Phosphoric acid, O=P(OH)3, distinguished by ortho- from meta- and pyrophosphoric acid s, (HPO3)n and OP(OH2)OP(OH)2O, respectively, which are anhydrides of H3PO4; the ultimate ...
1. Rarely used term for soundness of mind. 2. Rarely used term for a condition of normal interpersonal relationships. [ortho- + G. phren, mind]
The inability to breathe easily unless one is sitting up straight or standing erect.
* * *
Discomfort in breathing that is brought on or aggravated by lying flat. Cf.:platypnea. ...
Relating to or characterized by orthopnea.
The genus of the family Poxviridae, which comprises the viruses of alastrim, vaccinia, variola, cowpox, ectromelia, monkeypox, and rabbitpox.
An appliance used in the management of prosthetic problems related to alignment of teeth.
A cross-disciplinary science combining child psychiatry, developmental psychology, pediatrics, and family care devoted to the discovery, prevention, and treatment of mental and ...
A large order of hemimetabolous insects that includes the locusts, grasshoppers, mantids, walking sticks, and related forms. [ortho- + G. pteron, a wing]
The study and treatment of defective binocular vision, of defects in the action of the ocular muscles, or of faulty visual habits. [ortho- straightened + G. optikos, sight]
A genus in the family Reoviridae associated with a variety of respiratory and enteric diseases, but its causal relationship is not proven.
A term designating a disorder in which there is an unhealthy obsession with healthy eating, an extreme dedication to extreme diets that can starve the body of basic nutrition. ...
1. An instrument by means of which one is able to draw the outlines of the various normas of the skull. [ortho- + G. skopeo, to view]
Having correct vision or producing it. Orthoscopic, in other words, is free from optical distortion or designed to correct distorted vision. This fits with the prefix "ortho", ...
An external orthopaedic appliance, as a brace or splint, that prevents or assists movement of the spine or the limbs. [G. o., a making straight]
- ankle-foot o. an o. beginning ...
Orthosis, thoracolumbosacral (TLSO)
One of the two main types of braces used to correct the lateral (sideways) curve of the spine in scoliosis. Patients can wear this brace to correct spinal curves whose apex is ...
A temporary lowering of blood pressure (hypotension) due usually to suddenly standing up (orthostatic). Orthostatic hypotension may be experienced by healthy people — it is ...
1. A normal or natural manner of death and dying. 2. Sometimes used to denote the deliberate stopping of artificial or heroic means of maintaining life. [ortho- + G. thanatos, ...
The science concerned with the making and fitting of orthopaedic appliances. SYN: orthetics.
A maker and fitter of orthopaedic appliances.
In the presence of peroxidase, o. (like benzidine) is oxidized to a blue color; because hemoglobin behaves like a peroxidase, o. has been used as an in vitro aid for the ...
A form of tetanic spasm in which the neck, limbs, and body are held fixed in a straight line. [ortho- + G. tonos, tension]
In the normal or usual position. [ortho- + G. topos, place]
Extending or growing in a straight, especially a vertical, direction. [ortho- + G. trope, a turn]
In radiation therapy, a term for voltage between 400 and 600 kV.
Marius, 20th century Italian orthopaedic surgeon. See O. maneuver, O. test.
Samuel T., U.S. neurologist, 1879–1975. See Wolf-O. bodies, under body.
A glutelin in rice. [G. oryza, rice, + -in]
1. [NA] The mouth. 2. Term applied sometimes to an opening into a hollow organ or canal, especially one with thick or fleshy edges. SEE ALSO: mouth (2), ostium, orifice, ...
OS (lens prescription)
Abbreviation of " oculus sinister." Latin for "left eye." By contrast, OD stands for " oculus dexter" which is Latin for the right eye.
The large, heavy bone at the base of the spine, which is made up of fused sacral vertebrae. The sacrum is located in the vertebral column, between the lumbar vertebrae and the ...
The compound formed by certain sugars ( e.g., glucose, galactose, fructose) with excess hydrazines, possessing two hydrazones on carbons 1 and 2 instead of only one at C-1, as ...
1. A to-and-fro movement. 2. A stage in the vascular changes in inflammation in which the accumulation of leukocytes in the small vessels arrests the passage of blood and there ...
