An abnormal sensation of the skin, such as numbness, tingling, pricking, burning, or creeping on the skin that has no objective cause. Paresthesia is the usual American spelling ...
Relating to or marked by paresthesia; denoting numbness and tingling in an extremity that usually occurs on the resumption of the blood flow to a nerve following temporary ...
Relating to or suffering from paresis.
SYN: coitus. [G. pareunos, lying beside, fr. para, beside, + eune, a bed]
Any derangement of perspiration. SYN: parahidrosis. [para- + G. hidrosis, sweating]
SYN: wall. [L. wall]
- p. anterior gastris [TA] SYN: anterior wall of stomach.
- p. anterior vaginae [TA] SYN: anterior wall of vagina.
- p. caroticus cavi tympani [TA] SYN: ...
Adjective from the Latin "parietalis" meaning "belonging to the wall" that the ancient anatomists used to designate the wall, as of a body cavity. For examples, there are the: ...
The main side bone of the skull. Although the parietal bone is curved, it is considered a flat bone, as opposed to a tubular bone. It is shaped like an irregular quadrangle. It ...
Part of the brain, specifically the section of the cerebral hemisphere that lies beneath the parietal bone, the main side bone of the skull. The word "parietal" comes from the ...
The outer layer of the pericardium which is a conical sac of fibrous tissue that surrounds the heart and the roots of the great blood vessels. The pericardium has outer and inner ...
A wall (of the body, e.g., the abdominal wall); a parietal bone. [L. paries, wall]
Relating to the parietal and the frontal bones or the parts of the cerebral cortex corresponding thereto.
Rarely used term for a radiographic examination of the wall of the stomach using a combination of pneumoperitoneum and intraluminal air and barium. [ parieto- + G. graphe, a ...
Relating to the parietal bone and the mastoid portion of the temporal bone.
Relating to the parietal and occipital bones or to the parts of the cerebral cortex corresponding thereto.
Relating to the parietal bone and the squamous portion of the temporal bone.
Relating to the wall of a cavity and to the contained viscera. SYN: parietosplanchnic.
Henri, French ophthalmologist, 1844–1905. See P. conjunctivitis, P. ophthalmoplegia, P. syndrome, P. oculoglandular syndrome.
Cupric acetoarsenite, used as an insecticide and as a pigment.
The condition of having given birth to an infant or infants, alive or dead; a multiple birth is considered as a single parous experience. [L. pario, to bear]
William H., U.S. bacteriologist, 1863–1939. See P.- Williams fixative.
Henry, British surgeon, 1745–1831. See P. aneurysm.
Edward Mason, U.S. surgeon, 1860–1941. See P.- Kerr suture.
James, British physician, 1755–1824. See parkinsonism (1), P. disease, P. facies.
Sir John, British cardiologist, 1885–1976. See Wolff-P.-White syndrome.
: An abnormal condition of the nervous system caused by degeneration of an area of the brain called the basal ganglia, and by low production of the neurotransmitter dopamine. ...
Relating to or the suffering from parkinsonism (1).
1. A neurologic syndrome usually resulting from deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine as the consequence of degenerative, vascular, or inflammatory changes in the basal ...
Jakob Karol, Polish physiologic chemist, 1884–1955. See Embden-Meyerhof-P. pathway.
Near or beside the occipital bone or the occiput. [para- + occipital]
SYN: periodontium. [para- + G. odous, tooth]
SYN: labor pains, under pain. [L. pario, to bear, + G. odyne, pain]
In psychiatry, term for conditional release of a formally committed patient from a mental hospital prior to formal discharge, so that the patient may be returned to the hospital ...
Associated with or related to the olfactory system.
By the side of or near the oliva. [para- + L. oliva, olive]
A broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces rimosus forma paromomycinus; used in the treatment of bacterial enteritis and amebiasis, and for preoperative suppression ...
1. A tumor near the umbilicus. 2. A hernia through a defect in the abdominal wall near the umbilicus. [para- + G. omphalos, umbilicus, + kele, tumor, hernia]
Francesco, 19th century Italian surgeon. See P. space.
