Speech defect due to muscular incoordination. [G. mogis, with difficulty, + arthroo, to articulate]
Stuttering, stammering, or any speech defect. SYN: molilalia. [G. mogis, with difficulty, + lalia, speech]
Laryngeal spasm occurring in public speakers as a result of overuse of the voice. [G. mogis, with difficulty, + phone, voice]
Joseph J. Freiherr von, Austrian-Russian surgeon, 1755–1799. See M. fossa, M. space.
Frederic E., U.S. surgeon, *1910, who as a medical student devised a system of microscopicaly controlled removal of skin tumors. See M. fresh tissue chemosurgery technique, M. ...
A special type of surgery used for the treatment of skin cancer, especially basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. The purpose of Mohs surgery is to remove all of the ...
1. Originally, a half; now, loosely, a portion of something. 2. Functional group. [M.E. moite, a half]
To dampen; to replenish lost liquid; to add vapor; to humidify. "Moisturize" usually suggests that the thing receiving liquid is made slightly wet, but is not saturated. ...
Abbreviation for mole (4).
Abbreviation for molecular weight.
Denoting 1 mol of solute dissolved in 1000 g of solvent; such solutions provide a definite ratio of solute to solvent molecules. Cf.:molar (4).
Moles of solute per kilogram of solvent; the molarity is equal to mρ/(1 + mM), where m is the m., ρ is the density of the solution, and M is the molar mass of the solute. ...
In dentistry, a molar is one of the posterior teeth well adapted to grinding, in keeping with its origin from the Latin mola meaning millstone.
* * *
1. Denoting a grinding, ...
Having the form of a molar tooth. [molar (tooth) + L. forma, form]
Moles per liter of solution (mol/L). Cf.:molality.
A large group of fungi (like Penicillium) that cause mold (as on bread or cheese). A common trigger for allergies.
* * *
1. A filamentous fungus, generally a circular colony ...
Shaping by means of a mold.
- border m. the shaping of an impression material by the manipulation or action of the tissues adjacent to the borders of an impression. SYN: ...
: 1. A pigmented spot on the skin (nevus). 2. A mass within the uterus (womb) formed by partly developed products of conception.
* * *
1. SYN: nevus (2). 2. SYN: nevus ...
The number of reactants in an elementary reaction. For example, a reaction involving one reactant is unimolecular; reactions involving two compounds are bimolecular. M. and ...
The smallest unit of a substance that can exist alone and retain the character of that substance.
* * *
The smallest possible quantity of a di-, tri-, or polyatomic substance ...
SYN: mogilalia. [G. molis, with difficulty (a later form of mogis), + lalia, talking]
menstrual m. SYN: premenstrual syndrome.
Hans, Austrian chemist, 1856–1937. See M. test.
Jacob A., Dutch oculist, 1832–1914. See M. glands, under gland.
Benign recurrent aseptic meningitis. The cause of Mollaret meningitis is not known. Mollaret meningitis is distinguished from viral meningitis by its recurrent character with ...
1. Characterized by a soft consistency. 2. SYN: malacia. [L. mollis, soft]
A phylum of the subkingdom Metazoa with soft, unsegmented bodies, consisting of an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass and a ventral foot. Most forms are enclosed in a ...
A genus in the family Poxviridae; causes localized wartlike skin lesions. SYN: molluscum contagiosum.
A disease marked by the occurrence of soft rounded tumors of the skin. [L. molluscus, soft]
- m. contagiosum SYN: Molluscipoxvirus.
A contagious disease of the skin marked by the occurrence of rounded soft tumors of the skin caused by the growth of a virus (one that belongs to the virus family called the ...
Common name for members of the phylum Mollusca, although usually restricted to the gastropods and bivalves. SYN: mollusc.
John B., 20th century U.S. oncologist. See M. virus.
Paul J., Canadian physician, 1870–1939. See M. test.
Howard C., U.S. obstetrician, 1903–1953. See Caldwell-M. classification.
To cast off feathers, hair, or cuticle; to undergo ecdysis. SEE ALSO: desquamate. SYN: moult. [L. muto, to change]
A silvery white metallic element, atomic no. 42, atomic wt. 95.94; a bioelement found in a number of proteins ( e.g., xanthine oxidase). See m. target tube. [G. molybdaina, a ...
A reactor-produced radioisotope of molybdenum with a half-life of 2.7476 days, used in radionuclide generators for the production of technetium-99m.
Denoting molybdenum in the 6+ state, as in MoO3.
MoO3 H2O; a yellowish crystalline acid, forming molybdates; used in the determination of phosphorus or phosphate.
