Small but continuous hemorrhage of the uterine mucous membrane. [ metro- + G. staxis, a dripping]
A narrowing of the uterine cavity. [ metro- + G. stenosis, a narrowing]
SYN: hysterotomy. [ metro- + G. tome, incision]
An inhibitor of adrenocortical steroid C-11 β-hydroxylation, administered orally or intravenously to determine the ability of the pituitary gland to increase its secretion of ...
An inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase and therefore a powerful inhibitor of catecholamine synthesis; used for controlling the manifestations of pheochromocytoma, in preoperative ...
Named for the Meuse River area, one of the great battlegrounds of World War I. Also known as trench fever. Meuse or trench fever is a disease borne by body lice that was first ...
Symbol for 1 million electron-volts.
The salt or ester of mevalonic acid.
- m. kinase an enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of m. and ATP to form ADP and m. 5-phosphate; this enzyme participates in the pathway for ...
Precursor of squalene, steroids, terpenes, and dolichol.
Elevated levels of mevalonic acid in the urine; associated with a deficiency of mevalonate kinase.
Fungal metabolite which is a potent inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-controlling enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. The drug, similar to lovastatin, pravastatin and ...
A cardiac antiarrhythmic drug used to treat ventricular arrhythmias; resembles lidocaine in its actions but is orally effective.
An orally active antiarrhythmic agent used to suppress symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias; resembles lidocaine in its actions but is orally effective.
H. von, Swiss pathologist, *1877. See M. complex, M. disease, M.-Altherr- Uehlinger syndrome.
Adolf, U.S. psychiatrist, 1866–1950. See M.- Archambault loop.
Edmund V., German laryngologist, 1864–1931. See M. cartilages, under cartilage.
Georg H., Swiss anatomist, ...
Friedrich, 20th century German physician. See Meyer- Betz disease, Meyer- Betz syndrome.
Otto F., German-U.S. biochemist and Nobel laureate, 1884–1951. See Embden-M. pathway, Embden-M.- Parnas pathway, M. oxidation quotient.
Theodor H., Vienna neurologist, 1833–1892. See retroflex bundle of M., M. cells, under cell, M. commissure, M. decussation, fasciculus of M., M. layer.
C21H24NaN5O8S2; an extended spectrum penicillin antibiotic used intravenously and intramuscularly.
Abbreviation for milligram, a unit of measurement of mass in the metric system equal to a thousandth of a gram. A gram is equal to the mass of one milliliter, one thousandth of ...
MG myasthenia gravis (MG)
An autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by fatigue and exhaustion of muscles. It is caused by a mistaken immune response to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors ...
Abbreviation for matrix Gla protein.
Abbreviation for monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance.
Abbreviation for major histocompatibility complex, minor histocompatibility complex.
SYN: siemens. [ohm reversed]
Symbol for megahertz.
Abbreviation for myocardial infarction.
MI (myocardial infarction)
A heart attack. The term "myocardial infarction" focuses on the heart muscle (the myocardium) and the changes that occur in it due to sudden (acute) deprivation of circulating ...
A poisonous vapor or mist believed to be made up of particles from decomposing material that could cause disease and be identified by its foul smell. The miasma theory of disease ...
A tetralol derivative in a new class of calcium antagonists that block at T-type channels; used to treat mild to moderate hypertension and angina pectoris.
Vittorio, Italian dermatologist, 1860–1910. See M. angiokeratomas, under angiokeratoma, M. disease.
Abbreviation for minimal inhibitory concentration.
Pneumoconiosis due to inhalation of mica particles.
Having the properties of an assemblage of micelles, i.e., of a gel.
1. Nägeli term for elongated sub(light)microscopic particles, detected in hydrogels, of supramolecular character and crystalline structure; now defined as one of two classes ...
Leonor, German-U.S. chemist, 1875–1949. See M.-Gutmann body, M. constant, M.- Menten constant, M.- Menten equation, M.- Menten hypothesis.
Gaston, French surgeon, 1874–1937. See M. spur.
M., 19th century French physician. See M. malformation.
Ferdinando, Italian physician, 1872–1936. See Marchiafava-M. anemia, Marchiafava-M. syndrome.
Abnormal smallness of the brain. SYN: micrencephalia, microencephaly. [micro- + G. enkephalos, brain]
Prefix derived from the Greek "mikros" meaning small. Examples of the many biomedical terms containing "micro-" include the following: microangiopathy, microcephaly, ...
1. Prefixes denoting smallness. 2. (μ) Prefix used in the SI and metric system to signify submultiples of one-millionth (10−6) of such unit. 3. In chemistry, prefix to terms ...
