Denoting a leukemic condition that corresponds in degree to the changes in the organ or tissue.
A genus of opisthorchid trematodes found in the bile ducts of mammals, birds, and reptiles; probably transmitted by fish. [ amphi- + G. meros, segment]
A microorganism that is either aerobic or anaerobic, according to the environment.
The ability to freely interbreed and produce fertile offspring. [amphi + G. miktos, joined, mated, fr. mignumi, to mix, mae, + -ia]
1. Union of the paternal and maternal chromatin after impregnation of the ovum. 2. In psychoanalysis, a combination of genital and anal eroticism. [ amphi- + G. mixis, ...
A double nucleolus having both basophilic and oxyphilic components. [ amphi- + L. nucleolus, dim. of nucleus, kernel]
A genus of small, translucent, fishlike chordates found in warm marine waters. Members are structurally similar to vertebrates in having a notochord, gills, digestive tract, and ...
Denoting a molecule, such as comprises detergents or wetting agents, that contains groups with characteristically different properties, e.g., both hydrophilic and hydrophobic ...
SYN: amphipathic. [ amphi- + G. philos, fond]
SYN: amphipathic. [ amphi- + G. phobos, fear]
A common name for any trematode of the genus Paramphistomum. [ amphi- + G. stoma, mouth]
Having a flagellum or flagella at both extremities of a microbial cell; denoting certain microorganisms. [ amphi- + G. thrix, hair]
Exhibition of the properties characteristic of two types.
A zoonosis maintained in nature by humans and lower animals, e.g., certain staphylococcoses. Cf.:anthropozoonosis, zooanthroponosis. [ amphi- + G. xenos, stranger, + G. -osis, ...
On both sides, surrounding, double. [G. ampho, both]
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces canus; used topically for skin infections.
1. Having an affinity both for acid and for basic dyes. SYN: amphophilic, amphophilous. 2. A cell that stains readily with either acid or basic dyes. SYN: amphochromatophil, ...
Denoting the sound heard in percussion and auscultation, resembling the noise made by blowing across the mouth of a bottle. [G. amphora, a jar]
Presence of amphoric voice. [G. amphora, a jar, + loquor, to speak]
SYN: amphoric voice. [G. amphora, a jar, + phone, voice]
Having two opposite characteristics, especially having the capacity of reacting as either an acid or a base; e.g., Al(OH)3 Ξ H3AlO3 or an amino acid. [G. amphoteroi (pl.), both, ...
amphotericin, amphotericin B
C46H73NO20; an amphoteric polyene antibiotic prepared from Streptomyces nodosus and available as the sodium deoxycholate complex; also a nephrotoxic antifungal agent used ...
An acid-stable semisynthetic penicillin derived from 6-aminopenicillanic acid; it has a broader spectrum of antimicrobial action than penicillin G, inhibits the growth of ...
Abbreviation for L. amplus, large.
The pairing of male and female at the time that eggs and sperm are discharged simultaneously in those species, such as frogs, in which fertilization occurs externally. [L. an ...
Making multiple copies of a gene or of any sequence of DNA. Repeated copying of a piece of DNA. In amplification there is an increase in the number of copies of any particular ...
The production of multiple copies of a sequence of DNA. Repeated copying of a piece of DNA. DNA amplification plays a role in cancer cells. A tumor cell amplifies, or copies, ...
1. A device that increases the magnification of a microscope. 2. An electronic apparatus that increases the strength of input signals.
- image a. a device for converting a low ...
Largeness; extent; breadth or range. [L. amplitudo, fr. amplus, large]
- a. of pulse average pulse magnitude, peak magnitude.
A hermetically sealed container, usually made of glass, containing a sterile medicinal solution, or powder to be made up in solution, to be used for subcutaneous, ...
A saccular dilation of a canal or duct. [L. a two-handled bottle]
- biliaropancreatic a. hepatopancreatic a..
