William, Jr., U.S. physician, 1874–1947. See P. syndrome.
The dried leaves and flowering tops of Mentha piperita (family Labiatae); a carminative and antiemetic.
- p. camphor SYN: menthol.
- p. oil the volatile oil distilled with ...
A group of closely related aspartic proteinases. P. A is the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice, formed from pepsinogen; it hydrolyzes peptide bonds at low pH values (is ...
A proenzyme or zymogen formed and secreted by the chief cells of the gastric mucosa; the acidity of the gastric juice and pepsin itself remove 44 amino acyl residues from p. ...
Excretion of pepsin in the urine. [ pepsin + G. ouron, urine]
An inhibitor peptide from actinomycetes that inhibits pepsin and cathepsin D.
Relating to the stomach, to gastric digestion, or to pepsin A. SYN: pepsic. [G. peptikos, fr. pepto, to digest]
A hole in the lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus. A peptic ulcer of the stomach is called a gastric ulcer, an ulcer of the duodenum is a duodenal ulcer, and a ...
Any enzyme capable of hydrolyzing a peptide bond of a peptide; e.g., carboxypeptidases, aminopeptidases. SYN: peptide hydrolase.
- p. D SYN: proline dipeptidase.
- p. P SYN: ...
A compound of two or more amino acid s in which a carboxyl group of one is united with an amino group of another, with the elimination of a molecule of water, thus forming a p. ...
Referring to nerve cells or fibers that are believed to employ small peptide molecules as their neurotransmitter. [peptide + G. ergon, work]
A compound containing amino acid s (or peptides) linked to sugars, with the latter preponderant. Cf.:glycopeptide. SYN: mucopeptide (2).
A condensation product of two amino acid s involving at least one condensing group other than the α-carboxyl or α-amino group; e.g., glutathione.
Causing the cleavage or digestion of peptides. [peptide + G. lytikos, solvent]
peptidyl dipeptidase A
A zinc-containing hydrolase cleaving C-terminal dipeptides from a variety of substrates, including angiotensin I, which is converted to angiotensin II and histidylleucine (an ...
The enzyme responsible for the formation of the peptide bond on the ribosome during protein biosynthesis, peptidyl-tRNA1 + aminoacyl-tRNA2 → tRNA1 + peptidylaminoacyl-tRNA2. ...
In colloid chemistry, an increase in the degree of dispersion, tending toward a uniform distribution of the dispersed phase.
A family of nonmotile, nonsporeforming, anaerobic bacteria (order Eubacteriales) containing Gram-positive (staining may be equivocal) cocci, 0.5–1.6 μm in diameter, which ...
A genus of nonmotile, anaerobic, chemoorganotrophic bacteria (family Peptococcaceae) containing Gram-positive, spherical cells that occur singly, in pairs, tetrads, or irregular ...
An extract of the intestinal mucosa resembling secretin.
A peptide with one or more non—amino acyl groups ( e.g., sugar, lipid, etc.) covalently linked to the peptide.
1. A cyclic depsipeptide; e.g., valinomycin. 2. A heteromeric depsipeptide.
1. Pertaining to peptolysis. 2. Denoting an enzyme or other agent that hydrolyzes peptones.
Descriptive term applied to intermediate polypeptide products, formed in partial hydrolysis of proteins, that are soluble in water, diffusible, and not coagulable by heat; used ...
Relating to or containing peptone.
Conversion by enzymic action of native protein into soluble peptone.
A genus of nonmotile, anaerobic, chemoorganotrophic bacteria (family Peptococcaceae) containing spherical to ovoid, Gram-positive cells that occur in pairs and short or long ...
In contiguity; denoting the mode by which an inflammation or other morbid process spreads into an adjacent contiguous structure. [per- + L. contiguus, touching, fr. tango, to ...
In continuity; continuous; denoting the mode by which an inflammation or other morbid process spreads from one part to another through continuous tissue. [per- + L. continuus, ...
By or through the mouth, denoting a method of medication. [L.]
By first intention. See healing by first intention. [L.]
By or through the rectum, denoting a method of medication. [L.]
At a leap; at one bound; not gradually or through different stages. [L.]
per vias naturales
Through the natural passages; e.g., denoting a normal delivery, as opposed to cesarean section, or the passage in stool of a foreign body instead of its surgical removal. [L.]