Inflammation of the folds of tissue surrounding the nail due to infection. The infection may be bacterial (most commonly, staph or strep) or to fungal. The term "paronychia" is ...
Inflammation of tissues adjacent to the ovaries. [paroophoron + G. -itis, inflammation]
Remnants of the tubules and glomeruli of the lower part of the mesonephros appearing as a few scattered tubules in the broad ligament between the epoöphoron and the uterus. Its ...
SYN: testis ectopia. [para- + G. orchis, testis]
SYN: epididymis. [para- + G. orchis, testis]
An abnormal or disordered appetite. [para- + G. orexis, appetite]
SYN: dysosmia. [para + G. osme, sense of smell]
Relating to the tissues immediately adjacent to the periosteum of a bone.
Inflammation of the tissues immediately adjacent to a bone. SYN: parostitis. [para- + G. osteon, bone, + -itis, inflammation]
1. Development of bone in an unusual location, as in the skin. 2. Abnormal or defective ossification. [para- + G. osteon, bone, + -osis, condition]
Near or beside the ear. [para- + G. ous, ear]
Situated near the ear; denoting several structures in this neighborhood. Usually refers to the p. salivary gland. [G. parotis (p.-), the gland beside the ear, fr. para, beside, + ...
The largest of the three major salivary glands, it is located in front and below the ear and behind the jaw bone. The other two glands are the submandibular (submaxillary) and ...
Surgical removal of the parotid gland. [ parotid + G. ektome, excision]
Inflammation of the parotid gland. SYN: parotitis.
- epidemic p. SYN: mumps.
- postoperative p. an acute inflammation of the parotid gland occurring in the postoperative ...
1. An occasional band of muscle fibers passing from the surface of the parotid gland to the auricle. 2. Relating to the parotid gland and the external ear.
A globulin obtained from parotid glands that causes hypocalcemia, has effects on mesenchymal tissues, produces first leukopenia and then leukocytosis, and promotes ...
Inflammation of the parotid glands. A classic feature of mumps.
* * *
Pertaining to parity. [L. pario, to bear]
1. Relating to the paroöphoron. 2. Beside or in the neighborhood of the ovary. SYN: paraovarian.
Incision into or removal of a tumor of the parovarium. [ parovarium + G. tome, incision]
SYN: paroöphoron. [para- + L. ovarium, ovary]
In medicine, a paroxysm is a violent attack. It may be due to the sudden occurrence of symptoms or the acute exacerbation (the abrupt worsening) of preexisting symptoms. You may ...
Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia (PAT)
Bouts of rapid, regular heart beating originating in the atrium (upper chamber of the heart). Due to abnormalities in the AV node "relay station" that lead to rapid ...
1. The killing of one's parent ( patricide or matricide). 2. One who commits such an act. [L. parricidium, killing of close kin]
Jules, French physician, 1829–1883. See P. disease.
Parrot fever (psittacosis)
An infectious disease due to a bacteria (Chlamydia psittaci) contracted from psittacine birds, especially caged birds like parrots, parakeets, and lovebirds and also in turkey ...
Caleb H., English physician, 1755–1822. See P. disease.
Toxic multinodular goiter. Named for the English physician Caleb Hillier Parry (1755-1822). also called Plummers disease.
SYN: part. [L. p. (part-) a part]
- p. abdominalis aortae [TA] SYN: abdominal aorta.
- p. abdominalis ductus thoracici [TA] SYN: abdominal part of thoracic duct.
- p. abdominalis ...
A clinical syndrome consisting of inflammation of the peripheral retina and/or pars plana, exudation into the overlying vitreous base, and edema of the optic disk and adjacent ...
A portion. SYN: pars [TA].
- abdominal p. of aorta SYN: abdominal aorta.
- abdominal p. of esophagus [TA] the portion of the esophagus from where it passes through the diaphragm ...
Abbreviation for L. partes aequales, in equal parts (amounts).
Abbreviation for L. partes vicibus, in divided doses.
Development of a germ cell without fertilization. This is what happens in the formation of ovarian teratomas (dermoid cysts). All of the chromosomes in these benign tumors of ...
