Autosomal mucopolysaccharidosis recessive storage disease in which a -iduronidase is absent, leading to accumulation of heparan and dermatan sulphates. Extensive deposits of ...
Hurler-Scheie syndrome
Although clinically distinct diseases, fibroblasts from patients with Hurler\'s and with Scheie syndrome do not cross-complement in culture, suggesting that the enzyme defect ...
Hurthle cells
See Askenazy cells.
HUT-78 cells
Human T cell lymphoma from patient with Sezary syndrome. Have features of mature T cells of helper/inducer phenotype and release IL-2.
(= human umbilical vein endothelial cells) A convenient source of human endothelial cells are those that line the large vein in the umbilical cord which is usually discarded ...
(= high voltage electron microscope) HVEM has two advantages, the increased voltage shortens the wavelength of the electrons (and therefore increases resolving power) but, more ...
Clear, transparent, granule-free; as for example hyaline cartilage and the hyaline zone at the front of a moving amoeba.
hyaluronic acid
Polymer composed of repeating dimeric units of glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-glucosamine. May be of extremely high molecular weight (up to several million daltons) and forms the ...
Enzyme that degrades hyaluronic acid; found in lysosomes.
hybrid Ab
Artificially-produced antibody made by fusing hybridomas producing two different antibodies; the hybrid cells produce three different antibodies, only one of which is a ...
hybrid cells
Any cell type containing components from one or more genomes, other than zygotes and their derivatives. Hybrid cells may be formed by cell fusion or by transfection. See ...
hybrid dysgenesis
Genetic phenomenon, in which two strains of organism produce offspring at anomalously low rates. Example: the P-M system of Drosophila, in which P-strain males (containing ...
(of nucleic acids) Technique in which single-stranded nucleic acids are allowed to interact so that complexes, or hybrids, are formed by molecules with sufficiently similar, ...
A cell hybrid in which a tumour cell forms one of the original source cells. In practice, confined to hybrids between T- or B-lymphocytes and appropriate myeloma cell lines.
hydatid cyst
Large cyst in the viscera of sheep cattle or man following ingestion of eggs of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, a cestode. In the normal host the eggs develop into ...
hydatiform mole
Abnormal conceptus in which an embryo is absent and there is excessive proliferation of placental villi. In most cases the tissue is diploid XX with both X chromosomes being of ...
Genus of freshwater coelenterates (Cnidaria). They are small, solitary and only exist in the polyp form, which is a radially-symmetrical cylinder that is attached to the ...
hydraulic motor
By altering the internal osmotic pressure within a cell, water will enter and a considerable expansion of the compartment will occur. This has been used as a motor device in ...
(= cortisol; 17-hydroxy-corticosterone) Powerful corticosteroid produced by cells of the zona reticularis in the adrenal gland. Has potent anti-inflammatory effects.
hydrogen peroxide
(= H2O2) Hydrogen peroxide is produced by vertebrate phagocytes and is used in bacterial killing (the myeloperoxidase-halide system).
Organelle found in certain anaerobic trichomonad and some ciliate protozoa: contains hydrogenase and produces hydrogen from glycolysis.
One of a class of enzymes (EC Class 3) catalysing hydrolysis of a variety of bonds, such as esters, glycosides, peptides.
hydrolytic enzymes
See hydrolase.
hydropathy plot
Approximate way of deducing the higher order structure of a protein, based on the principle that 20-30 consistently hydrophobic residues are necessary to make a membrane-spanning ...
hydrophilic group
A polar group or one that can take part in hydrogen bond formation, eg. OH, COOH, NH2. Confers water solubility, or in lipids and macromolecules causes part of the structure to ...
hydrophobic bonding
Interaction driven by the exclusion of non-polar residues from water. It is an important determinant of protein conformation and of lipid structures, and is considered to be a ...
The calcium phosphate mineral, Ca10(PO4) 6(OH) 2, found both in rocks of non-organic origin and as a component of bone and dentine. Used as column packing for chromatography, ...
Post-translationally hydroxylated lysine is found in collagen and commonly has galactose and then glucose added sequentially by glycosyl transferases. The extent of ...
Specific proline residues on the amino side of a glycine residue in collagen become hydroxylated at C4, before the polypeptides become helical, by the activity of prolyl ...
(= 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) See serotonin.
Inhibitor of DNA synthesis (but not repair).
hygromycin B
Aminoglycoside antibiotic from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that is toxic for both pro- and eukaryotic cells. Used as a selection agent in transfection - the ...