1. Through, conveying intensity. 2. In chemistry, a prefix denoting either 1) more or most, with respect to the amount of a given element (usually oxygen, as in perchloric acid) ...
An omphalosite lacking head and arms, and with a defective thorax; typically, the body consists of little more than pelvis and legs. [per- + G. a- priv. + kephale, head]
An acid containing a peroxide group (–O–OH); e.g., peracetic acid. SYN: peroxy acid.
Very acute; said of a disease. [L. peracutus, very sharply]
Obsolete term for pyrosis. [G. peratos, on the opposite side, + odyne, pain]
The percentage of individuals in a group who have achieved a certain quantity (such as height, weight, and head circumference) or developmental milestone (such as "walking ...
1. That which is perceived; the complete mental image, formed by the process of perception, of an object or idea. 2. In clinical psychology, a single unit of perceptual report, ...
The mental process of becoming aware of or recognizing an object or idea; primarily cognitive rather than affective or conative, although all three aspects are manifested. SYN: ...
Relating to or having a higher than normal power of perception.
1. SYN: filtration. 2. Extraction of the soluble portion of a solid mixture by passing a solvent liquid through it. 3. Passage of saliva or other fluids into the interface ...
A funnel-shaped vessel used for the process of percolation in pharmacy.
A liver oil from fish of the order Percomorphi, with a standardized amount of vitamins A and D.
1. A diagnostic procedure designed to determine the density of a body part by the sound produced by tapping the surface with the finger or a plessor; performed primarily over ...
Through the skin, as in a percutaneous biopsy.
* * *
Denoting the passage of substances through unbroken skin, as in absorption by inunction; also passage through the skin by ...
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG)
A surgical procedure for placing a feeding tube without having to perform an open laparotomy (operation on the abdomen). The aim of PEG is to feed those who cannot swallow. PEG ...
Percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL)
A technique for removing large and/or dense stones and staghorn stones. PNL is done via a port created by puncturing the kidney through the skin and enlarging the access port to 1 ...
Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling (PUBS)
In PUBS, a needle is inserted through the mother’s abdominal wall and the uterine wall. Blood can be withdrawn from the umbilical vein at the point where the umbilical cord ...
A condition marked by one or more cerebral cysts. [G. pera, a purse, a wallet, + enkephalos, brain]
George V., Spanish physician, †1920. See P. sign.
Bernard, French physician, 1836–1903. See P. reflex.
The inherent human ability to identify a note or sing it without hearing a reference note beforehand. Since most native speakers of languages that use tones to convey meaning ...
A tendency to set rigid high standards of performance for oneself.
Blowing air into or through a cavity or canal to force apart its walls or to expel any contained material. [L. per-flo, pp, -flatus, to blow through]
Generic name for perfluorooctyl bromide.
A bromine-substituted fluorocarbon, prepared as a particulate emulsion, used as a CT, MR, and ultrasound contrast medium.
A term applied to several muscles and nerves that, in their course, perforate other structures. [L. perforating]
Pierced with one or more holes. [L. perforatus, fr. per-foro, pp. -atus, to bore through]
Abnormal opening in a hollow organ or viscus. SYN: tresis. [see perforated]
Perforation, nasal septum
A hole in the nasal septum, the wall inside the nose that runs down the middle dividing it into two sides. The hole provides a direct communication between the two ...
An instrument for making a bony opening through the cranium. SYN: trephine (1).
A protein found in the cytoplasmic granules of both T cytotoxic lymphocytes and natural killer cells. This protein is implicated in target cell lysis by the above cells. [L. ...
An organic peracid used in cleaving disulfide links in peptides by oxidizing cystinyl residues to cysteic acid. SYN: peroxyformic acid.
A minor degree of frostbite. [L. per-frigero, pp. -atus, to make cold, fr. frigus, cold]
The fluid used for perfusion; sometimes more broadly applied to fluid that has been forced through any more or less porous membrane or material. [see perfuse]
To force blood or other fluid to flow from the artery through the vascular bed of a tissue or to flow through the lumen of a hollow structure ( e.g., an isolated renal tubule). ...
: A chemotherapy technique that may be used when melanoma occurs on an arm or leg. The flow of blood to and from the limb is stopped for a while with a tourniquet, and ...