Morbid fear of girls. [G. parthenos, virgin, + phobos, fear]
In a partial hysterectomy, the uterus is surgically removed but the cervix is left in place. Also called a subtotal
A condition in which fingers or toes are partially joined together. Syndactyly can involve the bones or just the skin. With partial syndactyly, the connection extends from the ...
1. A very small piece or portion of anything. 2. An elementary p. such as a proton or electron. [L. particula, dim. of pars, part]
- alpha p. (α) a p. consisting of two ...
A tiny mass of material composed of two protons and two neutrons. Alpha particles do not travel very far from their radioactive source. They cannot pass through a piece of paper, ...
Relating to or occurring in the form of fine particles.
Formed elements, discrete bodies, as contrasted with the surrounding liquid or semiliquid material; e.g., granules or mitochondria in cells.
Graph of labor parameters of time and dilation with alert and action lines to prompt intervention if the curve deviates from expected. SYN: Friedman curve, labor curve. [L. ...
Relating to or in the process of childbirth. [L. parturio, to be in labor]
1. Inducing or accelerating labor. 2. An agent that induces or accelerates labor. SYN: oxytocic (2). [L. parturio, to be in labor, + facio, to make]
Childbirth, the process of delivering the baby and placenta from the uterus to the vagina to the outside world. Also called labor and delivery. Parturition comes from the Latin ...
SYN: gingival abscess. [G. paroulis, gumboil, fr. para, beside, + oulon, gum]
Near the umbilicus (the "belly button"). The parumbilical veins are small veins in the front wall of the abdomen near the umbilicus.
* * *
Inhibited urination, especially in the presence of strangers. [para- + G. ouresis, urination]
Any of a group of small water-soluble calcium-binding proteins distinct from calmodulin and other calcium-binding proteins; found in the brain, skeletal muscle, and retina, but ...
A family name regarded as a former name for the bacterial family Brucellaceae. No type genus has ever been proposed for the family P..
Relating to or composed of cells of small size. [L. parvus, small, + Mod. L. cellularis, cellular]
A ptomaine, C9H13N, from decaying fish.
A family of small viruses containing single-stranded DNA. Virions are 18–26 nm in diameter, are not enveloped, and are ether-resistant. Capsids are of cubic symmetry, with 32 ...
A genus of viruses (family Parvoviridae) that replicate autonomously in suitable cells. Strain B19 infects humans, causing erythema infectiosum and aplastic crisis in hemolytic ...
A single-stranded DNA virus belonging to the family Parvoviridae; the cause of erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) and aplastic crises.P. (B19V) was first isolated in 1975 from ...
Infection with one of a family of small single-stranded DNA viruses. (Parvovirus means small virus, from the Latin parvus, small.) One type, parvovirus B19, infects only humans. ...
A very small pill. [L. parvulus, very small, fr. parvus, small]
Abbreviation for p-aminosalicylic acid; periodic acid - Schiff stain.
Abbreviation for p-aminosalicylic acid.
Blaise, French scientist, 1623–1662. See p., P. law.
A derived unit of pressure or stress in the SI system, expressed in newtons per square meter; equal to 10−5 bar or 7.50062 × 10−3 torr. [B. P.]
Konstantin M., Bulgarian ophthalmologist, 1873–1961. See P. conjunctivitis.
Enrique, German pathologist, 1860–1936. See P. bodies, under body.
Augustine, 20th century Argentinian dermatologist. See atrophoderma of P. and Pierini.
Poisoning by seeds of a species of grass, Paspalum scrobiculatum. [G. paspalos, a kind of millet, fr. pas, all, + pale, meal]
1. The act of passing. 2. A discharge, as from the bowels or of urine. 3. Inoculation of a series of animals with the same strain of a pathogenic microorganism whereby the ...
The walls of the nasal passages are coated with respiratory mucous membranes which contain innumerable tiny hair-like cells that act to move waves of mucus toward the throat. ...
The rabbit pinworm, an oxyurid nematode found abundantly in the cecum and large intestine of rabbits.