Enzymes that require a molybdenum ion as a component ( E.G., xanthine oxidase).
Proteins that require a molybdenum ion and a flavin nucleotide as a part of its naturally occurring structure ( e.g., aldehyde dehydrogenase).
A pterin derivative that complexes with molybdenum to form the molybdenum cofactor required by several enzymes.
Denoting molybdenum in the 4+ state, as in MoO2.
Morbid fear of infection. [G. molysma, filth, infection, + phobos, fear]
The product of a quantity times a distance. [L. momentum (for movimentum), motion, m., fr. moveo, to move]
- dipole m. the product of one of the two charges of a dipole and the ...
A term relating to excessive or overbearing mothering, especially as attributed to American cultural stereotypes.
1. A univalent element or radical. 2. A unicellular organism. 3. In meiosis, the single chromosome derived from a tetrad after the first and second maturation divisions. [G. ...
Constantin von, Swiss histologist, 1853–1930. See M. bundle, M. nucleus, M. syndrome, M. tract.
Having only one angle, denoting a dental instrument that has only one angle between the handle or shaft and the working portion (blade or nib).
The leaves of M. punctata (family Labiatae), American horsemint, a labiate plant of the U.S. east of the Mississippi; the main commercial source of natural thymol; used as a ...
Relating to a single joint. SYN: monarthric, uniarticular.
The single star figure at the end of prophase in mitosis. SYN: mother star. [mono- + G. aster, star]
1. Relating to or containing a single atom. 2. SYN: monovalent (1).
Pertaining to one ear. [mono- + L. auris, ear]
1. Having but one axis, being therefore elongated and slender. 2. Having one axon. [mono- + G. axon, axle]
Johann G., German pathologist, 1877–1925. See M. arteriosclerosis, M. calcification, M. degeneration, M. sclerosis.
C., Italian physician, 1729–1803. See M. hearing impairment, M. dysplasia.
Filippo, Italian physician. See M. reflex.
Henri, French surgeon, 1885–1962. See M. disease.
The prokaryotes, a kingdom of primitive microbial organisms characterized by having no defined nucleus or chromosomes; DNA that is not membrane-bound; and absence of centrioles, ...
A member of the prokaryote kingdom Monera.
Having but one estrous cycle in a mating season.
Carlos, Peruvian professor of medicine and high altitude specialist, 1884–1970. See Monge disease.
1. Relating to a member of the M. race. 2. Obsolete. Relating to Down syndrome (because of the Asian-appearing facies).
Obsolete name for Down syndrome. Down syndrome refers to the 19th century English physician J. Langdon Down who described the condition in 1866. In great error, Langdon Down ...
An autosomal dominant trichodystrophy in which brittle hairs show a series of constrictions, usually without a medulla. SYN: beaded hair, moniliform hair. [L. monile, ...
Generic term for a group of fungi that are commonly known as fruit molds; the sexual state is Neurospora. A few closely related pathogenic organisms formerly classified in this ...
A family of Fungi Imperfecti (order Moniliales) which includes Sporothrix schenckii, the causative agent of sporotrichosis.
Precisely, pertaining to the Monilia, but, in medicine, frequently used incorrectly with reference to the genus Candida.
Yeast infection of the mouth and throat caused by a fungus formerly called Monilia, now known as Candida albicans. This infection is also known as thrush. Yeast organisms are ...
Shaped like a string of beads or beaded necklace. [L. monile, necklace, + forma, appearance]
A genus of the class (or phylum) Acanthocephala, the thorny-headed worms. M. dubius, the common spiny-headed worm of house rats, is transmitted by infected cockroaches, ...
A metaphysical system in which all of reality is conceived as a unified whole. [G. monos, single]
A device that displays and/or records specified data for a given series of events, operations, or circumstances. [L., one who warns, fr. moneo, pp. monitum, to warn]
- cardiac m. ...
A type of portable heart monitor. The Holter monitor is a small portable electrocardiogram (ECG) device worn in a pouch around the neck or waist. It keeps a record of the ...
1. Performance and analysis of routine measurements aimed at detecting a change in the environment or health status of a population. 2. Ongoing measurement of performance of a ...
A viral disease similar to smallpox. Smallpox no longer occurs following its worldwide eradication in 1980, whereas monkeypox is still seen as a sporadic disease in parts of ...
The participation or involvement of a single element or part. Cf.:uni-. [G. monos, single]
Glycerol with an acyl moiety esterified to position 1 ( i.e., 1-m.) or position 2 ( i.e., 2-m.); an intermediate in the degradation and synthesis of lipids; 2 monoacylglycerols ...
A molecule containing one amide group. SYN: monamide.