1. An apparatus somewhat like a vibrator, used to give a form of mechanical massage. 2. An electric circuit designed to generate alternating current at a particular frequency. ...
An instrument that records oscillations, usually electrical.
An apparatus for measuring oscillations of any kind, especially those of the bloodstream in sphygmometry. SEE ALSO: sphygmo- o.. [L. oscillo, to swing, + G. metron, measure]
Relating to the oscillometer or the records made by its use.
The measurement of oscillations of any kind with an oscillometer.
The subjective sensation of oscillation of objects viewed. SYN: oscillating vision. [L. oscillo, to swing, + G. opsis, vision]
An oscillograph in which the record of oscillations is continuously visible.
- cathode ray o. (CRO) the common form of o., in which a varying electrical signal (y) vertically ...
To yawn; to gape. [L. oscito, fr. os, mouth, + cieo, to put in motion]
The act of yawning, the involuntary opening of the mouth with respiration, breathing first inward, then outward. Yawning is often caused by suggestion. Repeated yawning is ...
A pore or minute opening. [L. dim. of os, mouth]
Robert B., U.S. orthopedic surgeon, 1873–1956. See O.- Schlatter disease.
A condition involving inflammation and sometimes tearing of ligaments within the knee and lower leg. Treatment is by rest, casting if necessary, and sometimes surgery. ...
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration, an agency of the US government under the Department of Labor with the responsibility of ensuring safety at work and a healthful ...
Sir William, Canadian physician in U.S. and England, 1849–1919. See O. disease, O. node, O. sign, Rendu-O.- Weber syndrome.
Known as hereditary hemorrhagic telangectasia (HHT), this is a genetic vascular disease with dilatation (widening) of capillaries and small arteries (arterioles) producing ...
These are small (the size of split peas), tender, transient nodules in the pads of fingers and toes and the palms and soles. They are a highly diagnostic sign of bacterial ...
SYN: olfactory. [G. osme, smell]
SYN: chondrodystrophy with sensorineural deafness.
SYN: olfaction. [G. o., smelling]
OsO4; a volatile caustic and strong oxidizing agent; colorless crystals, poorly soluble in water, but soluble in organic solvents; the aqueous solution is a fat and myelin stain ...
To stain or fix with osmic acid.
The fixation of tissue with an osmic acid solution; also serves as a stain for both light and electron microscopy.
The science of olfaction. [G. osme, smell]
Readily stained with osmic acid. [ osmium + G. phileo, to love]
Not readily stained with osmic acid. [ osmium + G. phobos, fear]
A metallic element of the platinum group, atomic no. 76, atomic wt. 190.2. [G. osme, smell, because of the strong odor of the tetroxide]
- o. tetroxide SYN: osmic acid.
1. Osmosis. [G. osmos, impulsion] 2. Smell, odor. [G. osme]
An abnormal dislike of certain odors. [G. osme, smell, + dys-, bad, + phora, a carrying]
SYN: electroolfactogram. [G. osme, smell, + gramma, a drawing]
The concentration of a solution expressed in osmoles of solute particles per kilogram of soluent.
- calculated serum o. the calculation of serum o. from serum sodium, glucose, ...
The osmotic concentration of an osmotically active substance in solution, expressed as osmoles of solute particles per liter of solution.
The molecular weight of a solute, in grams, divided by the number of ions or particles into which it dissociates in solution.
1. The study of odors, their production, and their effects. SYN: osphresiology. 2. The study of osmosis.
1. An instrument for measuring osmolality by freezing point depression or vapor pressure elevation techniques. 2. An apparatus for measuring the acuteness of the sense of ...
Measurement of osmolality by use of an osmometer.
Flourishing in a medium of high osmotic pressure. [osmo(sis) + G. phileo, to love]
SYN: olfactophobia. [G. osme, smell, + phobia]
The group of atoms in the molecule of a compound that is responsible for the compound's characteristic odor. [G. osme, smell, + phonos, bearing]
1. A receptor in the central nervous system (probably the hypothalamus) that responds to changes in the osmotic pressure of the blood. [G. osmos, impulsion] 2. A receptor that ...
To move through a membrane by osmosis.