Philippas G., German physician, 1815–1893. See P. bar, P. cushion, P. pad, P. ridge.
R.D., 20th century British pathologist. See Harding-P. melanoma.
The passion-flower, P. incarnata (family Passifloraceae), a climbing herb of the southern U.S.; the dried flowering and fruiting top has been used in neuralgia, dysmenorrhea, ...
1. Intense emotion. 2. Obsolete term for suffering or pain. [L. passio, fr. patior, pp. passus, to suffer]
Not active; submissive. [L. passivus, fr. patior, to endure]
Movement of the body, usually of the limbs, without effort by the patient. The patient is passive.
: The inhaling of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) involuntarily by someone who is not smoking. Environmental tobacco smoke is generated from the sidestream (the burning end) ...
1. An attitude of submission. 2. A sexual practice in which the subject is submissive to the will of the partner in behavior that usually requires the consent of both ...
1. The condition of a metal having formed a protective oxide coating; e.g., rustless metals and aluminum become passive in air. 2. In dentistry, the quality or condition of ...
A test of the integrity of the vestibular system : the subject, seated in a revolving chair, is rotated to the right 10 times with eyes closed; then with the arm held horizontal, ...
A soft semisolid of firmer consistency than pap, but soft enough to flow slowly and not to retain its shape. SYN: pasta. [L. pasta]
- dermatologic p. a class of preparations ...
The segment forming the part for near vision in two-piece bifocal lenses.
The French chemist and biologist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) invented pasteurization, developed the germ theory, founded the field of bacteriology and created the first ...
A genus of aerobic to facultatively anaerobic, nonmotile bacteria (family Brucellaceae) containing very small, Gram-negative, cocci or ellipsoidal to elongated rods which, with ...
A vernacular term used to refer to any member of the genus P..
A method of treating food by heating it to a certain point to kill pathogenic (disease-causing) organisms but not harm the flavor or quality of the food. Pasteurization is used ...
Constantin C., Roumanian physician, 1883–1926. See P. sign.
1. A small mass of benzoin and other aromatic substances to be burned for fumigation. 2. SYN: troche. [Fr. pastille; L. pastillus, a roll (of bread), dim. of panis, bread]
PAT (paroxysmal atrial tachycardia)
Bouts of rapid, regular heart beating originating in the atrium (upper chamber of the heart). Due to abnormalities in the AV node "relay station" that lead to rapid firing of ...
A winglike membrane. [L. a gold edging on a woman's gown]
Klaus, 20th century U.S. cytogeneticist. See P. syndrome.
Patau syndrome (trisomy 13 syndrome)
A syndrome characterized by multiple malformations, commonly including scalp defects, hemangiomas (blood vessel malformations) of the face and nape of the neck, cleft lip and ...
1. A small circumscribed area differing in color or structure from the surrounding surface. 2. In dermatology, a flat area greater than 1.0 cm in diameter. 3. An intermediate ...
G., French physician, 1857–1928. See P. albumin.
The kneecap by another name, the patella is the small bone that is in the front of the knee. The patella is a sesamoid bone, a little bone (sesamoid = like a sesame seed) that ...
An operation to remove the patella.
* * *
Excision of the patella. [patella + G. ektome, excision]
Patellofemoral syndrome (PFS)
The commonest cause of chronic knee pain, PFS characteristically causes vague discomfort of the inner knee area, aggravated by activity (running, jumping, climbing or descending ...
The state of being freely open or exposed.
- probe p. (of foramen ovale), a term introduced by B.M. Patten to cover incomplete fibrous adhesion of an adequate valvula foraminis ...
Open or exposed. SYN: patulous. [L. patens, pres. p. of pateo, to lie open]
Open, unobstructed, affording free passage. Thus, for example, the bowel may be patent (as opposed to obstructed). Pronounced "pa-tent" with the accent on the first syllable.
A device giving exclusive control and possession. Before the commercialization of biomedical inventions, the word "patent" in this sense had no place in a medical ...