An ergot derivative with dopaminergic properties; used in parkinsonism.
Prefix meaning around or about. For example, pericardial is around the heart, and periaortic lymph nodes are lymph nodes around the aorta.
* * *
Around, about, near. ...
In dentistry, a general term implying disease of the supporting bone involving an implant; the disease may be exfoliative, resorptive, traumatic, or ulcerative in nature. [peri- ...
Adhesion of the pericardium or part of it to the cardiac surface due to antecedent inflammation.
Inflammation of the tissues surrounding a gland. [peri- + G. aden, gland, + -itis, inflammation]
- p. mucosa necrotica recurrens SYN: aphthae major, under aphtha.
Located around the anus, the opening of the rectum to the outside of the body. Peri- is a prefix borrowed from the Greek. It means "around or about." So pericardial is around the ...
An abscess (a local accumulation of pus) that forms next to the anus (the opening of the rectum to the outside of the body) causing tender swelling in that area and pain on ...
SYN: pericholangitis. [peri- + G. angeion, vessel, + chole, bile, + -itis, inflammation]
Inflammation of the adventitia of a blood vessel or of the tissues surrounding it or a lymphatic vessel. SEE ALSO: periarteritis, periphlebitis, perilymphangitis. SYN: ...
Around the aorta. The aorta is the great artery that comes from the left ventricle of the heart and delivers oxygen-rich blood to the body. Peri- is a prefix borrowed from the ...
Inflammation of the adventitia of the aorta and of the tissues surrounding it.
The periapical structures, particularly periodontal membrane and adjacent bone. [peri- L. apex, tip]
1. At or around the apex of a root of a tooth. 2. Denoting the periapex.
Inflammation of the tissue surrounding the vermiform appendix. SYN: para- appendicitis.
- p. decidualis the presence of decidual cells in the peritoneum of the vermiform ...
Inflammation of the adventitia of an artery. SYN: exarteritis.
- p. nodosa SYN: polyarteritis nodosa.
Inflammation of the parts surrounding a joint. [peri- + arthritis]
Surrounding the atrium of the heart. SYN: periauricular (1).
1. SYN: periatrial. 2. SYN: periconchal. 3. Around the external ear.
Surrounding the axon of a nerve. [peri- + G. axon, axis]
A specialized region of yolk surface immediately peripheral to the blastoderm in telolecithal eggs. [peri- + G. blastos, germ]
Inflammation of the tissues surrounding the bronchi or bronchial tubes.
Surrounding any bulb, especially the eyeball or the bulb of the urethra. SYN: circumbulbar.
Referring to the pericardium, the sac of fibrous tissue that surrounds the heart. The inner surface of the pericardium is lined by a layer of flat cells (mesothelial cells). The ...
Too much fluid within the fibrous sac (the pericardium) that surrounds the heart. The inner surface of the pericardium is lined by a layer of flat cells (mesothelial cells). The ...
The pericardial sac is a conical sac of fibrous tissue which surrounds the heart and the roots of the great blood vessels. The pericardium has outer and inner coats. The outer ...
A life-threatening situation in which there is such a large amount of fluid (usually blood) inside the pericardial sac around the heart that it interferes with the performance of ...
Excision of a portion of the pericardium. SYN: pericardectomy. [pericardium + G. ektome, excision]
- radical p. excision of almost the entire pericardium.
Needle or catheter drainage of the pericardium. SYN: pericardial tap, pericardicentesis. [peri- + G. kardia, heart, + kentesis, puncture]
The science or study of the pericardium, its physiology, and diseases.
Relating to the pericardium and the diaphragm. [pericardium + G. phren, diaphragm]
Establishment of an opening into the pericardium. [pericardium + G. stoma, mouth]
Incision into the pericardium. SYN: pericardotomy. [pericardium + G. tome, incision]
Inflammation of the lining around the heart (the pericardium) causing chest pain and accumulation of fluid around the heart (pericardial
* * *
Inflammation of the pericardium.
The conical sac of fibrous tissue that surrounds the heart and the roots of the great blood vessels. The pericardium’s outer coat (the parietal pericardium) is tough and ...
The outer layer of the pericardium which is a conical sac of fibrous tissue that surrounds the heart and the roots of the great blood vessels. The pericardium has outer and inner ...