The process by which solvent tends to move through a semipermeable membrane from a solution of lower to a solution of higher osmolal concentration of the solutes to which the ...
An indirect measure of the osmotic characteristics of a solution, in terms of a comparable sodium chloride solution, now rendered obsolete by the more precisely defined term ...
Dehydration by means of intravenous injections of hypertonic solutions of sodium chloride, dextrose, urea, mannitol, or other osmotically active substances, or by oral ...
Relating to osmosis. SYN: osmolar.
Odor; sense of smell. [G. osphresis, smell]
An unusual interest in odors. [ osphresio- + G. phileo, to love]
Plural of L. os, bone. [L.]
Bony. SEE ALSO: ossi-, osteo-. [L. osseus]
Relating to, or composed of, both bone and cartilage. SYN: osteocartilaginous, osteochondrous.
Having to do with the bone, consisting of bone, or resembling bone. From "os" which is a synonym for "bone." The Latin word "os" means "bone" as does the related Greek word ...
Bone. SEE ALSO: osseo-, osteo-. [L. os]
Any small bone, such as the tiny bones within the human ear.
* * *
A small bone; specifically, one of the bones of the tympanic cavity or middle ear. SYN: ossiculum [TA], ...
Removal of one or more of the ossicles of the middle ear. [L. ossiculum, ossicle, + G. ektome, excision]
Division of one of the ossicles of the middle ear. [L. ossiculum, ossicle, + G. tome, incision]
SYN: ossicle. [L. dim. of os, bone]
- ossicula auditus [TA] SYN: auditory ossicles, under ossicle.
- ossicula mentalia small nodules of bone that appear at the symphysis ...
Containing or producing bone. [ ossi- + L. fero, to bear]
Relating to a change into, or formation of, bone.
The process of creating bone, that is of transforming cartilage (or fibrous tissue) into bone. The human skeleton initially consists largely of cartilage which is relatively soft ...
SYN: osteoid (1). [ ossi- + L. forma, form]
To make into bone; to convert cartilage or fibrous tissue into bone. The skeleton initially consists mainly of cartilage which is gradually transformed into bone during ...
SYN: osseous. [G. osteon, bone]
Pain in a bone. SYN: osteodynia. [osteo- + G. algos, pain]
SYN: osteoanagenesis. [osteo- + G. anaphysis, a growing again]
1. Surgical removal of bone. 2. In dentistry, resection of supporting osseous structure to eliminate periodontal pockets. SYN: osteoectomy. [osteo- + G. ektome, excision]
Relating to or affected by osteitis. SYN: ostitic.
Osteitis is inflammation of the bone. For example, patients with what is called the SAPHO syndrome develop osteitis — the O in SAPHO stands for oteitis — and the bone ...
Better known today as Paget disease, this is a chronic bone disorder that typically results in enlarged, deformed bones due to excessive breakdown and formation of bone tissue ...
Osteitis fibrosa cystica
A condition associated with hyperparathyroidism in which bone tissue is gradually replaced by cysts and fibers.
Congestion or hyperemia of a bone. [osteo- + G. haima, blood]
Suppuration in bone. [osteo- + G. empyesis, suppuration]
Combining form meaning bone. From the Greek "osteon", bone. Appears for instance in osteoarthritis, osteochondroma osteodystrophy, osteogenesis, osteomyelitis, osteopathy, ...
Regeneration of bone. SYN: osteanagenesis, osteanaphysis. [osteo- + G. ana, again, + genesis, generation]
Arthritis characterized by erosion of articular cartilage, either primary or secondary to trauma or other conditions, which becomes soft, frayed, and thinned with eburnation of ...
A disorder affecting bones and joints. [osteo- + G. arthron, joint, + pathos, suffering]
- hypertrophic pulmonary o. expansion of the distal ends, or the entire shafts, of the ...
SYN: osteoarthritis. [osteo- + G. arthron, joint, + -osis, condition]
A bone-forming cell that is derived from mesenchymal osteoprognitor cells and forms an osseous matrix in which it becomes enclosed as an osteocyte. SYN: osteoplast. [osteo- + ...
Relating to the osteoblasts; describes any region of increased radiographic bone density, in particular, metastases that stimulate o. activity.