A birth defect involving the urachus, a canal connecting the bladder of the fetus with the allantois, a structure that contributes to the formation of the umbilical cord. The ...
Donald R., English otolaryngologist, 1863–1939. See P.- Kelly syndrome, P.-Brown- Kelly syndrome.
A road or way; the course taken by an electric current or by nervous impulses. SEE ALSO: pathway. [A.S. paeth]
- clinical p. a map that outlines the entire track or p. a patient ...
Obsolete term for a disease or morbid condition. [G. p., suffering]
Those reactions resulting from a state of altered activity, both allergic (immune) and nonallergic. [G. pathos, disease, + ergon, work]
1. Denoting the fourth cranial nerve (p. nerve), the trochlear nerve. 2. Denoting that which arouses sorrow or pity. [G. pathetikos, relating to the feelings]
A filiform bougie for introduction through a narrow stricture end to serve as a guide for the passage of a larger sound or catheter.
A person who assumes the passive role in less frequently engaged sexual acts. SEE ALSO: passivism (2). [G. pathikos, remaining passive]
A combining form derived from the Greek "pathos" meaning "suffering or disease." Patho- serves as a prefix for many terms including pathogen (disease agent), pathogenesis ...
A ptomaine; a toxic amine causing disease or resulting from a disease process.
The biology of disease. At least one standard medical dictionary wrongly defines “pathobiology” as “pathology.”
* * *
Pathology with emphasis more on the biologic than on ...
A specific tendency to sensitivity to special toxins; a tendency for toxins to attack certain organs. [ patho- + G. klisis, bending, proneness]
Obsolete term for any disorder of the endocrine glands. [ patho- + G. krino, to separate]
The science concerned with diseases of the teeth. [ patho- + G. odous, tooth]
Relating to the beginning of disease; denoting especially certain symptoms occurring in the transition period between a normal and a diseased state. [ patho- + L. formo, to form] ...
Any virus, microorganism, or other substance causing disease. [ patho- + G. -gen, to produce]
- behavioral p. the personal habits and lifestyle behaviors of an individual which ...
A process designed to eliminate most pathogens — viruses, bacteria and fungi — from water, air or donated blood. Sewage purification systems depend upon pathogen inactivation ...
The development of a disease and the chain of events leading to that disease.
* * *
The pathologic, physiologic, or biochemical mechanism resulting in the development of a disease ...
Pertaining to the development of a disease and the chain of events leading to that disease.
Causing disease or capable of doing it. Pathogenic bacteria are disease-causing bacteria. For example, pathogenic E. coli are E. coli that are not innocuous (like most E. ...
The condition or quality of being pathogenic, or the ability to cause disease.
The genetic element, the " island of evil", within the genome of an organism that is responsible for its capacity to cause disease (its pathogenicity). The virulence of the ...
Rarely used synonym for pathogenesis.
A sign or symptom that is so characteristic of a disease that it makes the diagnosis. For example, Koplik’s spots (on the buccal mucosa opposite the lst and 2nd upper molars) ...
Rarely used term for diagnosis by means of a study of the typical symptoms of a disease, or of the subjective sensations of the patient. [ patho- + G. gnome, a mark, a sign]
Rarely used synonym for pathognomonic. [ patho- + G. gnostikos, pertaining to knowledge]
: A doctor who identifies diseases by studying cells and tissues under a microscope.
* * *
A specialist in pathology; a physician who practices, evaluates, or supervises ...
The study of disease. Pathology has been defined as “that branch of medicine which treats of the essential nature of disease.” The word “pathology” comes from the Greek ...
Rarely used term for the determination of the proportionate number of individuals affected with a certain disease at a given time, and of the conditions leading to an increase or ...
Mimicry of a disease or dysfunction, whether intentional or unconscious. SYN: pathomimicry. [ patho- + G. mimesis, imitation]
The attitude that leads a patient to minimize his or her disease. [ patho- + G. meiosis, a lessening]
SYN: nosophobia. [ patho- + G. phobos, fear]
Deranged function in an individual or an organ that is due to a disease. A pathophysiologic alteration is a change in function as distinguished from a structural defect.