Genus of cestode parasites of the gut of mammals. The immunological response to H. diminuta infection has been extensively studied.
Anticholinergic from Atropa belladona ; when racemized following isolation is known as atropine.
Prefix denoting more than, bigger than.
An excess of blood in a region of the body.
(= hypercholesterolemia (USA) ) High serum levels of cholesterol. Can in some cases be caused by a defect in lipoprotein metabolism or, for example, defects in the low ...
(= hyperglycemia (USA) ) An excess of plasma glucose that can arise through a deficiency in insulin production. See diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus.
hyperimmune serum
Serum prepared from animals that have recently received repeated injections or applications of a chosen antigen; thus the serum should contain a very high concentration of ...
(= hyperlipidemia (USA) ) Elevated levels of serum low density lipoprotein, correlated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. See hypercholesterolaemia.
The same as hyperlipidaemia.
Large multi-flagellate symbiotic protozoa found in the gut of termites and wood-eating cockroaches. Most bizarre example of the group is Mixotricha paradoxica that actually has ...
Of a liquid, having a higher osmotic pressure (usually than the physiological level).
Increase in the size of a tissue as a result of enhanced cell division. Once the stimulus (wound healing, mechanical stress, hormonal overproduction) is removed the division ...
A negative shift in a cell\'s resting potential (which is normally negative), thus making it numerically larger ie. more polarized. The opposite of depolarization.
hypersensitive response
Bot. An active response of plant cells to pathogenic attack in which the cell undergoes rapid necrosis and dies. Associated with the production of phytoalexins, lignin, and ...
In immunology, a state of excessive and potentially damaging immune responsiveness as a result of previous exposure to antigen. If the hypersensitivity is of the immediate type ...
Members of the Archaea that live and thrive in temperatures above 60°C, sometimes above 100°C (cf. thermophiles, which have a tolerance ceiling of about 60°C).
(= Graves\'s disease) Excess production of thyroid hormone caused by autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor and induce secretion of thyroxine by ...
Of a fluid, sufficiently concentrated to cause osmotic shrinkage of cells immersed in it. Note that a mildly hyperosmotic solution is not necessarily hypertonic for viable ...
Increase in size of a tissue or organ as a result of cell growth, rather than an increase of cell number (hyperplasia), though often both processes occur.
hypervariable region
Those regions of the heavy or light chains of immunoglobulins in which there is considerable sequence diversity within that set of immunoglobulins in a single individual. These ...
Filament of fungal tissue that may or may not be separated into a file of cells by cross-walls (septa). It is the main growth form of filamentous fungi, and is characterized by ...
Part of the axis of a plant embryo or seedling between the point of insertion of the cotyledon(s) and the top of the radicle (root). In some etiolated seedlings, the hypocotyl ...
(= hypogammaglobulinemia (USA) ) Syndromes in humans and other vertebrates in which the immunoglobulin level is depressed below the normal range. Congenital, chronic and ...
Of a fluid, having a concentration that will cause osmotic shrinkage of cells immersed in it. Not necessarily hypo-osmotic.
Purine base present in inosine monophosphate (IMP) from which adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and guanosine monophosphate (GMP) are made. The product of deamination of adenine, ...
Condition in which there is an abnormally low level of oxygen in the blood and tissues.
(= TCA3) Small cytokinesecreted by activated T-lymphocytes that is chemotactic for monocytes.
The isotropic band of the sarcomere of striated muscle, where only thin filaments are found. Unlike the A-band, the I-band can vary in width depending upon the state of ...
I-cell disease
A human disease in which the lysosomes lack hydrolases but high concentrations of these enzymes are found in the extracellular fluids. The gene defect responsible probably ...
Binding domain of around 200 amino acids in the N-terminal part of a subunits of integrins. The I-domain has intrinsic ligand-binding activity that is divalent ...
(1) The inducible gene region of the genome of E. coliinvolved in the lactose operon. (2) Region of the murine genome coding for products involved in many aspects of the ...
I-region associated antigens
Class II major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens.
Ia antigen
Antigens coded for by the I-region of the MHC complex. The majority of, if not all, such antigens are Class II molecules composed of a and b polypeptide chains.
See indole acetic acid.
(= inhibitor of apoptosis) One of a family of evolutionarily conserved genes that inhibit apoptosis. Human X-linked IAP directly inhibits two caspases, caspase 3 and caspase ...
See islet amyloid peptide.
Iatrogenic disease. Disease caused by attempts at therapy.
