(2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid
An herbicide, more toxic to broad-leaved dicotyledonous plants (weeds) than to monocotyledonous ones (grains and grass), used with (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy) acetic acid as a ...
In anatomical nomenclature, -ward; toward or in the direction of the part indicated by the main portion of the word. [L. ad, to]
Leading, promoting, stimulating; a promoter or stimulant of. [G. agogos, leading forth, fr. ago, to lead]
Sudden onslaught of acute pain. [G. agra, a hunting, a catching, a trap]
Pain, painful condition. [G. algos, a pain]
Chemical suffix denoting the replacement of one COOH group of a dicarboxylic acid by a carboxamide group (—CONH2); applied only to trivial name s ( e.g., succinamic acid).
A termination denoting an enzyme, suffixed to the name of the substance (substrate) upon which the enzyme acts; e.g., phosphatase, lipase, proteinase. May also indicate the ...
Termination used as a replacement for “-ic acid” when the acid is neutralized ( e.g., sodium acetate) or esterified ( e.g., ethyl acetate).
An immature precursor cell of the type indicated by the preceding word. [G. blastos, germ]
Swelling; hernia. [G. kele, tumor]
Combining form denoting taker, receiver. [L. capio, pp. captus, to take]
A word termination indicating relationship to color. [G. chroma color]
A word ending denoting an agent that kills ( e.g., insecticide), or the act of killing ( e.g., suicide). [L. -cida, -cidium, fr. caedo,to kill]
Closure. [G. kleisis, a closing]
Combining form referring to injection or enema. [G. klysis, a drenching by a clyster]
The cusp of a tooth in the upper jaw.
The cusp of a tooth in the lower jaw.
Suffix meaning cell. [G. kytos, a hollow (cell)]
Suffix indicating the presence of deuterium in a compound in concentrations above normal, thus labeling the compound; subscripts (d2, d3, etc.) indicate the number of such atoms ...
A conjoined twin, with the first element of the complete word designating fused parts. SEE ALSO: -dymus, -pagus. [G. didymos, twin]
1. Suffix form of the prefix dihydroxy. 2. A member of a class of compounds containing two hydroxyl groups.
- gym-diol, gym-diol a compound in which both hydroxyl groups are ...
1. Suffix to be combined with number roots; e.g., didymus, tridymus, tetradymus. 2. Occasionally used shortened form for -didymus. [G. -dymos, fold]
Removal of an anatomical structure. SEE ALSO: -tomy. [G. ektome, a cutting out]
Suffix applied to a chemical name indicating the presence of a carbon-carbon double bond; e.g., propene ( unsaturated propane, CH3—CH=CH2). [G. ene, feminine adjectival ...
Suffix indicating an unsaturated acid. [ -ene + -ic]
Condition, action, or process. [G. -esis, condition or process]
Causing; one who or that which brings about. [L. facio, to make]
In the form, shape of; equivalent to -oid. See morpho-. [L. -formis]
Movement away from the part indicated by the main portion of the word. [L. fugio, to flee]
Flight, denoting the place from which flight takes place or that which is put to flight. [L. fuga a running away]
Suffix denoting “precursor of.” SEE ALSO: pro- (2).
Producing, forming; produced, formed by. [G. genos, birth]
Suffix used to denote the basic steroid unit of the toxic substance, usually a steroid glycoside ( e.g., the aglycon portion).
A recording, usually by an instrument. Cf.:-graph. [G. gramma, character, mark]
1. Something written, as in monograph, radiograph. 2. The instrument for making a recording, as in kymograph. Cf.:-gram. [G. grapho, to write]
A writing, a description. [G. grapho, to write]
A suffix used to form terms for states or conditions, often abnormal. Cf.:-ism. [G. -ia, an ancient noun-forming suffix]
A condition or state, especially an unhealthy one; in medical neologisms it has the same value as, and is sometimes interchangeable with, -osis. [G. suffix forming nouns from ...
1. Suffix denoting of, pertaining to. 2. Chemical suffix denoting an element in a compound in one of its highest valencies. Cf.:-ous (1). 3. Suffix indicating an acid. [L. -icus, ...
Organized knowledge, practice, treatment. [-ic + -s]
1. A state of sensitivity of the skin in which a part remote from the primary lesion reacts (“-id reaction”) to substances of the pathogen, giving rise to a secondary ...
1. Suffix denoting the more electronegative element in a binary chemical compound; formerly denoted by the qualification -ureted; e.g., hydrogen sulfide was sulfureted ...
Suffix denoting the group =NH.
A suffix widely used to form names of biochemical substances, including proteins (e.g., globulin), lipids (lecithin), hormones (insulin), botanical principles (digoxin), ...