- a. biliaropancreatica hepatopancreatic a..
- bony ampullae of ...
Ampulla of Vater
A small muscle located at the junction where of the common bile duct (from the liver and pancreas) empties into the duodenum (the upper part of the small intestine). Bile from the ...
Relating in any sense to an ampulla.
Cancer of a structure called the ampulla of Vater, a small muscle located at the junction where the common bile duct (carrying bile from the liver and secretions from the ...
Inflammation of any ampulla, especially of the dilated extremity of the vas deferens or of the ampulla of Vater. [ ampulla + G. itis, inflammation]
A circumscribed dilation of any minute lymphatic or blood vessel or duct. [Mod. L. dim. of L. ampulla]
Removal of part or all of a body part enclosed by skin. For example, removal of part of a finger or an entire finger would be termed an amputation. Removal of an appendix, on the ...
A person with an amputated limb or part of limb.
A phosphodiesterase inhibitor with inotropic and vasodilator activity, used in management of congestive heart failure.
AMS (acute mountain sickness)
Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is the effect on the body of being in a high altitude environment. AMS is common at high altitudes, that is above 8,000 feet (2,440 meters). ...
AMS (atypical measles syndrome)
An altered expression of measles, AMS begins suddenly with high fever, headache, cough, and abdominal pain. The rash may appear 1 to 2 days later, often beginning on the limbs. ...
Marc, Swiss ophthalmologist, 1891–1968. See A. chart, A. grid, A. test.
While conducting an eye examination, the eye care professional may ask the patient to look at an Amsler grid. This grid is a pattern that resembles a checkerboard. The patient ...
Abbreviation for atomic mass unit.
The inability to recognize musical tones or to reproduce them. Amusia can be congenital (present at birth) or be acquired sometime later in life (as from brain damage). Amusia is ...
Jean Z., French surgeon, 1796–1856. See A. valve, A. valvula.
Morbid fear of being scratched. [G. amyche, a scratch, + phobos, fear]
A genus of Gram-positive, filamentous bacteria, defined as a separate genus in 1986, that tends to break up into square fragments; recovered from soil and vegetable matter; A. is ...
Congenital absence of both brain and spinal cord. [G. a- priv. + myelos, marrow, + enkephalos, brain]
Congenital absence of the spinal cord, found in association with anencephaly. [G. a- priv. + myelos, marrow]
Failure of formation of myelin sheath of a nerve.
1. SYN: amyelous. 2. In hematology, sometimes used to indicate the absence of bone marrow or the lack of functional participation of bone marrow in hemopoiesis. [G. a- priv. ...
Without spinal cord. SYN: amyelic, amyeloic (1), amyelonic.
1. Term for the lymphatic tonsils (pharyngeal, palatine, lingual, laryngeal, and tubal). 2. General term describing a nucleus in the temporal lobe, amygdaloid body. [L. fr. ...
A cyanogenic glucoside present in almonds and seeds of other plants of the family Rosaceae; the principal component of laetrile. Emulsin splits a. into benzaldehyde, ...
1. Relating to an almond. 2. [TA] Relating to a tonsil, or to the brain structure called amygdala or amygdaloid complex [TA]. 3. SYN: tonsillar.
Resembling an almond or a tonsil. [ amygdala + G. eidos, appearance]
The radical formed from a pentane, C5H12, by removal of one H. Several isomeric forms exist, the more important being CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2— (a. or pentyl); (CH3)2CHCH2CH2— ( ...
1. See amylo-. 2. Pentyl- See amyl.
One of a group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related 1,4-α-glucans.
The excretion of amylase (sometimes termed diastase) in the urine, especially increased amounts likely in acute pancreatitis. SYN: diastasuria.
The hypothetical presence of starch in the circulating blood. [ amylo- + G. haima, blood]
A flammable liquid hydrocarbon formed by the decomposition of amyl alcohol; has anesthetic properties but undesirable side actions. SYN: trimethylethylene.