A molecule containing one amine group. SYN: monamine.
Referring to nerve cells or fibers that transmit nervous impulses by the medium of a catecholamine or indolamine. [ monoamine + G. ergon, work]
The excretion of any monoamine in the urine. SYN: monaminuria.
Denoting two or more progeny of a multiple pregnancy that have shared a common amniotic sac.
Involving just one joint. As opposed to polyarticular (affecting many joints). From the Latin "articulus," meaning a joint.
Denoting a germ-free organism that becomes colonized by a single microbial species.
A mutant microorganism that requires a particular nutrient that is not required by the wild-type organism. Cf.:auxotroph, polyauxotroph.
A class of antibiotic that has a monocyclic β-lactam nucleus and is structurally different from other β-lactams; e.g., aztreonam.
Denoting an acid with only one replaceable hydrogen atom, or only one replaced hydrogen atom.
A melanin-pigment inhibiting agent; used topically for the treatment of hyperpigmentation caused by formation of melanin.
An immature cell that develops into a monocyte. [mono- + G. blastos, germ]
The condition of being one-armed. [mono- + G. brachion, arm]
Having a heart with a single atrium and ventricle.
Relating to or having a single chorion; denoting monovular twins. SYN: monochorial.
A person with one of the many forms of colorblindness.
1. Having but one color. 2. Indicating a light of a single wavelength. 3. Relating to or characterized by monochromatism. SYN: monochroic, monochromic.
1) Total inability to perceive color. A person with true monochromatism perceives only black, white, and shades of gray. It is due to lack of or damage to the cones of the eye ...
1. Taking only one stain. 2. A cell or any histologic element staining with only one kind of dye. SYN: monochromophil, monochromophile. [mono- + G. chroma, color, + philos, fond]
A prism or diffraction grating used in spectrophotometry to isolate a narrow spectral range.
Referring to fully processed mRNA that codes for a single protein.
A lens used for one eye, usually in the correction of presbyopia.
Relating to crystals with a single oblique inclination. [mono- + G. klino, to incline]
Pertaining to a single clone of cells, a single cell and the progeny of that cell. As opposed to polyclonal. A monoclonal tumor is one that is derived from a single cell and ...
An antibody produced by a single clone of cells (specifically, a single clone of hybridoma cells) and therefore a single pure homogeneous type of antibody. Monoclonal ...
SYN: syncephalus. [mono- + G. kranion, cranium]
Denoting a pulse the curve of which presents no notch or subsidiary wave in its descending line. [mono- + G. krotos, a beat]
The state in which the pulse is monocrotic. [mono- + G. krotos, a beat]
Relating to, affecting, or visible by one eye only. [mono- + L. oculus, eye]
1. SYN: cyclops. 2. A bandage applied to one eye only. [L. a one-eyed man, a hybrid word fr. G. monos, single, + L. oculus, eye]
A white blood cell that has a single nucleus and can ingest (take in) foreign material. (In other words, a monocyte is thus a mononuclear phagocyte that circulates in the ...
Diminution in the number of monocytes in the circulating blood. SYN: monocytic leukopenia, monopenia. [mono- + G. kytos, cell, + penia, poverty]
An abnormal increase in the number of monocytes in the circulating blood. SYN: monocytic leukocytosis.
Jacques L., French biochemist and Nobel laureate, 1910–1976. See M.-Wyman-Changeux model.
Of relatively uniform size; said of aerosol suspensions with size variation of less than ±20%.
A surfactant; the oleate is used as a sclerosing agent in the treatment of varicose veins.
The marriage or mating system in which each partner has but one mate. [mono- + G. gamos, marriage]
1. The production of similar organisms in each generation. 2. The production of young by one parent only, as in nonsexual generation and parthenogenesis. 3. The process of ...
Relating to a hereditary disease or syndrome, or to an inherited characteristic, controlled by alleles at a single genetic locus.
Asexually produced, as by fission, gemmation, or sporulation.
A treatise on a particular subject or specific aspect of a subject. [mono- + G. graphe, a writing]
Containing or united with a single molecule of water per molecule of substance.
Having but one hydrogen atom in the molecule.
A marked preoccupation with one idea or subject; a slight degree of monomania. [mono- + G. idea, form, idea]
Simple infection with a single variety of microorganism.
Cytokines secreted by both monocytes and macrophages. These substances influence the activity of other cells. See cytokine. [ monocyte + G. kineo, to set in motion]
1. Films, one molecule thick, formed on water by certain substances, such as proteins and fatty acid s, characterized by molecules containing some atom groupings that are soluble ...