1. A suffix used to form the names of chemical substances, including halogens (e.g., chlorine), organic bases (guanine), amino acid s (glycine), botanical principles (caffeine), ...
1. A condition, disease, or intoxication. 2. A practice, doctrine. Cf.:-ia, -ismus. [G. -isma, -ismos, noun-forming suffix]
L. for -ism; customarily used to imply spasm, contraction. [L. fr. G. -ismos, suffix forming nouns of action]
1. Of the nature of, resembling. 2. A salt of an acid that has the termination -ous. 3. In comparative anatomy, a suffix denoting an essential portion of the part to the name of ...
G. adjectival suffix attached to noun stems, corresponding to L. -alis or -inus or to Eng. -y or -like. An adjective formed with this suffix sometimes stands alone, representing a ...
Feminine form of the G. adjectival suffix -ites. An adjective formed with this suffix sometimes stands alone, representing a phrase from which a noun has been droped e.g., ...
Reading, as distinguished from the G. derivatives, -lexis and -lexy, which signify speech. [L. lego, to read]
Suffixes that properly relate to speech, although often confused with -legia (L. lego, to read) and thus erroneously employed to relate to reading. [G. lexis, word, speech, from ...
1. The study of the subject noted in the body of the word, or a treatise on the same; the Eng. equivalent is -logy, or, with a connecting vowel, -ology. [G. logos, discourse, ...
See -logia. [G. logos, treatise, discourse]
An abnormal love for, or morbid impulse toward, some specific object, place, or action. [G. frenzy]
Large. [G. megas ( megal-)]
1. Chemical suffix attached to a prefix such as mono-, di-, poly-, tri-, etc., to indicate the smallest unit of a repeating structure; e.g., polymer. 2. Suffix denoting a ...
A termination denoting a hormone or hormonelike substance. [Fr. hormone]
Having the form of, resembling. [G. eidos, form, resemblance]
Resemblance to, equivalent to Eng. -form. [G. eidos, form, resemblance]
Suffix denoting that a substance is an alcohol or a phenol.
A tumor or neoplasm. [G. -oma, suffix forming nouns from some verb stems]
Suffix indicating a ketone (–CO–) group.
Suffix indicating a positively charged radical; e.g., ammonium, NH4+.
Vision. [G. ops, eye]
1. In chemistry, a terminator usually indicating a carbohydrate. 2. Suffix appended to some Latin roots, with significance of the more common -ous (2). [L. -osus, full of, ...
Suffix meaning a process, condition, or state, usually abnormal or diseased; production or increase, physiologic or pathologic; an invasion or infestation; in the latter sense, ...
1. Chemical suffix attached to the name of an element in one of its lower valencies. Cf.:-ic (1). 2. Having much of. [L. -osus, full of, abounding]
Suffix denoting an acyl radical; -yl replaces -ic in acid names.
Conjoined twins, the first element of the word denoting the parts fused. SEE ALSO: -didymus, -dymus. [G. pagos, something fixed, fr. pegnymi, to fasten together]
Deficiency. [G. penia, poverty]
Seeking; movement toward the part indicated by the main portion of the word. [L. peto, to seek, strive for]
Fixation, usually surgical. [G. pexis, fixation]
1. The diaphragm. 2. The mind. See phreno-. [G. phren, the diaphragm, mind, heart (as seat of emotions]
Formation (especially of cells). See plasma-. [G. plasso, to form]
Molding, shaping or the result thereof, as of a surgical procedure. [G. plastos, formed, shaped]
Surgical procedure for repair of a defect or restoration of form and/or function ...
Paralysis. [G. plege, stroke]
Multiple in form; its combinations are used both adjectivally and substantively of a (specified) multiple of chromosomes. [G. -plo-, -fold, + -ides, in form; L. -ploïdeus]
Breath, respiration. [G. pneo, to breathe]
Production; producing. [G. poiesis, a making]
A sinking down or prolapse of an organ. [G. ptosis, a falling]
Symbol for ubiquinone-10.
Symbol for ubiquinone-6.
Excessive or unusual discharge; hemorrhage. [G. rhegnymi, to burst forth]
Surgical suturing. [G. rhaphe, suture]
A flowing; a flux. [G. rhoia, a flow]
Denoting an instrument for viewing, but extended to include other methods of examination ( e.g., stethoscope). [G. skopeo, to view]
An action or activity involving the use of in instrument for viewing. [G. skopeo, to view]
An agent intended to keep something from changing, flowing, or moving. [G. states, stationary]
Artificial or surgical opening. See stomato-. [G. stoma, mouth]
Suffix denoting the radical, –C(S)OH or –C(O)SH, the sulfur analog of a carboxylic acid, i.e., a thiocarboxylic acid.