(= inflammatory bowel disease; identity by descent) (1) General term that covers two different inflammatory disorders of the bowel, Crohn&’s disease and ulcerative colitis. (2) ...
Peptide toxin (37 residues) from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus var hebraeus that is selective for the high-conductance calcium-activated K+ channel. Similar (and highly ...
(= isobutylmethylxanthine) Often used as an inhibitor of cAMP phosphodiesterase as a way of raising intracellular cAMP levels for experimental purposes.
(= ibotenic acid) An excitotoxin from Amanita sp., that acts on the NMDA receptor.
(= 2-(4-isobutylphenyl) proprionic acid) Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that inhibits cycloxygenases I and II. Related NSAIDs are ketoprofen, flurbiprofen and naproxen.
Inactivated C3b (C3bi). See complement.
Concentration of an inhibitor at which 50% inhibition of the response is seen; should only be used of in vitrotest systems. Needs to be used with caution because ED50 (for ...
(= intercellular adhesion molecule) ICAM-1 is the glycoprotein ligand (80-155 kD) for LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18: b2 -integrin) and to a lesser extent Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18). ICAM-1 is ...
Immune-complex coated bodies formed when antigen is injected into an immune animal and found in follicular dendritic cells. May serve as a reservoir of antigen to maintain ...
See interleukin 1 converting enzyme.
ice nucleation proteins
Proteins produced by some Gram negative bacteria that promote the nucleation of ice, apparently by aligning water molecules along repeated domains of 48 amino acids, that ...
Inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Has some limited similarity with mammalian p27Kip1 kinase inhibitor. Inhibits plant cdc2 kinase but not ...
Actin nucleating protein in the outer membrane of virulent strains of Shigella flexneri. Like ActA, IcsA is responsible for unipolar assembly of an F-actin bundle that pushes ...
Imidazoline alpha-2-adrenoreceptor antagonist, also binds to imidazoline receptors.
Applied to disease of unknown origin or peculiar to the individual.
An antigenic determinant (epitope) unique to a single clone of cells and located in the variable region of the immunoglobulin product of that clone or to the T-cell ...
The antigenic specificities defined by the unique sequences (idiotopes) of the antigen combining site. Thus anti-idiotype antibodies combine with those specific sequences, may ...
iduronic acid
(= a-L-iduronic acid) A uronic acid, derived from the sugar idose, and bearing one terminal carboxyl group. With N-acetyl-galactosamine-4-sulphate, a component of dermatan ...
(= a-1-iduronidase) EC An enzyme (653 amino acids in human) that hydrolyses the bonds between iduronic acid and N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulphate; a lysosomal enzyme ...
Major class of immunoglobulin of external secretions in mammals, also found in serum. In secretions, found as a dimer (400 kD) joined by a short J-chain and linked to a ...
This immunoglobulin (184 kD) is present at a low level (3-400 m g/ml) but is a major immunoglobulin on the surface of B-lymphocytes where it may play a role in antigen ...
Class of immunoglobulin (188 kD) associated with immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions and helminth infections. Present in very low amounts in serum and mostly bound to ...
See insulin-like growth factor-1.
The classical immunoglobulin class also known as 7S IgG (150 kD). Composed of two identical light and two identical heavy chains, the constant region sequence of the heavy chains ...
(= interferon-inducing factor) Protein that augments NK cell activity in spleen cells. Precursor has 192 amino acid residues, mature protein 157 amino acids. Has no obvious ...
(= macroglobulin) An IgM molecule (970 kD) is built up from five IgG type monomers joined together, with the assistance of J chains, to form a cyclic pentamer. IgM binds ...
An immunoglobulin class found in Amphibia.
Protein that inhibits NF kB by binding to the p65 subunit. It is thought to prevent NF k B from entering the nucleus. Two forms have been identified I k B a (37 kD) and I k B b ...
См. IL-5.
См. IL-5.
См. IL-5.
См. IL-5.
See interleukins and individual interleukin-n entries.
IL-6 cytokine family
Family of cytokines that all act through receptors sharing a common gp130 subunit. Includes interleukin-6, interleukin-11, ciliary neurotrophic factor, LIF, oncostatin M and ...
imaginal disc
Epithelial infoldings in the larvae of holometabolous insects (eg. Lepidoptera, Diptera) that rapidly develop into adult appendages (legs, antennae, wings etc.) during ...
imidazoline receptors
Receptors for imidazolines such as agmatine and idazoxan that modulate sympathetic outflow in the brainstem. I1 is elevated on platelets and in brains of patients with ...