The inner layer of the pericardium, a conical sac of fibrous tissue that surrounds the heart and the roots of the great blood vessels. The pericardium has outer and inner coats. ...
Surrounding the cecum. SYN: perityphlic.
Pericentric chromosome inversion
A basic type of chromosome rearrangement in which a segment that includes the centromere (and so is pericentric) has been snipped out of a chromosome, turned through 180 degrees ...
Inflammation of the tissues around the bile ducts. SYN: periangiocholitis. [peri- + G. chole, bile, + angeion, vessel, + -itis, inflammation]
To do with the perichondrium, a dense membrane composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps all cartilage, except the cartilage in joints which is covered by a ...
Inflammation of the perichondrium, a dense membrane composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps all cartilage, except the cartilage in joints which is covered by a ...
A dense membrane composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps (invests) all cartilage, except the cartilage in joints which is covered by a synovial membrane. Peri- ...
A tumor arising from the perichondrium, the dense membrane composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps (invests) all cartilage (except the articular surfaces of the ...
Denoting a nerve cell in which the chromophil substance, or stainable material, is scattered throughout the cytoplasm. [peri- + G. chroma, a color]
Surrounding or encircling the colon.
Inflammation of the connective tissue or peritoneum surrounding the colon. SYN: pericolonitis, serocolitis.
- p. dextra p. involving the ascending colon.
- p. sinistra SYN: ...
SYN: perivaginitis. [peri- + G. kolpos, bosom (vagina), + -itis, inflammation]
Surrounding the concha of the auricle. SYN: periauricular (2).
Surrounding the cornea. SYN: circumcorneal, perikeratic.
Inflammation around the crown of a tooth, usually one that is incompletely erupted into the oral cavity. [peri- + L. corona, crown, + G. -itis, inflammation]
Relating to the pericranium; surrounding the skull.
The periosteum of the skull. SYN: periosteum cranii [TA]. [peri- + G. kranion, skull]
1. Surrounding the urinary bladder. 2. Surrounding the gallbladder. 3. Surrounding a cyst. SYN: perivesical. [peri- + G. kystis, bladder]
Inflammation of the tissues surrounding a bladder, especially the urinary bladder.
1. The tissues surrounding the urinary bladder or gallbladder. 2. A vascular investment of a cystic tumor. [peri- + G. kystis, bladder, cyst]
One of the slender mesenchymal-like cells found in close association with the outside wall of postcapillary venules; it is relatively undifferentiated and may become a ...
A supernumerary tooth appearing elsewhere than the midline of the dental arch. [peri- + L. dens, tooth]
The outermost layer of the epidermis of the embryo and fetus to the sixth month of intrauterine life; desquamated peridermal cells are a considerable component of the vernix ...
1. Surrounding a ligament. 2. Relating to the peridesmium. SYN: periligamentous.
Inflammation of the connective tissue surrounding a ligament. [peri- + G. desmos, band, + -itis, inflammation]
The connective tissue membrane surrounding a ligament. [peri- + G. desmion (desmos), band]
SYN: tunica albuginea of testis. [G. didymos, twin, pl. didymoi, testes]
In fungi, the hyphal structure that surrounds the asci. [G. peridion, dim. of pera, leather pouch]
Inflammation of the cerebral membranes, particularly leptomeningitis or inflammation of the pia mater with involvement of the underlying cortex. [peri- + G. enkephalos, brain]
Surrounding the intestine. SYN: circumintestinal.
Inflammation of the peritoneal coat of the intestine. SYN: seroenteritis.
Surrounding a focus; denoting tissues, or the blood that they contain, in the vicinity of an infective focus.
Surrounding a hair follicle; usually used to describe the histopathologic appearance of the infiltrate surrounding a hair follicle.
The presence of an inflammatory infiltrate surrounding hair follicles; frequently occurs in conjunction with folliculitis.
- p. abscedens et suffodiens a chronic dissecting ...
To flush a fresh supply of bathing fluid around all of the outside surfaces of a small piece of tissue immersed in it. Cf.:perfuse, superfuse. [peri- + L. fusio, a pouring]
Surrounding the stomach. [peri- + G. gaster, belly, stomach]
Inflammation of the peritoneal coat of the stomach.
