The area between the anus and the scrotum in the male and between the anus and the vulva (the labial opening to the vagina) in the female. An episiotomy is a surgical ...
Surrounding a nerve. [peri- + G. neuron, nerve]
Inflammation of the perineurium. SEE ALSO: adventitial neuritis.
One of the supporting structures of peripheral nerve trunks, consisting of layers of flattened cells and collagenous connective tissue, which surround the nerve fasciculi and ...
1. A certain duration or division of time. 2. One of the stages of a disease, e.g., p. of incubation, p. of convalescence. SEE ALSO: stage, phase. 3. Colloquialism for menses. ...
The period of development of the young from the time of conception until birth. For humans the full gestation period is normally 9 months. The word "gestation" comes from the ...
In medicine, the time from the moment of exposure to an infectious agent until signs and symptoms of the disease appear. For example, the incubation period of chickenpox is ...
1. Recurring at regular intervals. 2. Denoting a disease with regularly recurring exacerbations or paroxysms. 3. Denoting any of several oxoacids of iodine.
Also known as fertility awareness, natural family planning, and the rhythm method, this approach entails not having sexual intercourse on the days of a woman's menstrual ...
1. HIO4, but existing in solution usually in hydrated form; used in carbohydrate detection and analysis. SYN: metaperiodic acid. 2. Any of several iodic(VII) acids formed by ...
Clusters of breaths separated by intervals of apnea (no breathing) or near-apnea. As opposed to normal breathing which is usually regular. Periodic breathing was originally ...
Recurrences of fever that last from a few days to a few weeks and are separated by symptom-free intervals of varying duration. This pattern of fever can be caused by recurrent ...
Tendency to recurrence at regular intervals.
- diurnal p. a circadian rhythm with primary expression of the p. during daylight hours, as in the release of microfilariae of Loa ...
The word "periodontal" literally means "around the tooth." Periodontal diseases are bacterial infections that destroy the attachment fibers and supporting bone that hold the teeth ...
A bacterial infection that destroys the attachment fibers and supporting bone that hold the teeth in the mouth. Left untreated, these diseases can lead to tooth loss. The main ...
Periodontal Disease Index
An index used for estimating the degree of periodontal disease based on the measurement of six representative teeth for gingival inflammation, pocket depth, calculus and ...
An index for the epidemiologic classification of periodontal disease.
1. Plural of periodontium. 2. SYN: periodontics.
Periodontics is the branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases affecting the gums and supporting structures of the teeth. Periodontists ...
Gum disease. The word "periodontitis" literally means "inflammation around the tooth." Periodontitis and all periodontal diseases are bacterial infections that destroy the ...
The connective tissue that surrounds the tooth root and attaches it to its bony socket; it consists of fibers anchored in the cementum and extending into the alveolar bone; the ...
Destruction of periodontal tissues, gingiva, pericementum, alveolar bone, and cementum. SYN: periodontolysis. [ periodontium + klasis, breaking]
SYN: periodontoclasia. [ periodontium + G. lysis, dissolution]
SYN: juvenile periodontitis. [ periodontium + G. -osis, condition]
SYN: periumbilical. [peri- + G. omphalos, umbilicus]
An inflammation of the folds of tissue surrounding the nail due to infection. The infection may be bacterial (most commonly, staph or strep) or to fungal. "Perionychia" is ...
The tissue surrounding the nail, whether it be a fingernail or a toenail, including the tissue bordering the root and sides of the nail. The word is composed of "peri-" meaning ...
Remnant of the eponychium remaining in the narrow fold overlapping the proximal part of the lunula found beginning in the eighth month of pregancy and remaining throughout ...
Inflammation of the peritoneal covering of the ovary. SYN: periovaritis. [peri- + Mod. L. oophoron, ovary, + -itis, inflammation]
Inflammation of the peritoneum and other tissues around the ovary and oviduct. SYN: perisalpingoovaritis. [peri- + Mod. L. oophoron, ovary, + salpinx, trumpet, + -itis, ...
Around the mouth. SYN: circumoral, peristomal, peristomatous.
The periosteum of the orbit. SYN: periorbit, periorbital membrane. [peri- + L. orbita, orbit]
1. Relating to the periorbita. 2. SYN: circumorbital.
Inflammation of the tunica vaginalis testis. [peri- + G. orchis, testis, + -itis, inflammation]
- p. hemorrhagica chronic hematocele of the tunica vaginalis testis.
Pertaining to the periosteum, a dense membrane composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps (invests) all bone, except the bone of articulating surfaces in joints ...