- a. chloral a ...
The cellulose of starch; the insoluble envelope of starch grains.
Starch; of polysaccharide nature or origin. [G. amylon, unmilled; starch, fr. a- + myle, a mill]
An enzyme hydrolyzing α-d-1,6 links (branch points) in chains of 1,4-linked α-d-glucose residues, hence the term debranching enzyme or factor; deficiency causes type III ...
End product of hydrolysis of amylopectin by β-amylase; further hydrolysis requires amylo-1,6-glucosidase, which attacks the branch points. Identified by its color reaction ...
Biosynthesis of starch. [ amylo- + G. genesis, production]
1. Any of a group of chemically diverse proteins that appears microscopically homogeneous, but is composed of linear nonbranching aggregated fibrils arranged in sheets when ...
A tumor within which amyloid is produced. [ amyloid + G. -oma,tumor]
A disorder that results from the abnormal deposition of a particular protein, called amyloid, in various tissues of the body. Amyloid protein can be deposited in a localized ...
A familial (inherited) disorder in which protein deposits (amyloid) accumulate in one or more organ systems in the body. Hereditary amyloidosis is a relatively uncommon cause ...
A disorder of plasma cells (special white blood cells that produce antibodies), this is one of a group of diseases (called amyloidosis) in which protein deposits (amyloid) ...
One of a group of diseases (called amyloidosis) in which protein deposits (amyloid) accumulate in one or more organ systems in the body, secondary amyloid is caused by a chronic ...
Hydrolysis of starch into soluble products. [ amylo- + G. lysis, dissolution]
A branched-chain polyglucose (glucan) in starch containing both 1,4 and 1,6 linkages. Cf.:amylose.
Former name for an enzyme now known to be at least two enzymes, α-dextrin endo-glucanohydrolase and isoamylase.
See type 4 glycogenosis. [ amylopectin + G. -osis, condition]
A morbid craving for starch. SYN: starch-eating. [ amylo- + G. phago, to eat]
A granule in the protoplasm of a plant cell that is the center of a starch-forming process. SYN: amylogenic body. [ amylo- + G. plastos, formed]
Passage of undigested starch in the stools, implying a deficiency of amylase activity in the intestine. [ amylo- + G. rhoia, flow]
An unbranched polyglucose (glucan) in starch, similar to cellulose, containing α(1→4) linkages. Cf.:amylopectin.
Excretion of starch in the urine. SYN: amyluria.
Deficient formation of muscle tissue and deficient muscle growth. [G. a- priv. + mys, muscle, + plasis, a molding]
- a. congenita SYN: arthrogryposis multiplex congenita.
Difficulty in standing, due to muscular tremor or incoordination. [G. a- priv. + mys, muscle, + stasis, standing]
Muscular weakness. [G. a- priv. + mys, muscle, + sthenos, strength]
Generalized absence of muscle tone, usually associated with flabby musculature and an increased range of passive movement at joints. [G. a- priv. + mys, muscle, + tonos, tone]
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
A classic motor neuron disease. Motor neuron diseases are progressive chronic diseases of the nerves that come from the spinal cord responsible for supplying electrical ...
Muscular wasting or atrophy. SYN: amyotrophia. [G. a- priv. + mys, muscle, + trophe, nourishment]
- diabetic a. a type of diabetic neuropathy that primarily affects elderly ...
Lacking in muscular tissue, or in muscular strength. [G. a- priv. + mys, muscle]
Absence of the normal secretion of mucus. [G. a- priv. + myxa, mucus, + rhoia, flow]
Prefix very much employed in medicine and all of the health sciences, indicating "not, without, or -less." For example, the prefix "an" figures into these words: anemia (without ...
Antinuclear antibody, an unusual antibody directed against structures within the nucleus of the cell. ANAs are found in patients whose immune system is predisposed to cause ...