A non-cancerous tumor in bone tissue. Osteoblastomas are small, and are seen most frequently in children or young adults. Symptoms include pain and bone mass reduction. Treatment ...
A protein found in osteoblasts and dentin; contains γ-carboxyglutamyl residues; has a role in mineralization and calcium ion homeostasis. SYN: bone Gla protein.
Inflammation of a bone and its overlying articular cartilage. [osteo- + G. chondros, cartilage, + -itis, inflammation]
- o. deformans juvenilis SYN: Legg-Calvé- Perthes ...
A condition in which a fragment of bone in a joint is deprived of blood and separates from the rest of the bone, causing soreness and making the joint “give way”. Diagnosis is ...
An abnormal, solitary, benign growth of bone and cartilage, typically at the end of a long bone. Osteochondromas are usually discovered in persons 15 to 25 years of age. They are ...
The most common type of skeletal tumor (exostoses) disorder seen in childhood, osteochondromatosis is characterized by multiple projecting tumors. The tumors most frequently form ...
A disorder of a joint featuring a change of the normal joint lining (synovium) tissue's cellular structure to form bone-cartilage tissue. Synovial osteochondromatosis is ...
Chondrosarcoma arising in bone. Sarcomas in bone containing foci of neoplastic cartilage as well as bone are classified as osteogenic sarcomas. [osteo- + G. chondros, cartilage, ...
Any disease that affects the progress of bone growth by killing bone tissue. Osteochondrosis is seen only in children and teens whose bones are still growing.
* * *
Any of a group ...
SYN: osseocartilaginous. [osteo- + G. chondros, cartilage]
Destruction and reabsorption of bone tissue, as occurs when broken bones heal.
The surgical destruction of bone tissue. Osteoclasis is performed to reconstruct a bone that is malformed, often a broken bone that healed improperly. The bone may be broken and ...
Intentional fracture of a bone to correct deformity. SYN: diaclasis, diaclasia. [osteo- + G. klasis, fracture]
A cell that nibbles at and breaks down bone and is responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclasts are large multinucleate cells (cells with more than one nucleus) that differentiate ...
Pertaining to osteoclasts, especially with reference to their activity in the absorption and removal of osseous tissue.
A type of bone tumor characterized by massive destruction of bone near the end (epiphysis) of a long bone. The site most commonly struck by this tumor is the knee — the far end ...
The cranium of the fetus after ossification of the membranous cranium has made it firm. [osteo- + G. kranion, skull]
A cell of osseous tissue that occupies a lacuna and has cytoplasmic processes that extend into canaliculi and make contact by means of gap junctions with the processes of other ...
Rapidly formed tertiary dentin that contains entrapped odontoblasts and few dentinal tubules, thereby superficially resembling bone. [osteo- + L. dens, tooth]
Osteopoikilosis with skin lesions, most commonly small elastic fibrous nodules on the posterior aspects of the thighs and buttocks; irregular autosomal dominant inheritance. ...
Transformation of tendon into bony tissue. [osteo- + G. desmos, a band (tendon), + -osis, condition]
Separation of two adjacent bones, as of the cranium. [osteo- + G. diastasis, a separation]
SYN: ostealgia. [osteo- + G. odyne, pain]
SYN: Melnick-Needles o.. SYN: Melnick- Needles syndrome. [osteo- + G. dys-, bad, + plastos, formed]
- Melnick-Needles o. a generalized skeletal dysplasia with prominent forehead ...
Defective formation of bone. SYN: osteodystrophia. [osteo- + G. dys, difficult, imperfect, + trophe, nourishment]
- Albright hereditary o. an inherited form of ...
A benign lesion of bone, probably not a true neoplasm, consisting chiefly of fairly dense, moderately cellular, fibrous connective tissue in which there are small foci of ...
Fibrosis of bone, mainly involving red bone marrow.
- periapical o. SYN: periapical cemental dysplasia.
A bone matrix–producing tissue or layer. [osteo- + G. -gen, producing]
The formation of bone. SYN: osteogeny, osteosis (2), ostosis (2). [osteo- + G. genesis, production]
- distraction o. a technique of inducing new bone formation by dividing a ...
Brittle bone disease. Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is not one but a group of genetic diseases, all of which affect collagen in connective tissue in the body and all of which ...