A benign tumor arising from the periosteum, the dense membrane composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps (invests) all bone (except the articular surfaces of bone ...
SYN: periosteomyelitis. [ periosteo- + L. medulla, marrow, + G. -itis, inflammation]
Inflammation of the entire bone, with the periosteum and marrow. SYN: periosteomedullitis. [ periosteo- + G. myelos, marrow, + -itis, inflammation]
The formation of a periosteoma. SYN: periostosis.
A strong scalpel-shaped knife, for cutting the periosteum. SYN: periostotome.
The operation of cutting through the periosteum to the bone. SYN: periostotomy. [ periosteo- + G. tome, incision]
The periosteum is a dense membrane composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps (invests) all bone, except that of the articulating surfaces in joints which are ...
Inflammation of the periosteum, a dense membrane composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps (invests) all bone, except the bone of articulating surfaces in joints ...
A benign tumor arising from the periosteum, the dense membrane composed of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps (invests) all bone (except the articular surfaces of bone ...
Inflammation of a bone with involvement of the periosteum. [ periosteum + G. osteon, bone, + -itis, inflammation]
Surrounding the internal ear; referring to the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or the spaces and tissues in the bony labyrinth that surround the membranous labyrinth. ...
Inflammation of the area between the dura and bony covering of the central nervous system. [peri- + pachymeninx (dura mater) + G. -itis, inflammation]
Walking around; formerly used to describe a patient with “walking” (i.e., mild) typhoid fever. [G. peripatesis, a walking about]
In a direction toward the periphery. [G. periphereia, periphery, + L. ad, to]
Situated away from the center, as opposed to centrally located. For example, peripheral vision means the type of vision that allows one to see objects that are not in the center ...
Peripheral blood stem cell transplantation
: A new technique in which stem cells are obtained from a patient's blood and used in bone marrow transplantation. Stem cells are small, round cells with a squat nucleus and scant ...
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
That portion of the nervous system that is outside the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two major divisions of the nervous system. The ...
A problem with the functioning of the nerves outside the spinal cord. Symptoms may include numbness, weakness, burning pain
Side vision; the ability to see objects and movement outside of the direct line of vision. In contrast to peripheral vision, central vision permits us to read, drive, and perform ...
A glycoprotein that apparently is needed to maintain the shape of the outer segment disk membranes of rods and cones; it is thought by many investigators that a defect in p. is ...
Relating to both the periphery and the center of the body or any part.
1. The part of a body away from the center; the outer part or surface. 2. SYN: denture border. [G. periphereia, fr. peri, around, + phero, to carry]
Inflammation of the outer coat of a vein or of the tissues surrounding it. [peri- + G. phleps, vein, + -itis, inflammation]
A genus of large cockroaches including several cosmopolitan household pests found wherever food is available, especially in moist protected areas. P. americana (American ...
The space between the cell membranes and the cell wall, in Gram-negative bacteria; contains proteins secreted by the cell.
A cardiotonic glycoside obtained from the bark and stems of Periploca graeca (family Asclepiadaceae), a plant of southern Europe. [G. peri-ploke, a winding around, fr. pleko, ...
Surrounding the pole or poles of any body, or any electric or magnetic poles.
Penetration of migrating cells between fixed tissue cells that are normally in close contact. [peri- + G. poleomai, to wander]
Miliary papules and papulovesicles with staphylococcic infection; most frequently on the face and in infants. [peri- + G. poros, pore, + -itis, inflammation]
Surrounding the portal vein. SYN: peripylic.
SYN: circumanal. [peri- + G. proktos, anus]
Inflammation of the areolar tissue about the rectum. SYN: perirectitis.
Obsolete term for inflammation of the tissues surrounding the prostate.
Inflammation of the tissues around the portal vein. [peri- + G. pyle, gate, + phleps, vein, + -itis, inflammation]
SYN: periportal. [peri- + G. pyle, portal, gate]
SYN: perinephric. [peri- + L. ren, kidney]
Around the nose or nasal cavity. [peri- + G. rhis, nose]
Inflammatory destruction of tissues immediately around the root of a tooth, i.e., pericementum, cementum, and approximating layers of alveolar bone. [peri- + G. rhiza, root, + ...
Inflammation of the peritoneum covering the fallopian tube. [peri- + G. salpinx, trumpet, + -itis, inflammation]
SYN: perioophorosalpingitis. [peri- + G. salpinx, trumpet, + ovary + G. -itis, inflammation]
The peritoneal covering of the uterine tube. [peri- + G. salpinx (salping-), trumpet]
Denoting that which gives the ability to see objects to one side as well as in the direct axis of vision. [peri- + G. skopeo, to view]
Inflammation of the connective tissues surrounding the sigmoid flexure, giving rise to symptoms, referable to the left iliac fossa, similar to those of perityphlitis in the ...