Up, again, back; sometimes an- before a vowel; corresponds to L. sursum-; CAUTION: an- before a vowel usually stands for a- meaning not; sometimes ana- becomes am- before p, b, or ...
A genus of Cyanobacteria found in fresh water that can cause odor in water supplies; although not invasive pathogens, they produce potent saxitoxinlike neurotoxins that can ...
Resuscitation after apparent death. [G. a reviving, fr. ana, again, + biosis, life]
1. Resuscitating or restorative. 2. A revivifying remedy; a powerful stimulant. [ ana- + G. bios, life]
Relating to or promoting anabolism.
1. The building up in the body of complex chemical compounds from smaller simpler compounds ( e.g., proteins from amino acid s), usually with the use of energy. Cf.:catabolism, ...
Any substance formed as a result of anabolic processes.
A microorganism that can live and grow in the absence of oxygen. [G. an- priv. + aer, air, + bios, life]
- facultative a. an a. that either grows in the presence of air or under ...
Relating to an anaerobe; living without oxygen.
Existence in an oxygen-free atmosphere. [G. an- priv. + aer, air, + biosis, way of living]
An order in the class Molicutes that is oxygen-sensitive. A role in human disease has not been defined.
Not producing gas. [G. an- priv. + aer, air, + -gen, producing]
1. A plant that grows without air. 2. An anaerobic bacterium. [G. an- priv. + aer, air, + phyton, plant]
Treatment of wounds by exclusion of air. [G. an- not + aer, air, + plastos, formed]
Growth phase of the hair cycle, lasting about 3–6 years in human scalp hair. [G. ana, up, + -gen, producing]
1. Repair of tissue. 2. Regeneration of lost parts. [G. ana, up, + genesis, production]
A rarely used term for psychic content of an idealistic or spiritual nature. [G. anagoge, fr. an- ago, to lead up]
Conjoined twins united in the middle but separated above and below. SYN: dicephalus dipygus. [G. ana, up, + kata, down, + didymos, twin]
SYN: goundou. [Fr. fr. Af. native term meaning “big nose”]
Arrest of maturation of leukocytes in their production centers, thereby resulting in greater numbers of young forms and progressively smaller proportions of mature granular cells ...
Relating to the anus.
Congenital absence of an opening at the bottom end of the intestinal tract. Also called imperforate anus. Occurs in about 1 in 5,000 births. It is corrected by surgery. Atresia ...
Absence of albumin from the serum. [G. an- priv. + albumin + G. haima, blood]
1. Strengthening, stimulating, or invigorating. 2. A restorative remedy. 3. A central nervous system stimulant, particularly used to denote agents that reverse depressed ...
A neurologic or pharmacologic state in which painful stimuli are so moderated that, though still perceived, they are no longer painful. Cf.:anesthesia. [G. insensibility, fr. an- ...
1. A compound capable of producing analgesia, i.e., one that relieves pain by altering perception of nociceptive stimuli without producing anesthesia or loss of consciousness. ...
A device for eliciting painful stimuli in order to measure pain under experimental conditions. [ analgesia + G. metron, measure]
1. SYN: analgesic (1). 2. Associated with decreased pain perception.
Referring to the psychic organization derived from, and characteristic of, the freudian anal period of psychosexual development.
1. One of two organs or parts in different species of animals or plants that differ in structure or development but are similar in function. 2. A compound that resembles another ...
Possessing a functional resemblance, but having a different origin or structure.
High-density lipoprotein deficiency; a heritable disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by almost complete absence from plasma of high density lipoproteins, and by storage ...
In psychoanalysis, the person being analyzed. [analysis + L. -andus, gerundive ending]
A psychology term for processes used to gain understanding of complex emotional or behavioral issues.
* * *
1. The breaking up of a chemical compound or mixture into simpler ...
Study aimed at establishing linkage between genes. Today linkage analysis serves as a way of gene-hunting and genetic testing. Linkage is the tendency for genes and other genetic ...