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 1
An inherited connective tissue disorder featuring bone fragility and blue sclerae (blue whites of the eyes). This is the classic form of " brittle bone disease." Osteogenesis ...
Osteogenesis imperfecta type 2
An inherited connective tissue disorder with extremely severe bone fragility. This is the lethal form of “brittle bone disease.” Osteogenesis imperfecta type 2 is a ...
Osteogenesis, electrically stimulated
Bone growth caused by implanting electrodes in an area of bone and sending electrical current to them. This procedure may be used to jump-start the healing process when a bone has ...
A treatise on or description of the bones. [osteo- + G. graphe, a writing]
Softening of the bones through absorption or insufficient supply of the mineral portion. [osteo- + G. hals, salt, + steresis, privation]
Condition characterized by overgrowth of bones. [osteo- + G. hyper- over, + trophe, nourishment]
1. Relating to or resembling bone. SYN: ossiform. 2. Newly formed organic bone matrix prior to calcification. [osteo- + G. eidos, resemblance]
A benign tumor of bone tissue. It emerges most often in the teens or 20s, and is found most frequently in the femur and in males. Symptoms include pain, mostly at night. Diagnosis ...
A benign neoplasm of cartilaginous tissue, in which metaplasia occurs and foci of adipose cells and osseous tissue are formed. [osteo- + G. lipos, fat, + chondros, cartilage, ...
The anatomy of the bones; the science concerned with the bones and their structure. SYN: osteologia. [osteo- + G. logos, study]
Softening, absorption, and destruction of bony tissue, a function of the osteoclasts. [osteo- + G. lysis, dissolution]
Pertaining to, characterized by, or causing osteolysis.
A benign, slow-growing mass of mature, predominantly lamellar bone, usually arising from the skull or mandible. [osteo- + G. -oma, tumor]
- o. cutis cutaneous ossification ...
Softening of bones, particularly in the sense of bone weakened by demineralization (the loss of mineral) and most notably by the depletion of calcium from bone. Osteomalacia may ...
An abnormal nodule or small mass of overgrowth of bone, usually occurring bilaterally and symmetrically, in juxtaepiphysial regions, especially in long bones of the lower ...
One of the series of bone segments, such as the vertebrae. [osteo- + G. meros, a part]
The branch of anthropometry concerned with the relative size of the different parts of the skeleton. [osteo- + G. metron, measurement]
Inflammation of the bone due to infection, for example by the bacteria salmonella or staphylococcus. Osteomyelitis is sometimes a complication of surgery or injury, although ...
A disease characterized by enlargement of the marrow cavities of the bones, thinning of the osseous tissue, large, thin-walled vascular spaces, leukopenia, and irregular fever. ...
A central canal containing blood capillaries and the concentric osseous lamellae around it occurring in compact bone. SYN: haversian system. [G. o., bone]
An osteoma, sometimes used with reference to any neoplasm of a bone. [osteo- + G. onkos, bulk (swelling)]
Bone death resulting from poor blood supply to an area of bone. Also known as aseptic necrosis or avascular necrosis.
* * *
The death of bone in mass, as distinguished from ...
A protein (MW 39,000–40,000) found in bone and nonmineralized tissues and believed to play a role in mineralization.
An osteopathic physician who is a Doctor of Osteopathy (D.O.). In most US states, osteopaths must complete a course of study equivalent to that of an MD and are licensed to ...
SYN: osteopathy (1).
- o. condensans SYN: osteopoikilosis.
- o. hemorrhagica infantum SYN: infantile scurvy.
- o. striata linear striations seen radiographically in the ...
A system of therapy founded in the 19th century based on the concept that the body can formulate its own remedies against diseases when the body is in a normal structural ...
Obsolete term for lithopedion. [osteo- + G. paidion, dim. of pais, a child]
Mild thinning of the bone mass. Osteopenia represents a low bone mass, but not to the more severe extent of osteoporosis. Osteopenia results when the formation of bone (osteoid ...
Thickening of the bones which become abnormally dense due an inherited defect in bone resorption — the process in which old bone is broken down and removed so that new bone can ...