Surrounding a sinus, especially a sinus of the dura mater.
Inflammation of the tissues around the spermatic cord.
- p. serosa hydrocele of the spermatic cord.
Surrounding any viscus or viscera. SYN: perivisceral. [peri- + G. splanchna, viscera]
Inflammation surrounding any viscus or viscera. [peri- + G. splanchna, viscera, + -itis, inflammation]
Inflammation of the peritoneum covering the spleen.
SYN: perivertebral. [peri- + G. spondylos, vertebra]
Inflammation of the tissues about a vertebra. [peri- + G. spondylos, vertebra, + -itis, inflammation]
: The rippling motion of muscles in the digestive tract. In the stomach, this motion mixes food with gastric juices, turning it into a thin liquid.
* * *
The movement of the ...
Phases of inactivity of vasoconstriction in inflammation. SYN: peristatic hyperemia. [peri- + G. stasis, a standing still]
The tonic activity of the walls of the stomach whereby the organ contracts about its contents; contrasting with the peristaltic waves passing from the cardia toward the pylorus ...
A groove leading from the cytostome in ciliates and certain other forms of protozoa. SYN: peristoma. [peri- + G. stoma, mouth]
Situated about or near a goiter. [peri- + L. struma, goiter]
Descriptive of events occurring before and after ventricular systole.
1. The removal of a paracorneal strip of the conjunctiva for the relief of corneal disease. 2. SYN: circumcision (2). [peri- + G. ektome, excision]
One of the fibrous sheaths surrounding the primary bundles of fibers in a tendon. [L. fr. peri- + G. tenon, tendon]
Inflammation of the sheath of a tendon. SYN: peritenonitis, peritenontitis.
- p. calcarea a calcium (chalky) deposit around a tendon.
- p. serosa SYN: ganglion (2).
SYN: tendinous sheath of extensor carpi ulnaris muscle. [peri- + G. tenon, tendon]
In fungi, a flask-shaped ascocarp, one of the many shapes of structures that bear asci and ascospores; useful as an aid in identifying a fungus. [peri- + G. theke, flask]
The connective tissue that surrounds smaller vessels and capillaries. [peri- + G. thele, nipple]
- Eberth p. an incomplete layer of connective tissue cells encasing the blood ...
Inflammation of the capsule or tissues surrounding the thyroid gland.
A circumcorneal incision through the conjunctiva. [G. peritome, fr. peri, around, + tome, incision]
Technique that uses the patients own body tissues inside of the belly (abdominal cavity) to act as a filter. The intestines lie in the abdominal cavity, the space between ...
A rarely used term for pain in the peritoneum. [peritoneum + G. algos, pain]
Irrigation of the abdominal cavity. [peritoneum, + G. klysis, a washing out]
A rarely used term for inflammation or other disease of the peritoneum. [peritoneum, + pathos, suffering]
A suspension or fixation of the peritoneum. [peritoneum + G. pexis, fixation]
Loosening adhesions and covering the raw surfaces with peritoneum to prevent reformation. [peritoneum + G. plastos, formed]
Examination of the contents of the peritoneum with a peritoneoscope passed through the abdominal wall. See laparoscopy. SYN: celioscopy, ventroscopy.
Incision of the peritoneum. [peritoneum + G. tome, incision]
The membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers most of the abdominal organs. (From the Greek peri- meaning around + tonos meaning a stretching = a stretching around).
Inflammation of the peritoneum (The peritoneum is the tissue layer of cells lining the inner wall of the abdomen and pelvis). Peritonitis can result from infection (such as ...
A collection of pus (an abscess) behind the tonsils that pushes one of the tonsils toward the uvula (the prominent soft tissue dangling from the back of the palate in the back ...
Inflammation of the connective tissue above and behind the tonsil.
An order of ciliates ( subclass Peritrichia, phylum Ciliophora) characterized by a cylindrical shape with the cilia usually limited to the zone surrounding the mouth opening; ...
1. Relating to cilia or other appendicular organs projecting from the periphery of a cell. 2. Having flagella uniformly distributed over a cell; used especially with reference ...
SYN: pericecal. [peri- + G. typhlon, cecum]
Inflammation of the peritoneum surrounding the cecum.
- p. actinomycotica (per′i-tif-li-tis ak′ti-no-mi-kot-i-ka) abdominal infection, predominantly around the cecum, with ...