A defect in amino acid transport leading to abnormal excretion of glycine, proline and hydroxyproline in the urine: more seriously, absorption in the intestine may be ...
Soluble protein produced by Paramecium caudatum that represses its mating activity.
immediate early gene
Class of genes whose expression is low or undetectable in quiescent cells, but whose transcription is activated within minutes after extracellular stimulation such as addition ...
Escape from the normal limitation on growth of a finite number of division cycles (the Hayflick limit), by variants in animal cell cultures, and cells in some tumours. ...
immotile cilia syndrome
Congenital defect in dynein (either absent or inactive) that leads to male sterility and poor bronchial function. Interestingly, non-ciliated cells show altered locomotion and ...
immune complex
Multimolecular antibody-antigen complexes that may be soluble or insoluble depending upon their size and whether or not complement is present. Immune complexes can be filtered ...
immune complex diseases
Diseases characterized by the presence of immune complexes in body fluids. Hypersensitivity of the Arthus type and serum sickness are examples.
immune deficiency diseases
Those diseases in which immune reactions are suppressed or reduced. Reasons may include congenital absence of B- and/or T-lymphocytes, or viral killing of helper lymphocytes (see ...
immune response
Alteration in the reactivity of an organism\'s immune system in response to an antigen; in vertebrates, this may involve antibody production, induction of cell-mediated ...
immune response gene
See I-region.
immune surveillance
See immunological surveillance.
A state in which the body responds specifically to antigen and/or in which a protective response is mounted against a pathogenic agent. May be innate or may be induced by ...
Any insoluble material, eg. cellulose, with either an antigen or an antibody bound to it and that will bind its corresponding antibody or antigen thus removing it from a ...
Techniques, such as the Western blot, in which very small amounts of protein are transferred from gels to nitrocellulose sheets by electrophoresis and then detected by their ...
Antibodies that react with complement components or their breakdown products. Usually directed against C3b or C4, and found in high titre in patients with rheumatoid ...
Techniques for staining cells or tissues using antibodies against the appropriate antigen. Although in principle the first antibody could be labelled, it is more common (and ...
See immune deficiency diseases.
Any form of electrophoresis in which the molecules separated by electrophoresis are recognized by precipitation with an antibody.
A test or technique in which one or other component of an immunological reaction is made fluorescent by coupling with a fluorochrome such as fluorescein, phycoerythrin or ...
The property of being able to evoke an immune response within an organism. Immunogenicity depends partly upon the size of the substance in question, and partly upon how unlike ...
immunoglobulin superfamily
A large group of proteins with immunoglobulin-like domains. Most are involved with cell surface recognition events. Sequence homology suggests that Igs, MHC molecules, some ...
See IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM.
immunological memory
The systems responsible for the situation where reactions to a second or subsequent exposure to an antigen are more extensive than those seen on first exposure (but see also ...
immunological network
The concept due to Jerne that the entire specific immune system within an animal is made up of a series of interacting molecules and cell surface receptors, based on the idea ...
immunological surveillance
The hypothesis that lymphocyte traffic ensures that all or nearly all parts of the vertebrate body are surveyed by visiting lymphocytes in order to detect any altered-self ...
immunological tolerance
Specific unresponsiveness to antigen. Self-tolerance is a process occurring normally early in life due to suppression of self-reactive lymphocyte clones. Tolerance to foreign ...
Modification of the immune response - either activating or, more commonly, suppressing.
Generic term for intracellular protein that binds immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin, FK 506, rapamycin. Both cyclophilin and the receptor for FK506 are peptidyl ...
The precipitation of a multivalent antigen by a bivalent antibody, resulting in the formation of a large complex. The antibody and antigen must be soluble. Precipitation ...
The various processes by which antibodies may regulate immune responses. At a simple level, secreted antibody neutralises the antigen with which it reacts thus preventing ...
This occurs when T- and/or B-clones of lymphocytes are depleted in size or suppressed in their reactivity, expansion or differentiation. It may arise from activation of ...
Any toxin that is conjugated to either an immunoglobulin or Fab fragment directed against a specified antigen. Thus if the antigen is borne by a particular type of cell, such ...
impermeable cell junctions
See zonula occludens.
Contagious skin disease caused by staphylococci or streptococci.
Proteins that bind nuclear localization signals on proteins destined for the nucleus and that, in conjunction with ran and pp15 are involved in transport. Importins a and b form ...