1. One who makes analytic determinations. 2. Short term for psychoanalyst.
Any material or chemical substance subjected to analysis.
1. Any instrument that performs an analysis. 2. The prism in a polariscope by means of which the polarized light is examined. 3. The neural basis of the conditioned reflex; ...
1. The act of remembering. 2. The medical or developmental history of a patient. [G. a., recollection]
1. Assisting the memory. SYN: mnemonic. 2. Relating to the medical history of a patient.
A group of vertebrates whose embryos are not enclosed in an amnion; it includes the cyclostomes, fish, and amphibians.
A somatic or reproductive structure that originates without nuclear recombination ( asexual reproduction); the imperfect part of the life cycle of fungi. [G. ana, up, + morphe, ...
1. In phylogeny, a progressive series of changes in the evolution of a group of animals or plants. 2. In optics, the process of correcting a distorted image with a curved ...
Inability to stand up. [G. a- priv. + anastasis, stand up]
Any form of repetitious stereotyped behavior which, if prevented, results in anxiety. [G. anankasma, compulsion]
An obsession in which a person feels forced to act or think against her or his will. [G. anankastos, compelled]
Absence of masculinity. [G. want of manhood, fr. an- priv. + aner- (andr-), man]
Imperfect vascularization of a part due to nonformation of vessels, or vessels with inadequate caliber. [G. an- priv. + angeion, vessel, + plastos, formed]
Relating to, characterized by, or due to anangioplasia.
Abbreviation for anionic neutrophil-activating peptide.
The stage of mitosis or meiosis in which the chromosomes move from the equatorial plate toward the poles of the cell. In mitosis a full set of daughter chromosomes (46 in ...
The inability to feel touch. From the Greek prefix an, not + Greek haphe, touch = inability to (feel) touch. A person with anaphia is said to be anaptic.
* * *
Absence of the ...
Movement of negatively charged particles (anions) in a solution or suspension toward the anode in electrophoresis. Cf.:cataphoresis. [G. ana, up + phoresis, a being borne]
1. Relating to anaphrodisia. 2. Repressing or destroying sexual desire. 3. An agent that lessens or abolishes sexual desire. SYN: antaphrodisiac, antaphroditic (1). [G. an- ...
Relating to anaphylaxis; manifesting extremely great sensitivity to foreign protein or other material.
A substance (antigen) capable of rendering an individual susceptible to anaphylaxis; a substance (antigen) that will cause an anaphylactic reaction in such a sensitized ...
Producing anaphylaxis; pertaining to substances (antigens) that result in an individual becoming susceptible to anaphylaxis.
Resembling anaphylaxis. SYN: pseudoanaphylactic. [ anaphylaxis + G. eidos, resemblance]
Also called Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP), this is a form of blood vessel inflammation, a vasculitis that affects small arterial vessels in the skin (capillaries) and the ...
Low molecular weight substances generated by the activation of complement; the biologically active complement components are derived from C3, C4, and C5 and lead to increased ...
An α-globulin (MW 300,000) which destroys the activity of the anaphylatoxic complement fragments. See anaphylatoxin.
An induced systemic or generalized sensitivity; at times the term a. is used for anaphylactic shock. The term is commonly used to denote the immediate, transient kind of ...
Loss of structural differentiation, especially as seen in most, but not all, malignant neoplasms. SYN: dedifferentiation (2). [G. ana, again, + plasis, a molding]
1. Relating to anaplasty. 2. Characterized by or pertaining to anaplasia. 3. Growing without form or structure.
Application of prosthetic materials for construction and/or reconstruction of a missing body part. [G. ana, again, + plastos, formed]
The process of replenishment of depleted metabolic cycle or pathway intermediates; most commonly referring to the tricarboxylic acid cycle. [G. filling up, fr. ana-, up, + ...
Referring to reactions or pathways that contribute to anaplerosis.