SYN: circumgemmal. [peri- + L. gemma, bud]
Around the tongue, especially around the base of the tongue and the epiglottis, or around the glottis (laryngis), the rima glottidis. [peri- + G. glossa or glotta, tongue]
The mucous membrane of the tongue. [G. p., covering of the tongue]
Surrounding the liver. [peri- + G. hepar, liver]
Inflammation of the serous, or peritoneal, covering of the liver. SYN: hepatic capsulitis, hepatitis externa, hepatoperitonitis. [peri- + G. hepar, liver, + -itis, inflammation] ...
1. The cytoplasm around the nucleus, such as that of the cell body of nerve cells. 2. The body of the odontoblast, excluding the dentinal fiber. 3. The cell body of the nerve ...
The transverse ridges and grooves on the surface of tooth enamel. [peri- + G. kyma, wave]
The fluid contained within the osseus labyrinth, surrounding and protecting the membranous labyrinth; p. resembles extracellular fluid in composition (sodium salts are the ...
SYN: perilymph. [peri- + L. lympha, a clear fluid (lymph)]
1. Surrounding a lymphatic structure (node or vessel). 2. The spaces and tissues surrounding the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear.
The 3–5-year period prior to menopause during which estrogen levels begin to drop.
1. A circumference, edge, or border. 2. An instrument, usually half a circle or sphere, used to measure the field of vision. [G. perimetros, circumference, fr. peri, around, + ...
1. Surrounding the uterus; relating to the perimetrium. SYN: periuterine. [G. peri, around, + metra, uterus] 2. Relating to the circumference of any part or area. [G. ...
Inflammation of the uterus involving the perimetreal covering. SYN: metroperitonitis. [ perimetrium + G. -itis, inflammation]
The serous (peritoneal) coat of the uterus. SYN: tunica serosa uteri [TA]. [peri- + G. metra, uterus]
1. The determination of the limits of the visual field. 2. The mapping of the sensitivity contours of the visual field. [G. perimetros, circumference]
- computed p. ...
Decalcification of the teeth from exposure to gastric acid in individuals with chronic vomiting. [=perimylolysis, fr. peri- + G. mylos, molar + lysis, loosening, dissolving, fr. ...
SYN: endosteum. [peri- + G. myelos, marrow]
Simultaneous pericarditis and myocarditis usually due to the same etiologic agent.
Inflammation of the loose cellular tissue surrounding a muscle. SYN: perimysiitis (2), perimysitis.
Relating to the perimysium; surrounding a muscle.
The fibrous sheath enveloping each of the fascicles of skeletal muscle fibers. [peri- + G. mys, muscle]
- p. externum SYN: epimysium.
- p. internum in the older literature, a ...
Pertaining to the period immediately before and after birth. The perinatal period is defined in diverse ways. Depending on the definition, it starts at the 20th to 28th week of ...
Transmission of a disease-causing agent (a pathogen) from mother to baby during the perinatal period, the period immediately before and after birth. The perinatal period is ...
An infant in the perinatal period.
An obstetrical subspecialist concerned with the care of the mother and fetus at higher-than-normal risk for complications. Since the perinatal period, depending on the ...
A subspecialty of obstetrics concerned with the care of the mother and fetus at higher-than-normal risk for complications. Since the perinatal period, depending on the ...
: An operation to remove the prostate gland through an incision made between the scrotum and the anus.
The perineum. [L. fr. G. perineos, perinaion]
A hernia in the perineal region, either between the rectum and the vagina or the rectum and the bladder, or alongside the rectum. [ perineo- + G. kele, hernia]
Instrument used to measure the strength of voluntary muscle contractions of the perineum. [ perineo- + G. metron, measure]
Plastic surgery of the perineum. [ perineum + G. plastos, formed]
Suture of the perineum, performed in perineoplasty. [ perineum + G. rhaphe, a sewing]
Urethrostomy through the perineum. [ perineo- + G. stoma, mouth]
Rarely used term for perineoplasty in a case of extensive laceration of the perineum.
Incision into the perineum to facilitate childbirth. SEE ALSO: episiotomy.
Surrounding the kidney in whole or part. SYN: circumrenal, perirenal.
The connective tissue and fat surrounding the kidney. [peri- + G. nephros, kidney]