Surrounding a nail; involving the nail folds. [peri- + L. unguis, nail]
Inflammation of the tissues about a ureter. [peri- + ureter + G. -itis, inflammation]
- p. plastica SYN: retroperitoneal fibrosis.
Inflammation of the tissues about the urethra. [peri- + urethra + G. -itis, inflammation]
Inflammation of the connective tissue around the vagina. SYN: pericolpitis.
Surrounding a blood or lymph vessel. SYN: circumvascular. [peri- + L. vasculum, vessel]
Periventricular leukomalacia, cystic
Softening of the white matter near the ventricles of the brain resulting in abnormal cysts. Cystic periventricular leukomalacia is a major problem in very premature infants. ...
Around a vertebra or vertebrae. SYN: perispondylic.
SYN: pericystic. [peri- + L. vesica, bladder]
Inflammation surrounding any viscus or viscera. [peri- + L. viscera, internal organs, + G. -itis, inflammation]
Surrounding the vitellus or yolk. [peri- + L. vitellus, yolk]
A form of quackery purporting to treat disease by applying metals with magnetic and magic properties.
Elisha, U.S. physician, 1741–1799. See perkinism.
SYN: angular cheilitis. [Fr. per, intensive, + lécher, to lick]
Richard, 19th century German ophthalmologist. See P. nucleus, convergence nucleus of P..
Through or by way of the tongue, denoting a method of medication. [L. per, through, + lingua, tongue]
Max, German pathologist, 1843–1881. See P. Prussian blue stain, P. test.
A salt of permanganic acid. Formerly used in efforts (probably unsuccessful) to oxidize and thus detoxify alkaloidal poisons.
An acid, HMnO4, derived from manganese, forming permanganates with bases. SEE ALSO: potassium permanganate.
Permitting the passage of substances ( e.g., liquids, gases, heat), as through a membrane or other structure. SYN: pervious. [L. permeabilis (see permeate)]
Able to pass through a particular semipermeable membrane. [L. permeabilis (see permeate)]
Any of a group of membrane-bound carriers (enzymes) that effect the transport of solute through a semipermeable membrane; this term is not typically used with eukaryotes.
1. To pass through a membrane or other structure, typically by diffusion. 2. That which can so pass. [L. permeo, to pass through]
The process of spreading through or penetrating, as the extension of a malignant neoplasm by proliferation of the cells continuously along the blood vessel s or lymphatics. [L. ...
Rarely used term meaning apparently pernicious, denoting a condition or disease that appears to be pernicious or malignant.
Destructive; harmful; denoting a disease of severe character and usually fatal without appropriate treatment. [L. perniciosus, destructive, fr. pernicies, destruction]
A blood disorder caused by inadequate vitamin B12 in the blood. Patients who have this disorder do not produce the substance in the stomach that allows the body to absorb ...
Pernicious vomiting of pregnancy
Medically known as hyperemesis gravidarum, this is excessive vomiting in early pregnancy. By definition, hyperemesis gravidarum, leads to the loss of 5% or more of the body ...
SYN: chilblain. [L. pernio, chilblain, + G. -osis, condition]
Maimed, malformed. [G. peros]
An individual with a congenital malformation of one or both hands and forearms. [ pero- + G. brachion, arm]
An individual with congenitally defective face and head. [ pero- + G. kephale, head]
An individual with a congenital malformation of one or both hands. [ pero- + G. cheir, hand]
A preparation of sodium perborate that, when mixed with the accompanying catalyzer, liberates 10% of the oxygen in the salt.
Severe congenital malformations of extremities, including absence of hand or foot. [ pero- + G. melos, limb]
SYN: fibula. [G. p., brooch, the small bone of the arm or leg, the fibula, fr. peiro, to pierce]
SYN: fibular. [L. peroneus, fr. G. perone, fibula]
Peroneal muscular atrophy
A neuromuscular disease that is the most common inherited disorder of peripheral nerves, characterized by progressively debilitating weakness. Peroneal muscular atrophy is also ...
A person with a congenital malformation of one or both feet. [ pero- + G. pous, foot]
Through the mouth, denoting a method of medication or an approach. [L. per, through, + os (or-), mouth]
Congenital malformation of the viscera. [ pero- + G. splanchnon, viscus]
Through bone. [L. per, through, + os, bone]
Hydrogen peroxide–reducing oxidoreductases; enzymes in animal and plant tissues that catalyze the dehydrogenation (oxidation) of various substances in the presence of hydrogen ...
1. That oxide of any series that contains the greatest number of oxygen atoms; applied most correctly to compounds containing an –O–O– link, as in hydrogen p. ...