Having one cavity or chamber. SYN: unicameral, unicamerate. [mono- + L. loculus, a small place]
An obsession or abnormally extreme enthusiasm for a single idea or subject; a psychosis marked by the limitation of the symptoms rather strictly to a certain group, as the ...
1. One exhibiting monomania. 2. Characterized by or relating to monomania.
A mastigote having only one flagellum. [mono- + Roman mastix, a whip]
Relating to one limb. [mono- + G. melos, limb]
1. The molecular unit that, by repetition, constitutes a large structure or polymer; e.g., ethylene, H2C=CH2, is the m. of polyethylene, H(CH2)nH. SEE ALSO: subunit (1). 2. The ...
1. Consisting of a single component. 2. In genetics, relating to a hereditary disease or characteristic controlled by genes at a single locus. 3. Consisting of monomers. [mono- + ...
1. SYN: unimolecular. 2. Relating to a singular molecular entity.
Of one shape; unchangeable in shape. [mono- + G. morphe, shape]
SYN: omphalopagus. [mono- + G. omphalos, umbilicus]
Paralysis limited to one muscle. [mono- + G. mys, muscle, + plege, a stroke]
An unpaired helix of nucleic acid, as occurs in a chromatid.
Inflammation of a single nerve. There are many causes of mononeuritis including diabetes mellitus, carpal tunnel syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, and Lyme disease. The treatment ...
Inflammation of two or more nerves, typically in unrelated portions of the body. Mononeuritis multiplex causes a loss of function of the muscle tissue that is innervated by the ...
Disorder involving a single nerve.
- m. multiplex nontraumatic involvement of two or more portions of the peripheral nervous system ( e.g., roots, plexus elements, nerve trunks), ...
Having only one nucleus; used especially in reference to blood cells.
Infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, human herpesvirus 4, HHV-4) in which there is an increase of white blood cells that have a single nucleus (monocytes). The infection ...
A semisynthetic esterified glycerol used as a solubilizing agent for radiolucent gallstones retained in the biliary tract following cholecystectomy.
Oxidoreductases that induce the incorporation of one atom of oxygen from O2 into the substance being oxidized.
Paresis affecting a single extremity or part of an extremity.
1. A single uncomplicated disease. 2. A local disease affecting only one organ or part. [mono- + G. pathos, suffering]
Habitual eating of but one kind of food or but one meal a day when the latter is clearly an aberration. [mono- + G. phago, to eat]
Inability to speak other than a single word or sentence. [mono- + G. phasis, speech]
1. Marked by monophasia. 2. Occurring in or characterized by only one phase or stage. 3. Fluctuating from the baseline in one direction only.
1. A copper-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones by O2, with the incorporation of one of the two oxygen atoms in the product; it ...
Morbid fear of solitude or of being left alone. [mono- + G. phobos, fear]
Failure of outgrowth of a primary optic vesicle with absence of ocular tissues; the remaining eye is often maldeveloped. [mono- + G. ophthalmos, eye]
1. Having a single cell type of origin; derived from one line of descent, in contrast to polyphyletic. 2. In hematology, relating to monophyletism. [mono- + G. phyle, tribe] ...
In hematology, the theory that all the blood cells are derived from one common stem cell or histioblast. SYN: monophyletic theory. [mono- + G. phyle, tribe]
Having one set of teeth only; without deciduous dentition. [mono- + G. phyo, to grow, + odous (odont-), tooth]
Formed of but one tissue. [mono- + G. plasma, thing formed]
A unicellular organism that retains the same structure or form throughout its existence. [mono- + G. plastos, formed]
Undergoing no change in structure; relating to a monoplast.
Paralysis of one limb. [mono- + G. plege, a stroke]
- m. masticatoria unilateral paralysis of the muscles of mastication ( masseter, temporal, pterygoid).
SYN: haploid. [mono- + G. ploides, in form]
Malformation in which only one foot is externally recognizable. [mono- + G. pous, foot]
SYN: cyclops. [mono- + G. ops, eye]
Arranged in a single but folded layer, as the cells in the epithelium of the gallbladder or certain glands. [mono- + G. ptyche, fold]
1. Having only one testis. 2. Having apparently only one testis, the other being undescended.
A condition in which only one testis is apparent, the other being absent or undescended. SYN: monorchia, monorchidism. [mono- + G. orchis, testis]
Denoting a late or tertiary manifestation of syphilis which takes the form of an ulcerated papule located at the site of the original chancre. [mono- + L. recidivus, relapsing] ...
Single-nosed; used to characterize conjoined twins in which only a single nose cavity is evident. [mono- + G. rhis (rhin-), nose]
A carbohydrate that cannot form any simpler sugar by simple hydrolysis; e.g., pentoses, hexoses. SYN: monose.