A very small circumscribed collection of leukocytes in solid tissues.
- Munro m. a microscopic collection of polymorphonuclear leukocytes found in the stratum corneum in ...
A pituitary adenoma less than 10 mm in diameter.
1. An aerobic bacterium that requires oxygen, but less than is present in the air, and grows best under modified atmospheric conditions. 2. Relating to such an organism. SYN: ...
A suspension in air of particles that are submicronic or, more frequently, from 1–10; μm in diameter.
A slight increase in urinary albumin excretion that can be detected using immunoassays but not using conventional urine protein measurements; an early marker for renal disease in ...
Analytic techniques involving unusually small samples.
Anastomosis of minute structures performed under an operating microscope.
Focal dilation of retinal capillaries occurring in diabetes mellitus, retinal vein obstruction, and absolute glaucoma, or of arteriolocapillary junctions in many organs in ...
Radiography of the finer vessels of an organ after the injection of a contrast medium and enlargement of the resulting radiograph. SYN: microarteriography. [micro- + ...
Angiopathy means disease of the blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries). There are two types of angiopathy: macroangiopathy and microangiopathy. With macroangiopathy, ...
A balance designed for use in weighing unusually small samples of materials.
A very tiny form of life — microbes include bacteria, fungi, and protozoan parasites — best visualized with a microscope. The word "microbe" did not enter English usage until ...
Relating to a microbe or to microbes. SYN: microbic, microbiotic (2).
An agent that kills microbes, minute forms of life (e.g. bacteria, fungi, and protozoal parasites), some capable of causing human disease. From microbe + the Latin "caedo," to ...
The science concerned with microorganisms, including fungi, protozoa, bacteria, and viruses. [Fr. microbiologie]
Infection with microbes.
- latent m. the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the body that elicit no symptoms; the condition of a pathogen carrier.
A small, nucleated, red blood cell. [micro- + G. blastos, sprout, germ]
Eyelids with abnormal vertical shortness. SYN: microblepharia, microblepharism. [micro + G. blepharon, eyelid + -ia, condition]
A cytoplasmic organelle, bounded by a single membrane and containing oxidative enzymes. Microbodies include peroxisomes and glyoxysomes.
Abnormal smallness of the arms. [micro- + G. brachion, arm]
An electric cautery with needle point. [micro- + Ger. Brenner, burner]
Calcifications less than 1 mm in diameter as seen on mammography; often associated with malignant lesions. [micro- + calcification]
Abnormal smallness of the heart. [micro- + G. kardia, heart]
SYN: cytocentrum. [micro- + G. kentron, center]
Having a small head. SYN: microcephalous, nanocephalous, nanocephalic.
An abnormally small head due to failure of brain growth. In precise terms, microcephaly is a head circumference that is more than 2 standard deviations below the normal mean for ...
The use of chemical procedures involving minute quantities or reactions not visible to the unaided eye. Cf.:macrochemistry.
The presence of donor cells in a graft recipient, or of fetal cells remaining in maternal circulation, which can be detected by molecular methods but not by flow cytometry.
The application of moving pictures taken through magnifying lenses to the study of an organ or system in motion; e.g., the circulation in living embryos. [micro- + G. kinema, ...
Passage of blood in the smallest vessels, namely arterioles, capillaries, and venules.
A family of bacteria (order Eubacteriales) containing Gram-positive spherical cells which occur singly or in pairs, tetrads, packets, irregular masses, or even chains. Rarely are ...
A genus of bacteria (family Micrococcaceae) containing Gram-positive, spherical cells that occur in irregular masses. Some species are motile or produce motile mutants. These ...
A vernacular term used to refer to any member of the genus M..
Colitis that is not seen by endoscopy, but in which microscopic examination of biopsies shows nonspecific mucosal inflammation.
A small-caliber unused colon, seen in the neonate on radiographic contrast enema; usually a consequence of intestinal atresia or meconium ileus.
A colony of bacteria visible only under a low power microscope.
In fungi, the smaller of two distinctively different-sized types of conidia in a single species, usually single-celled and spherical, ovoid, pyriform, or clavate.
A congenitally small pupil with an inability to dilate. [micro- + G. kore, pupil]
One-millionth of a curie; a quantity of any radionuclide with 3.7 × 104 disintegrations per second.
A tiny cyst, frequently of such dimensions that a magnifying lens or microscope is required for observation.