SYN: osteoclast (1). [osteo- + G. phago, to eat]
Inflammation of the veins of a bone. [osteo- + G. phleps, vein, + -itis, inflammation]
A bony outgrowth or protuberance. [osteo- + G. phyton, plant]
Any osseous layer. [osteo- + Fr. plaque, plate]
SYN: osteoblast. [osteo- + G. plastos, formed]
1. SYN: osteogenic. 2. Relating to osteoplasty.
1. Bone grafting; reparative or plastic surgery of bones. 2. In dentistry, resection of osseous structure to achieve acceptable gingival contour. [osteo- + G. plastos, formed]
Mottled or spotted bones caused by widespread small foci of compact bone in the substantia spongiosa; autosomal dominant inheritance [MIM*166700]. SEE ALSO: osteopathia striata, ...
A protein produced by osteoblasts of unknown function.
A secreted phosphoprotein, produced by many epithelial cell types, that is highly negatively charged and frequently associated with mineralization processes. It is found in ...
Thinning of the bones with reduction in bone mass due to depletion of calcium and bone protein. Osteoporosis predisposes a person to fractures, which are often slow to heal and ...
Pertaining to, characterized by, or causing a porous condition of the bones.
A secreted protein that inhibits osteoclast differentiation.
A physician who specializes in radiology of the bones and joints. [osteo- + radiologist]
The clinical subspecialty of diagnostic bone radiology.
Necrosis of bone produced by ionizing radiation; may be planned or unplanned. [osteo- + radionecrosis]
Wiring together the fragments of a broken bone. SYN: osteosuture. [osteo- + G. rhaphe, suture]
: A cancer of the bone that is most common in children. Also called osteogenic sarcoma.
* * *
SYN: osteogenic sarcoma.
- parosteal o. low-grade o. arising on the surface of ...
Abnormal hardening or eburnation of bone. [osteo- + G. sklerosis, hardness]
Relating to, due to, or marked by hardening of bone substance.
1. A morbid process in bone. SYN: ostosis (1). 2. SYN: osteogenesis. [osteo- + G. -osis, condition]
- parathyroid o. SYN: osteitis fibrosa cystica.
- renal fibrocystic o. ...
General nonspecific term for a neoplasm in bone that results in thinning and fragmentation (thus, in softening) of the cortex. [osteo- + G. spongos, sponge, + -oma, tumor]
A benign mass, usually a lipoma or sebaceous cyst, in which small foci of bony elements are present. [osteo- + G. stear, suet, fat, + -oma, tumor]
A surgical procedure that stabilizes and joins the ends of fractured (broken) bones by mechanical devices such as metal plates, pins, rods, wires or screws. Osteosynthesis refers ...
An instrument for use in cutting bone. [osteo- + G. tome, incision]
Taking out part or all of a bone, or cutting into or through bone.
* * *
Cutting a bone, usually by means of a saw or osteotome. [osteo- + G. tome, incision]
- “C” sliding ...
An instrument for crushing off bits of necrosed or carious bone. [osteo- + G. tribo, to bruise, to grind down]
An instrument with conical or olive-shaped tip having a cutting surface, resembling a dental burr, used for the removal of carious bone. [osteo- + L. tritus, a grinding, a ...
Nutrition of osseous tissue. [osteo- + G. trophe, nourishment]
Plural of ostium. [L.]
Relating to any orifice, or ostium.
A small opening, especially one of entrance into a hollow organ or canal. SEE ALSO: orifice, opening, os, mouth (2). [L. door, entrance, mouth]
- o. abdominale tubae uterinae [TA] ...
Term for one who has an ostomy. [L. ostium, mouth]
: An operation to create an opening from an area inside the body to the outside. See glossary entry for colostomy.
* * *
1. An artificial stoma or opening into the urinary or ...
1. SYN: osteosis (1). 2. SYN: osteogenesis.
Denoting the heaping up of scales seen in psoriasis, which resembles the stratification of oyster shells. [Ostraeacea, group including the oysters]
Poisoning from eating infected or contaminated oysters. [G. ostreon, oyster, + toxikon, poison]
Friedrich Wilhelm, German physical chemist and Nobel laureate, 1853–1932. See O. solubility coefficient.
Abbreviation for occupational therapist or therapy; Koch old tuberculin.