An accessory spinal process of a vertebra, found especially in the thoracic or lumbar vertebrae. [G. ana, back, + apophysis, offshoot]
Suffering from an impaired sense of touch, (a state called anaphia) or tactile anesthesia. An anaptic person has anaphia (an, not + Greek haphe, touch = inability to (feel) ...
Aphasia characterized by an inability to count or use numbers. [G. an- priv. + arithmos, number]
Loss of the power of articulate speech. SEE ALSO: aphasia, alexia, dysarthria. [G. fr. an-anthos, without joints; (of sound) inarticulate]
A generalized infiltration of edema fluid into subcutaneous connective tissue. SYN: hydrosarca. [G. ana, through, + sarx (sark-), flesh]
- fetoplacental a. edema of fetus and ...
1. Lenses in which astigmatism is corrected. 2. Lenses in which both astigmatism and field curvature are corrected.
Obsolete term for the gaping of a wound. [G. a., the laying bare of a wound]
1. To open one structure into another directly or by connecting channels, said of blood vessel s, lymphatics, and hollow viscera; also incorrectly applied to nerves. 2. To unite ...
: The connection of normally separate parts or spaces so they intercommunicate. An anastomosis may be naturally occurring or artificially constructed and be created during the ...
The abbreviation for anatomy, the study of form. Gross anatomy involves structures that can be seen with the naked eye. It is as opposed to microscopic anatomy (or histology) ...
Anatomic orientation terms
In anatomy, certain terms are used to denote orientation. For example, a structure may be horizontal, as opposed to vertical. Some of the terms of anatomic orientation are as ...
A hollow seen on the radial aspect of the wrist when the thumb is extended fully; it is bounded by the prominences of the tendon of the extensor pollicis longus posteriorly and ...
1. Relating to anatomy. 2. SYN: structural. 3. Denoting a strictly morphological feature distinct from its physiological or surgical considerations, e.g., a. neck of humerus, a. ...
: A hollow seen on the radial aspect (the thumbside) of the dorsum (the back) of the wrist when the thumb is extended fully. The reason that it is called the anatomical snuffbox ...
A specialist in the science of anatomy.
The study of form. Gross anatomy involves structures that can be seen with the naked eye. It is as opposed to microscopic anatomy (or histology) which involves structures seen ...
Better known among medical students simply as "gross", gross anatomy is the study of the form of structures that are large enough to be seen with the naked eye. Gross anatomy is ...
Known among medical students simply as "micro", microscopic anatomy is the study of the form of normal structures seen under the microscope, as opposed to gross anatomy which ...
Failure to conform to the cultural pattern. [G. ana, backward, + topos, place]
Pertaining to the characteristic properties of anatoxin (toxoid).
Characterized by anatricrotism; denoting a sphygmographic tracing with three waves on the ascending limb.
A condition of the pulse manifested by a triple beat on the ascending limb of the sphygmographic tracing. [G. ana, up, + tri-, thrice, krotos, beating]
The use of friction as a treatment modality for a medical condition. Anatripsis may or may not also involve the application of a medicament.
* * *
Therapeutic use of rubbing or ...
1. Pertaining to anatripsis. 2. A remedy to be applied by friction or rubbing.
Having no axon; denoting certain nerve cells first described by S. Ramón y Cajal as amacrine cells in the retina, and later discovered in several brain regions. [G. an- priv. + ...
A deficiency or lack of nitrogenous metabolic products excreted in the urine; pertains especially to unusually small quantities of urea in the urine. [G. an- priv. + azoturia]
The absolute neutrophil count, the real number of white blood cells (WBCs) that are neutrophils. The ANC is not measured directly. It is derived by multiplying the WBC count ...
Abbreviation for antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, under antibody.
Abbreviation for anodal closure contraction.
A person in the direct line of descent from which a subject of interest is derived (parents, grandparents, etc.; but no collaterals or descendants).
- leading a. in genetic ...