Microcystic corneal dystrophy
A disorder in which the cornea (the normally clear front window of the eye) shows dots (or microcysts), geographic map-like lines, and grayish fingerprint lines on examination ...
A small (5 μm or less) nonnucleated red blood cell. SYN: microerythrocyte. [micro- + G. kytos, cell]
The presence of many microcytes in the circulating blood. SYN: microcytosis. [ microcyte + G. haima, blood]
SYN: microcythemia. [ microcyte + G. -osis, condition]
Smallness or shortness of the fingers or toes. SYN: microdactylia. [micro- + G. dactylos, finger, toe]
The loss of a tiny piece of a chromosome, a piece so small its absence is not apparent on ordinary examination (using a regular light microscope to look at chromosomes prepared in ...
A method of studying extracellular fluid composition and response to exogenous agents, utilizing a tiny tubular probe with a dialysis membrane and fluid flow rates of 1–3 ...
Dissection of tissues under a microscope or magnifying glass, usually done by teasing the tissues apart by means of needles.
Having small teeth; denoting a skull with a dental index below 41.9. [micro- + G. odous (odont-), tooth]
A condition in which a single tooth, or pairs of teeth, or the whole dentition, may be disproportionately small. [micro- + G. odous, tooth]
A technique for measuring the microscopic distribution of energy, useful with different types of radiation. Microdosimetry provides the scientific underpinnings for the ...
A chronic hemolytic anemia resulting from interaction of the genes for sickle cell anemia and thalassemia. [ microcytosis + drepanocytosis]
Increase in partially distopic neurons in the stratum zonale, white matter, hippocampus and cerebellar cortex, producing an indistinct border between cortex and subcortical ...
An electrode of very fine caliber consisting usually of a fine wire or a glass tube of capillary diameter (10 μm to 1 mm) drawn to a fine point and filled with saline or a ...
The evolution of bacteria and other microorganisms through mutations.
A very small fibril having an average diameter of 13 nm; it may be a bundle of still smaller elements, the microfilaments.
The finest filamentous element of the cytoskeleton, having a diameter of about 5 nm and consisting primarily of actin. SEE ALSO: actin filament.
Infection of the blood with microfilariae. M. caused by Wuchereria bancrofti is characterized by sharp nocturnal periodicity, apparently tied to the nocturnal habits of the ...
Term for embryos of filarial nematodes in the family Onchocercidae. In the past this term has been used as a generic designation ( e.g., M. bancrofti, M. malaya). See Filaria. ...
1. A photographic film bearing greatly reduced images of printed records. 2. To record on m..
The bacteria and fungi that inhabit an area.
The male element in anisogamy, or conjugation of cells of unequal size; it is the smaller of the two cells and actively motile. [micro- + G. gametes, husband]
The mother cell producing the microgametes, or male elements of sexual reproduction in sporozoan protozoans and fungi. SYN: microgamont.
Conjugation between two young cells, the recent product of sporulation or some other form of reproduction. [micro- + G. gamos, marriage]
Smallness of the stomach. [micro- + G. gaster, stomach]
Abnormal smallness of the chin resulting from the underdevelopment of the mental symphysis. [micro- + G. geneion, chin]
Small neuroglial cells, possibly of mesodermal origin, which may become phagocytic, in areas of neural damage or inflammation. SYN: Hortega cells, m. cells, microglial cells. ...
A cell, especially an embryonic cell, of the microglia. [micro- + G. glia, glue, + kytos, cell]
Obsolete term for an intracranial neoplasm of microglial cell origin that is structurally similar to lymphoma. [ microglia + G. -oma, tumor]
Obsolete term for a condition characterized by the presence of multiple microgliomas.
Presence of microglia in nervous tissue secondary to injury. [ microglia + G. -osis, condition]
1. Any serum or urinary globulin of molecular mass below about 40 kd, including especially Bence Jones proteins, under protein. 2. On occasions, a term used to refer to 7S ...
Smallness of the tongue. [micro- + G. glossa, tongue]
Abnormal smallness of the jaws, especially of the mandible. [micro- + G. gnathos, jaw]
- m. with peromelia hypoplasia of the mandible with malformed and missing teeth, birdlike ...
1. An instrument that magnifies the microscopic movements of a diaphragm by means of light interference and records them on a moving photographic film; may be used for recording ...
1. Writing with very minute letters, sometimes observed in psychoses and in paralysis agitans. 2. A description of objects seen with a microscope. 3. SYN: photomicrography. ...
Abnormal narrowness of the cerebral convolutions. [micro- + G. gyros, convolution]
Hematuria means blood in the urine and microhematuria refers to hematuria that is visible only under a microscope. There is so little blood that it cannot be seen without ...