Suffix denoting the radical =C=S, the sulfur analog of a ketone, i.e., a thiocarbonyl group.
Mind, soul, emotions. SEE ALSO: thymo- (2). [G. thymos, the mind or heart as the seat of strong feelings or passion]
1. A cutting instrument, the first element in the compound usually indicating the part that the instrument is designed to cut. 2. Segment, part, section. 3. Tomography. 4. ...
A cutting operation. SEE ALSO: -ectomy. [G. tome, incision]
Condition or type of hair. [G. thrix (trich-), hair, + -ia, condition]
Nutrition. Cf.:-tropic. [G. trophe, nourishment]
Food, nutrition. [G. trophe, nourishment]
A turning toward, having an affinity for. Cf.:-trophic. [G. trope, a turning]
Urine. [G. ouretikos, relating to the urine]
A virus family. [L. virus, venom]
Chemical suffix signifying that the substance is a radical by loss of an H atom ( e.g., alkyl, methyl, phenyl) or OH group ( e.g., acyl, acetyl, carbamoyl).
Chemical suffix denoting a bivalent hydrocarbon radical ( e.g., methylene, –CH2–) or possessing a double bond ( e.g., ethylene, CH2=CH2).
An intermediate in glycolysis which enzymatically reacts with ADP to generate ATP and 3-phosphoglycerate.
Symbol for 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate.
1. An essential part of coenzyme Q and vitamin E, reducible to hydroquinone. SYN: quinone (2). 2. One of a class of benzoquinone derivatives.
A glucosyltransferase that transfers an α-glucosyl residue in a 1,4-α-glucan to the primary hydroxyl group of glucose in a 1,4-α-glucan. SEE ALSO: 1,4-α-d-glucan-branching ...
Amylo-(1,4→1,6)-transglucosylase or transglucosidase; an enzyme in muscle and in plants (Q enzyme) that cleaves α-1,4 linkages in glycogen or starch, transferring the ...
Fructose-1-phosphate kinase; an enzyme catalyzing phosphorylation of d-fructose 1-phosphate by ATP (or other NTP) to d-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and ADP (or other NDP); a key ...
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible reaction of 1-pyrroline 5-carboxylate and NAD+ to form l-glutamate and NADH; this enzyme plays a role in proline and ornithine ...
The isomer of retinaldehyde that can combine with opsin to form rhodopsin; it is formed from 11-trans-retinal by retinal isomerase. SYN: neoretinal b.
Retinol with cis configuration at the 11-position ( carotenoid numbering) or 5′-position ( retinol numbering) of the side chain; an intermediate in the vision cycle. SYN: ...
Corticosteroids bearing an alcohol or ketonic group on carbon-11; e.g., cortisone, cortisol.
Symbol for indium-111.
Abbreviation for indium-113m.
Symbol for tin-113.
Symbol for carbon-11.
Symbol for iodine-123.
Symbol for iodine-125.
Symbol for iodine-127.
Symbol for carbon-12, the most common form of carbon.
Symbol for iodine-131.
Symbol for iodine-132.
Symbol for xenon-133.
Symbol for carbon-13.
Symbol for nitrogen-13.
Symbol for carbon-14.
Symbol for nitrogen-14.
Symbol for nitrogen-15.
Symbol for oxygen-15.
Symbol for oxygen-16.
17α-Epimer of testosterone; a biologically inactive steroid found in testes and ovaries; may be a metabolite of 4-androstene-3,17-dione and a precursor of 17α-estradiol.
Nominally, any steroid with a carbonyl group on C-17; commonly used to designate urinary C19 steroidal metabolites of androgenic and adrenocortical hormones that possess this ...
Abbreviation for 17-ketosteroids.
Symbol for oxygen-17.
A steroid hormone with medical use similar to that of progesterone. The acetate is an orally effective derivative, useful in conditions in which parenterally administered ...
Symbol for oxygen-18.
Symbol for hydrogen-1.
An active form of vitamin D formed in the proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney. A deficiency of the receptor for a. results in all of the features of a vitamin D3 ...
Abbreviation for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo[b,e]-[1,4]dioxin. See dioxin (3).
An intermediate in the Rapoport-Luebering shunt, formed between 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate and 3-phosphoglycerate; an important regulator of the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen; ...
A product of catabolism of vitamin C; formed from l-dehydroascorbate; it has no vitamin C activity.
An oxirane derivative of squalene; a precursor to all of the steroids.