See genomic imprinting.
in silico
Term used (rather jokingly) for experiments done using a computer database (ie. on a silicon chip). It is now possible to match a small sequence of nucleotides with a full-length ...
in situ
Literally, in place. Used particularly in the context of in situ hybridization.
in situ hybridization
(1) Technique for revealing patterns of gene expression in a tissue. The tissue is fixed and prepared (usually by sectioning) on a slide, and a labelled DNA or RNA probe is ...
in vitro
Literally, in glass; general term for cells in culture as opposed to in a multicellular organism (in vivo).
in vivo
Literally, in life; used of cells in their natural multicellular environment or of experiments done on intact organism rather than on isolated cells in culture (in vitro)
For example, of voltage-gated sodium channels: process by which sodium channels that have been activated or opened by depolarization subsequently close during the ...
inbred strain
Any strain of animal or plant obtained by a breeding strategy that tends to lead to homozygosity. Such breeding strategies include brother-sister mating and back-crossing of ...
inclusion bodies
Nuclear or cytoplasmic structures with characteristic staining properties, usually found at the site of virus multiplication. Semi-crystalline arrays of virions, capsids, or ...
indirect immunofluorescence
A method of immunofluorescence staining in which the first antibody, that is directed against the antigen to be localized, is used unlabelled, and the location of the first ...
indole acetic acid
The most common naturally occurring auxin. Promotes growth in excised plant organs, induces adventitious roots, inhibits axillary bud growth, regulates gravitropism.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that blocks the production of arachidonic acid metabolites by inhibiting cyclo-oxygenase.
inducer cells
Cells that induce other nearby cells to differentiate in specified pathways. Perhaps the distinction should be made, as of old, between those cells that evoke a predetermined ...
See embryonic induction or enzyme induction.
Death of tissue as a result of loss of blood supply, often as a result of thrombotic occlusion of vessels.
infectious hepatitis
See hepatitis A.
infectious mononucleosis
See glandular fever.
Response to injury. Acute inflammation is dominated by vascular changes and by neutrophil leucocytes in the early stages, mononuclear phagocytes later on. Leucocytes adhere ...
influenza virus
Member of the Orthomyxoviridae that causes influenza in humans. There are three types of influenza virus; Type A causes the world-wide epidemics (pandemics) of influenza and can ...
Cytoplasmic complex of mRNA and non-ribosomal protein. May protect the message from degradation during passage from nucleus to cytoplasm.
Polypeptide hormone secreted by the hypophysis, that selectively suppresses the secretion of pituitary FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone). The molecule has two subunits (14 ...
inhibitory synapse
A synapse in which an action potential in the presynaptic cell reduces the probability of an action potential occurring in the postsynaptic cell. The most common inhibitory ...
initial cell
Actively dividing plant cell in a meristem. At each division one daughter cell remains in the meristem as a new initial cell, and the other is added to the growing plant body. ...
initiation codon
(= start codon) The codon 5\'-AUG in mRNA, at which polypeptide synthesis is started. It is recognized by formylmethionyl-tRNA in bacteria and by methionyl-tRNA in ...
initiation complex
Complex between mRNA, 30S ribosomal subunit and formyl-methionyl-tRNA that requires GTP and initiation factors to function.
initiation factors
The set of catalytic proteins required, in addition to mRNA and ribosomes, for protein synthesis to begin. In bacteria three distinct proteins have been identified: IF-1 (8 ...
inner cell mass
A group of cells found in the mammalian blastocyst that give rise to the embryo and are potentially capable of forming all tissues, embryonic and extra-embryonic, except the ...
inner sheath
The material that encases the two central microtubules of the ciliary axoneme.1. Hoechst 33258 dye
Cells added to start a culture or, in the case of viruses, viruses added to infect a culture of cells. Also for biological material injected into a human to induce immunity (a ...
The "fifth base" of nucleic acids. Important because it fails to form specific pair bonds with the other bases. In transfer RNAs, this property is used in the anticodon to ...
A cyclic hexahydric alcohol with 6 possible isomers. The biologically active form is myo-inositol.
inositol 3-kinase
See PI3-kinase.
inositol phosphates
Virtually all of the possible phosphorylated states of inositol have been reported to occur in living tissues. The hexaphosphate, phytic acid, is abundant in many plant tissues ...
inositol trisphosphate
(= IP3, InsP3) Inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate is important as a second messenger. It is released from phosphatidyl inositol bisphosphate by the action of a specific ...

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