A membrane-bound organelle occurring in many eukaryotic cells that often has an electron-dense crystalline inclusion containing catalase, urate oxidase, and other oxidative ...
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor
A member of the nuclear hormone receptor subfamily of transcription factors. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor is abbreviated as PPAR. There are 3 known subtypes of ...
Prefix denoting the presence of an extra O atom, as in peroxides, peroxy acid s ( e.g., hydrogen peroxide, peroxyformic acid). Often shortened to per-.
H–O–O; one of the free radicals presumed formed as a result of the bombardment of tissue by high-energy radiation.
In chemistry, any salt that contains the greatest possible amount of the acid radical.
Persantine thallium scan
A type of myocardial perfusion scan done to disclose any areas of the heart muscle that may not be getting enough blood to perfuse them properly. Persantine (Diprydamole) is a ...
1. The constant repetition of a meaningless word or phrase. 2. The duration of a mental impression, measured by the rapidity with which one impression follows another as ...
The fixed oil expressed from the kernels of varieties of Prunus armeniaca (apricot kernel oil) or Prunus persica (peach kernel oil); used as a vehicle.
Obstinate continuation of characteristic behavior, or of existence in spite of treatment or adverse environmental conditions. [L. persisto, to abide, stand firm]
- lactase p. an ...
That which, or one who, is capable of persistence; especially a bacterium that exhibits microbial persistence.
The product of the number of years times the number of members of a population who have been affected by a certain condition; e.g., years of treatment with a certain drug.
A term that embodies the totality of the individual, the total constellation of the physical, psychological, and behavioral attributes of each unique individual; in jungian ...
1. The unique self; the organized system of attitudes and behavioral predispositions by which one feels, thinks, acts, and impresses and establishes relationships with others. 2. ...
Personality disorder, borderline
A serious mental illness characterized by pervasive instability in moods, interpersonal relationships, self-image, and behavior. This instability often disrupts family and work ...
1) The secretion of fluid by the sweat (sudoriferous) glands. These small, tubular glands are situated within the skin, as well as in the subcutaneous tissue under it. They ...
See pervaporation. [L. per, through, + stillo, to trickle, distil]
The act of influencing the mind of another, by authority, argument, reason, or personal insight; an important element in most types of psychotherapy. [L. persuasio, fr. ...
1. The compound of a series of sulfides that contains more atoms of sulfur than any other. 2. The sulfur analog of a peroxide.
An antigenic material produced by Bordetella pertussis used to improve the effectiveness of pertussis vaccines. [pertussis + act + -in]
Anionic form of technetium used widely in nuclear scanning; 99mTcO4.
Georg C., German surgeon, 1869–1927. See P. disease, P. test, Calvé-P. disease, Legg-Calvé-P. disease.
Prefix denoting substitution of sulfur for every oxygen in a compound; e.g., perthiocarbonic acid, H2CS3.
Otto, Hungarian pathologist, 1852–1913. See P. diverticulum.
Whooping cough, a communicable, potentially deadly illness characterized by fits of coughing followed by a noisy, “whooping” indrawn breath. It is caused by the bacteria ...
Acronym for the porcine endogenous retrovirus, a pig virus that splices into DNA. PERV belongs to the same class of viruses as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Some of ...
The heating of a liquid within a dialyzing bag suspended over a hot plate, evaporation taking place rapidly through the membrane; any colloids in solution remain within the bag ...
A deviation from the norm, especially concerning sexual interests or behavior. [L. perversio, fr. per-verto, pp. -versus, to turn about]
- polymorphous p. 1. in psychoanalytic ...
One who practices perversions. SEE ALSO: deviant (2).
SYN: permeable. [L. pervius, fr. per, through, + via, a way]
1. [TA] SYN: foot (1). 2. Any footlike or basal structure or part. 3. Talipes. In this sense, p. is always qualified by a word expressing the specific type. [L.]
- p. abductus ...
Literally a hollow foot, pes cavus is a foot with too high an arch.
A vegetarian who consumes dairy products, eggs, and fish, but does not consume other animal flesh.
1. An appliance of varied form, introduced into the vagina to support the uterus or to correct any displacement. 2. A medicated vaginal suppository. [L. pessarium, fr. G. ...
A tendency to see or anticipate the worst. [L. pessimus, worst, irreg. superl. of malus, bad]
- therapeutic p. a disbelief in the curative virtues of remedies in general and ...
SYN: plague (2). [L. pestis]
An infectious disease due to a bacteria called Yersinia pestis. Y. pestis mainly infects rats and other rodents. Rodents are the prime reservoir for the bacteria. Fleas ...