Symbol for 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate.
Abbreviation for (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)acetic acid.
Abbreviation for (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid.
N2pH-OH; a toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation; it is ...
A scintillator used in radioactivity measurements by liquid scintillation counting.
A reagent for the chemical assay of ascorbic acid that depends upon the reducing properties of the latter. It is red in acid solution; in the presence of the vitamin C it ...
An insoluble minor product of adenine catabolism that is elevated in individuals with an absence of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase.
An intermediate in l-tryptophan and l-lysine catabolism; k. accumulates in certain inherited disorders, probably due to a deficiency of one of the proteins in the α-ketoadipate ...
A reagent used to reduce disulfide bonds, particularly in proteins, and to prevent their formation. SYN: β-mercaptoethanol.
An enzyme that is part of the l-isoleucine degradation pathway; it catalyzes the conversion of 2-methylacetoacetyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA. A deficiency of this ...
Abbreviation for 2-pralidoxime.
An antibacterial agent used in the topical treatment of wound infections; it is active against Gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to most other antiseptics.
One of several oximes that are effective in reversing cholinesterase inhibition by organophosphates. The 2-PAM facilitates the hydrolysis of the phosphorylated enzyme so as to ...
A rare component of transfer RNAs; a thioamide derivative that inhibits the synthesis of thyroid hormones; hence, a goitrogen; similar to propylthiouracil.
Abbreviation for thallium-201.
Symbol for sodium-24.
Symbol for hydrogen-2.
A thyroid hormone normally synthesized in smaller quantities than thyroxine; present in blood and thyroid gland and exerts the same biologic effects as thyroxine but, on a ...
An antimetabolite of nicotinamide that produces symptoms of nicotinamide deficiency in mice; a neurotoxin that damages hypothalamus, brainstem, and basal ganglia.
β-Hydroxyacyl dehydrogenase; an enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of an l-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA to a 3-ketoacyl-CoA with the concomitant reduction of NAD+; one of the enzymes of the ...
The d-stereoisomer is one of the ketone bodies and is formed in ketogenesis; it is an important fuel for extrahepatic tissues; as an acyl derivative it is also an intermediate ...
A derivative of proline found in certain collagens, particularly basement membrane collagen. SYN: 3-hydroxy-2-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid.
An intermediate in the catabolism of l-tryptophan and a precursor of xanthurenate; elevated in cases of a vitamin B6 deficiency.
A product of cysteine catabolism; formed by the action of lactate dehydrogenase on 3-mercaptopyruvate that was, in turn, formed by transamination of cysteine; present in ...
The transaminated product of cysteine; formed in cysteine catabolism; elevated in individuals with a deficiency of m. sulfurtransferase.
- 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase ...
A highly carcinogenic hydrocarbon that can be formed chemically from deoxycholic or cholic acid s, or from cholesterol; it induces the synthesis of cytochrome P-450 mRNA; the ...
An intermediate in the degradation of l-leucine; accumulates in a deficiency of M. carboxylase.
- 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase a biotin-dependent enzyme in the pathway of ...
Elevated levels of 3-methylglutaconic acid in the urine. An inherited disorder whose mild form is a result of a deficiency of 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase, leading to delayed ...
An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of trans-3-methylglutaconyl-CoA and water to form 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaconyl-CoA; this enzyme participates in the pathway for l-leucine ...
An enzyme catalyzing the reversible conversion of acetoacetyl-CoA and succinate into succinyl-CoA and acetoacetate; malonyl-CoA can substitute for succinyl-CoA and a few ...
A part of the fatty acid synthase complex; an enzyme reversibly reacting 3-oxoacyl-ACP (ACP = acyl carrier protein) with NADPH to form d-3-hydroxyacyl-ACP and NADP+. SYN: ...
An enzyme condensing malonyl-ACP (ACP = acyl carrier protein) and acyl-Cys-protein to 3-oxoacyl-ACP + Cys-protein + CO2, and similar reactions, as steps in fatty acid synthesis; ...
Symbol for phosphorus-32.
Symbol for phosphorus-33.
Symbol for sulfur-35.
Symbol for potassium-39.
Symbol for hydrogen-3.
Symbols for helium-3 and helium-4, respectively.
Abbreviation for 3-hydroxyproline.
An enzyme, found in most mammalian tissues, that is capable of hydrolyzing the sulfate ester bonds of a variety of sulfated sterols; a deficiency of this enzyme will result in ...
An insecticide used against mites in the form of a spray or dust; also used as a weed killer.
An antagonist of nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockade; devoid of muscarinic side-effects but associated with central nervous system stimulation.