Having only one leg. [mono- + G. skelos, leg]
Morbid concentration on some past experience. [mono- + G. skene, tent (stage drop)]
The monosodium salt of the naturally occurring l form of glutamic acid; used as a flavor enhancer that is a cause or contributing factor to “Chinese restaurant” syndrome; ...
1. SYN: accessory chromosome. 2. Obsolete term for ribosome. 3. A structure consisting of a single ribosome bound to a molecule of mRNA. [mono- + chromosome]
In conjoined twins, a condition in which there are two heads and a single trunk. See conjoined twins, under twin. [mono- + G. soma, body]
Characterized by or pertaining to monosomia.
Missing one chromosome from a pair. For example, if a female has one X chromosome (X monosomy) rather than two, Turner syndrome is the result.
* * *
Absence of one chromosome of ...
Fertilization by the entrance of only one spermatozoon into the egg. [mono- + G. sperma, seed]
Archaic name for a genus of trematodes, based on the presence of a single sucker. [mono- + G. stoma, mouth]
Common name for digenetic trematodes that possess a single sucker, oral or ventral, rather than both. SEE ALSO: Monostoma. [mono- + G. stoma, mouth]
Involving only one bone. [mono- + G. osteon, bone]
Composed of a single layer. [mono- + L. stratum, layer]
In chemistry, denoting an element or radical, only one atom or unit of which is found in each molecule of a substitution compound.
Denoting a disease or morbid condition manifested by only one marked symptom.
Referring to direct neural connections (those not involving an internuncial neuron); e.g., the direct connection between primary sensory nerve cells and motor neurons ...
Marked by the occurrence of a single syphilitic lesion.
Hydrocarbons or their derivatives formed by the condensation of two isoprene units, and therefore containing 10 carbon atoms; e.g., camphor; often containing a cyclic structure. ...
Evenness of bodily temperature; absence of an evening rise in body temperature. [mono- + G. therme, heat]
Producing a single offspring at a birth. [mono- + G. tokos, birth]
An order of egg-laying mammals that have a cloaca or common chamber that receives digestive, urinary, and reproductive products; only Australia has such forms, the duck-billed ...
Denoting a microorganism possessing a single flagellum or cilium. SYN: monotrichate, uniflagellate.
1. Having the combining power (valence) of a hydrogen atom. SYN: monatomic (2), univalent. 2. Pertaining to a m. (specific) antiserum to a single antigen or organism.
SYN: monogenetic. [mono- + G. xenos, stranger]
Any oxide having only one atom of oxygen; e.g., CO.
Unisegmented, as in cestodarian tapeworms. See polyzoic.
Identical twins that originate from a single fertilized egg (a zygote).
Alexander Sr., Scottish anatomist and surgeon, 1697–1767. See bursa of M..
Alexander, Jr., Scottish anatomist, 1733–1817. See M. doctrine, M. foramen, M. line, M. sulcus, ...
An anatomical prominence or slight elevation above the general level of the surface. [L. a mountain]
- m. pubis [TA] the prominence caused by a pad of fatty tissue over the ...
George S., U.S. dentist, 1869–1933. See M. curve, anti- M. curve.
Outmoded term for a malformed embryo, fetus, or individual. See entries beginning with terato-. See teras. [L. monstrum, an evil omen, a prodigy, a wonder]
Giovanni B., Italian surgeon, 1762–1815. See M. fracture.
A competitive and selective Cys-LT1-receptor antagonist that acts as a blocker of leukotrienes, which are potent endogenous bronchoconstrictors. A prophylactic; not useful to ...
William F., Irish obstetrician, 1797–1859. See M. follicles, under follicle, M. glands, under gland, M. tubercles, under tubercle.
1. Any slight rounded projection above a surface. 2. The central portion of the superior vermis forming a projection on the surface of the cerebellum; its anterior and most ...
The pervasive feeling, tone, and internal emotional state of an individual which, when impaired, can markedly influence virtually all aspects of a person's behavior or his or her ...
Oscillation of a person's emotional feeling tone between periods of euphoria and depression.
Henry, English surgeon, 1845–1892. See M. molars, under molar.
Robert C., U.S. ophthalmologist, 1844–1914. See Laurence-M. syndrome.
Charles H., English surgeon, 1821–1870. See M. method.
Robert Foster, British ophthalmologist, 1878–1963. See M. lightning streaks, under streak.
Albert, German ophthalmologist, 1828–1899. See M. ulcer.
Hermann, Swiss pathologist in Mexico, 1891–1971. See M. bodies, under body.