Abnormal smallness of the liver. [micro- + G. hepar (hepat-), liver]
Slight differences in structure between essentially identical molecules; E.G., in the saccharide portion of a glycoprotein.
One-millionth of an ohm. SYN: micro- ohm.
Combustion, in a furnace, of organic constituents in a tissue section so that the remaining mineral ash can be examined microscopically. SYN: spodography.
An instrument for infusion of very small amounts of fluids or drugs into animals or humans.
Invasion of tissue immediately adjacent to a carcinoma in situ, the earliest stage of malignant neoplastic invasion.
Treatment with high frequency radiations of 3,000,000,000 Hz (3000 MHz), at a wavelength of 10 cm. SYN: microwave therapy. [micro- + G. kyma, a wave, + therapeia, treatment]
A minute calculus, usually multiple, sometimes constituting a coarse sand called gravel. [micro- + G. lithos, stone]
The formation, presence, or discharge of minute concretions, or gravel, e.g., testicular m..
- pulmonary alveolar m. microscopic granules of calcium or bone disseminated ...
The science concerned with microscopic objects, of which histology is a branch. [micro- + G. logos, study]
Dissection, teasing, stimulation, etc., under the microscope, of minute structures; e.g., tissue cells or unicellular organisms.
An instrument used in micromanipulation, whereby microdissection, microinjection, and other maneuvers are performed, usually with the aid of a microscope.
Condition in which the breasts are rudimentary and functionless. [micro- + G. mazos, breast]
Condition of having disproportionately short or small limbs. SEE ALSO: achondroplasia. SYN: nanomelia. [micro- + G. melos, limb]
A blastomere of small size; for example, one of the blastomeres at the animal pole of an amphibian egg. [micro- + G. meros, a part]
A stage of metastasis when the secondary tumors are too small to be clinically detected, as in micrometastatic disease.
Denoting or characterized by micrometastasis, as in m. disease.
1. One-millionth of a meter; formerly called micron. 2. A device for measuring various types of objects in an accurate and precise manner; in medicine and biology, the term is ...
Measurement of objects with some type of micrometer and a microscope.
Prefix formerly used to signify one-trillionth (10−12); now pico-.
Denoting a concentration of 10−6 mol/L.
A cinematoscope for representing the movements of amebas and other motile microscopic objects. [micro- + L. motus, motion, + G. skopeo, to view]
Abnormal smallness or shortness of the spinal cord. [micro- + G. myelos, marrow]
A small myeloblast, often the predominating cell in myeloblastic leukemia. SYN: microleukoblast.
Former term for micrometer.
A small glass needle used in micrurgical manipulation.
A small, osmiophilic, cordlike twisted organelle found in the anterior region of many sporozoans; one of the characteristics that helps to define the subphylum Apicomplexa. ...
Of the size of 1 micron (micrometer).
Characterized by the presence of minute nodules; denoting a somewhat coarser appearance than that of a granular tissue or substance. [G. mikros, small]
1. A small nucleus in a large cell, or the smaller nuclei in cells that have two or more such structures. 2. The smaller of the two nuclei in ciliates dividing mitotically and ...
Essential food factors required in only small quantities by the body; e.g., vitamins, trace minerals. SYN: trace nutrient.
Abnormal smallness of nails. [micro- + G. onyx, nail]
Nystagmus of so small an amplitude that it is not detected by the usual clinical tests. SYN: minimal amplitude nystagmus. [micro- + G. nystagmos, a nodding]
Underdevelopment of the testes. Microorchidism is associated with Prader-Willi syndrome and some other genetic disorders. The prefix "micro-" is derived from the Greek "mikros" ...
Obsolete term for the microscopic study of disease changes. [micro- + G. pathos, suffering, + logos, study]
An abnormally small penis. In medical practice, the dimension of the penis that is measured is the length. This measurement is taken along the upper surface of the shaft of the ...
A polymorphonuclear leukocyte that is phagocytic. SEE ALSO: phagocyte. SYN: microphagocyte. [micro- + phag(ocyte)]
An abnormally small penis. Also called micropenis. In medical practice, the dimension of the penis that is measured is the length. The measurement is taken along the upper ...
Fear of minute objects, microorganisms, germs, etc. [micro- + G. phobos, fear]
An instrument for converting sounds to electrical impulses. [micro- + G. phone, sound]
A stethoscope with a diaphragm attachment for magnifying the sound.
A minute photograph of any object, as distinguished from a photomicrograph.