* * *
Rarely used term for the mode of production of disease. [ patho- + G. poiesis, making]
Rarely used term for a state of disease, diseased condition, or disease entity. [ patho- + G. -osis, condition]
Attraction of drugs toward diseased structures. [ patho- + G. tropos, a turning]
1. A collection of axons establishing a conduction route for nerve impulses from one group of nerve cells to another group or to an effector organ composed of muscle or gland ...
One who is suffering from any disease or behavioral disorder and is under treatment for it. Cf.:case (1). [L. patiens, pres. p. of patior, to suffer]
- target p. in group therapy, ...
The right of patients to make decisions about their medical care without their health care provider trying to influence the decision. Patient autonomy does allow for health care ...
1. The killing of one's father. 2. One who commits such an act. See parricide. Cf.:matricide. [L. pater, father, + caedo, to kill]
Hugh T., U.S. neurologist, 1860–1938. See P. test.
Related to descent through the male line; inheritance of the Y chromosome is exclusively p.. [L. pater, father, + linea, line]
1. A design; often refers to chest radiographic findings. 2. In dentistry, a form used in making a mold, as for an inlay or partial denture framework.
- airspace- filling p. ...
An antibiotic derived from metabolites of fungi, such as species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Gymnoascus; has carcinogenic activity.
SYN: patent. [L. patulus, fr. pateo, to lie open]
A joint condition in which only a few (>1, <5) joints are involved [L. pauci, few, + articular]
Gustav, Austrian physician, 1859–1935. See P. reaction, P. test, P.- Bunnell test.
Wolfgang, Austrian-U.S. physicist and Nobel laureate, 1900–1958. See P. exclusion principle.
Linus C., U.S. chemist and Nobel laureate, 1901–1994. See P. theory, P.- Corey helix.
Temporary stop. [G. pausis, cessation]
- apneic p. cessation of air flow for more than 10 seconds. See sleep apnea.
- compensatory p. the p. following an extrasystole, when ...
Lucien M.A., French dermatologist, 1876–1959. See P. abscess, P. microabscess.
Jean E., 19th century French physician.
Ivan P., Russian physiologist and Nobel laureate, 1849–1936. See pavlovian conditioning, P. method, P. pouch, P. stomach, P. reflex.
The Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1848-1936) conditioned dogs to respond in what proved to be a predictable manner, for example, by first ringing a bell before ...
At different points along the dogs digestive tracts, the Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1848-1936) surgically created pockets ("Pavlov pouches") from ...
A Pavlov pouch fashioned surgically from part of the stomach (which is isolated from the rest of the stomach). The pouch opens through a fistula (canal) on to the abdominal wall ...
The Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1848-1936) conditioned dogs to respond in what proved to be a predictable manner, for example, by first ringing a bell before ...
Frederick W., English physician, 1829–1911. See P. disease.
J. Howard, U.S. surgeon, *1916. See P. operation.
Erwin, German surgeon, 1871–1946. See P. clamp, P. membrane, P. sign.
Symbol for barometric pressure.
Symbol for lead (plumbum).
Abbreviation for porphobilinogen.
Abbreviation for protein-bound iodine.
Although PC is usually taken to mean personal computer, in the biomedical arena PC also stands for protein C, phosphocreatine, et al.
Abbreviation for passive cutaneous anaphylaxis; patient-controlled analgesia; patient-controlled anesthesia.
A way of reporting calcium ion levels; equal to the negative decadic logarithm of the calcium ion concentration.
Abbreviation for polychlorinated biphenyl.
PolyChlorinated Biphenyls, a mixture of up to 209 chlorinated chemicals which are no longer produced in the US but are still found in the environment. Health effects associated ...
Abbreviation for patient care information system, the interactive computer system used to store medical records in a hospital.
PCL (posterior cruciate ligament)
The knee joint is surrounded by a joint capsule with ligaments strapping the inside and outside of the joint (collateral ligaments) as well as crossing within the joint (cruciate ...
Abbreviation for p-chloromercuribenzoate.
Polycystic ovarian disease (or the Stein-Leventhal syndrome).