An abnormally small eye, a congenital malformation (birth defect) of the globe. The related term " anophthalmia" means no eye and refers to absence of the globe and ocular ...
Abnormal smallness of the eye. SYN: microphthalmia, nanophthalmia, nanophthalmos. [micro + G. ophthalmos, eye]
Decreased horizontal diameter of erythrocytes. [micro- + L. planus, flat]
Stunted growth, as in dwarfism. [micro- + G. plasis, a shaping, forming]
The technique of measuring minute changes in the volume of a part as a result of blood flow into or out of it.
Abnormal smallness of the feet. [micro- + G. pous, foot]
An organelle formed by the pellicle of all stages of sporozoan protozoa of the subphylum Apicomplexa and also found in developmental stages that may lack the inner pellicle ...
A condition characterized by an abnormally small or imperfectly developed face. [micro- + G. prosopon, face]
Perception of objects as smaller than they are. [micro- + G. opsis, sight]
A small puncture made with the aid of a microscope.
1. Minute opening believed to exist in the investing membrane of certain ova as a point of entrance for the spermatozoon. 2. Former name for micropore. [micro- + G. pyle, ...
Making radiographs of histologic sections of tissue for enlargement. SEE ALSO: historadiography.
An apparatus for measuring the utilization of oxygen by small particles of isolated tissues or cells or particles of cells.
Minute to-and-fro movements of the eyes. [micro- + Fr. saccade, sudden check (of a horse)]
Imaging of small anatomic structures by use of a radionuclide in conjunction with a special collimator which “magnifies” the image; for example, the use of technetium-99m ...
An optical instrument that augments the power of the eye to see small objects. The name microscope was coined by Johannes Faber (1574-1629) who in 1628 borrowed from the Greek to ...
A microscope that consists of two microscopes in series, the first serving as the ocular lens (close to the eye) and the second serving as the objective lens (close to the object ...
Microscope, electron (EM)
A microscope in which an electron beam replaces light to form the image. EM has its pluses (greater magnification and resolution than optical microscopes) and minuses (you are ...
A microscope equipped to examine material that fluoresces under ultraviolet (UV) light. Fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence microscopy is based on the fact that fluorescent ...
A microscope that has a single converging lens (or a combination of lenses that function optically as a single converging lens). Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) made good use ...
So small it cannot be seen without the aid of microscope. As opposed to macroscopic (large enough to be seen with naked eye). A tiny tumor is microscopic while a big tumor is ...
The study of the form of structures seen under the microscope, as opposed to gross anatomy which involves structures that can be observed with the naked eye . Traditionally, both ...
A mixture of microscopic particulate matter in bile, also called biliary sludge, that occurs when particles of material precipitate from bile. (Bile is the fluid that is made ...
The examination of minute objects by means of a microscope, an instrument which provides an enlarged image of an object not visible with the naked eye. Aside from the usual ...
Microscopy, electron (EM)
Microscopy in which an electron beam replaces light to form the image. EM has its pluses (greater magnification and resolution than optical microscopes) and minuses (you are not ...
Denoting a skull with an orbital index below 84. [micro- + G. sema, sign]
Fatty acid esters of trehalose and mannose isolated from diphtheria bacilli.
Having a weakly developed sense of smell. [micro- + G. osme, sense of smell]
One of the small spherical vesicles derived from the endoplasmic reticulum after disruption of cells and ultracentrifugation. [micro- + G. soma, body]
Too small a body. A child with microsomia has significant undergrowth. The prefix "micro-" is derived from the Greek "mikros" meaning small. It diminishes whatever it precedes. ...
A technique for characterizing and quantitating nucleoproteins in single cells or cell organelles by their natural absorption spectra (ultraviolet) or after binding ...
An instrument for observing the optical spectrum of microscopic objects.
Tiny globules of radiolabeled material such as macroaggregated albumin, about 15 microns in size.
Smallness of the pulse. SYN: microsphyxia. [micro- + G. sphygmos, pulse]
SYN: microsphygmy. [micro- + G. sphyxis, pulse]
Referring to smallness of the abdominal viscera. [micro- + G. splanchna, viscera]
A protozoan phylum that includes the genus Nosema and Encephalitozoon, and is characterized by the presence of unicellular spores with an imperforate wall and an extrusion ...
An order of the protozoan class Microsporea and phylum Microspora, characterized by minute spores with a single long, coiled, tubular filament enclosing the infective cell or ...
Common name for members of the protozoan phylum Microspora. It includes some 80 genera parasitizing all classes of vertebrates and many invertebrates, especially the insects. ...