Bacteremia due to Yersinia pestis. [L. pestis, plague, + G. haima, blood]
General term for an agent that destroys fungi, insects, rodents, or any other pest.
The pestilence referred to the bubonic plague and it now refers to any epidemic disease that is highly contagious, infectious, virulent and devastating. The plague was, a ...
Relating to or tending to produce a pestilence. SYN: pestiferous.
SYN: plague (2). [L.]
- p. ambulans SYN: ambulant plague.
- p. bubonica (pes′tis boo′bon′ik-a) SYN: bubonic plague.
- p. fulminans SYN: bubonic plague.
- p. major SYN: ...
An infectious disease due to a bacteria called Yersinia pestis. Y. pestis mainly infects rats and other rodents. Rodents are the prime reservoir for the bacteria. Fleas ...
A genus of viruses (family Flaviviridae) composed of the hog cholera virus and related viruses. [L. pestis, plague, + virus]
An instrument in the shape of a rod with one rounded and weighted extremity, used for bruising, breaking, grinding, and mixing substances in a mortar. [L. pistillum, fr. pinso, ...
Abbreviation for positron emission tomography.
Positron emission tomography, a highly specialized imaging technique using short-lived radioactive substances. This technique produces three-dimensional colored images. PET ...
Prefix used in the SI and metric system to signify multiples of one quadrillion (1015).
Minute hemorrhagic spots, of pinpoint to pinhead size, in the skin, which are not blanched by pressure. [Mod. L. form of It. petecchie]
- calcaneal p. traumatic hemorrhage into ...
Relating to, accompanied by, or characterized by petechiae.
Peter Pan syndrome
Term coined by pop psychology author Dan Kiley in his book "Peter Pan syndrome: Men Who Have Never Grown Up." Peter Pan is in reference to J. M. Barrie's classic 1904 play in ...
Hubert, Austrian obstetrician, 1859–1934. See P. ovum.
Albert, German physician, 1862–1938. See P. anomaly.
C.F., German surgeon, 1845–1908.
A stem or pedicle. SYN: petiole. [L. dim. of pes (foot), the stalk of a fruit]
- p. epiglottidis SYN: stalk of epiglottis.
Jean L., Paris surgeon, 1674–1750. See P. hernia, P. herniotomy, P. lumbar triangle.
Francois du, French surgeon and anatomist, 1664–1741. See P. canals, under canal, P. ...
A form of epilepsy with very brief, unannounced lapses in consciousness. A Petit mal seizure involves a brief loss of awareness, which can be accompanied by blinking or mouth ...
Julius, German bacteriologist, 1852–1921. See P. dish, P. dish culture.
Fossilization, as in conversion into stone. [L. petra, rock + facio, to make]
A manipulation in massage, consisting in a kneading of the muscles. [Fr. kneading]
Stone; stone-like hardness. [L. petra, rock; G. petros, stone]
A yellowish mixture of the softer members of the paraffin or methane series of hydrocarbons, obtained from petroleum as an intermediate product in its distillation; used as a ...
A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons found in the earth in various parts of the world and believed to be derived from fossilized animal and plant remains; the source of petrolatum, ...
Relating to the petrous and the squamous portions of the temporal bone, which are usually united at birth by the petrosquamosal suture. SYN: petrosomastoid.
Denoting the cranial suture between the occipital bone and the petrous portion of the temporal. SYN: petroccipital.
The petrous portion of the temporal bone. [L. fr. petra, rock]
Relating to the petrosa. SYN: petrous (2).
Obsolete term for the levator veli palatini muscle. [ petrosa + G. salpinx, trumpet, + staphyle, uvula]
An inflammation involving the petrous portion of the temporal bone and its air cells. SYN: petrousitis.
Relating to the petrous portion of the temporal bone and to the sphenoid bone.
Obsolete term for the levator veli palatini (muscle). [G. petra, stone, + staphyle, uvula]
1. Of stony hardness. 2. SYN: petrosal. [L. petrosus, fr. petra, a rock]
H.H. German neuropathologist, 1887–1964. See P.- Döring disease.
Auguste, French physician, 1869–1939. See Bachman-P. test.
J.L.A., Dutch physician. See P.- Jeghers syndrome, Jeghers-P. syndrome.
A genetic condition characterized by polyps in the intestines and freckle-like spots on the lips, mouth and fingers. People with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome are at increased risk for ...
Fixation of substances in the tissues. [G. p., fixation]
Johann K., Swiss anatomist, 1653–1712. See P. glands, under gland, aggregated lymphoid nodules of small intestine, under nodule.
Aztec name for Lophophora williamsii, a small cactus indigenous to Mexico and the southwestern United States and used in Native American tribal ceremonies, where it produces a ...
Francois de la, French surgeon, 1678–1747. See P. disease.
A condition of uncertain cause in which a plaque (a hard lump) forms on the upper or lower side of the penis in layers containing erectile tissue resulting sometimes in severe ...
Jean J., French surgeon, 1843–1918. See P. thorax.
Hermann Johann, German gynecologist, 1862–1909. See P. incision.
Meinhard von, German physician, 1872–1947. See P.- Hurler syndrome.
Richard F.J., German physician, 1858–1945. See Pfeifferella, P. phenomenon, P. syndrome.
A form of craniosynostosis that results in multiple physical defects, including broad thumbs and great toes; depressed nasal bridge and generally flat profile; low-set, slanted ...
An obsolete genus of bacteria, the type species of which, P. mallei, formerly was placed in the genus Actinobacillus and now is in the genus Pseudomonas. [R. F. J. Pfeiffer]
Abbreviation for proximal femoral focal deficiency.
Eduard F.W., German anatomist and physiologist, 1829–1910. See P. law.
Abbreviation for perfluorooctyl bromide.
Pulmonary function test, a test designed to measure how well the lungs are working. PFTs gauge how the lungs are doing their jobs — of expanding and contracting (when a person ...
Eduard, German physician, 1852–1905. See P. sign.
Abbreviation for prostaglandin.
PGA (polyglandular autoimmune syndrome)
A genetic autoimmune disease with an extraordinary array of clinical features but characterized most often by at least 2 of the following 3 findings: hypoparathyroidism — ...
PGA, PGB, PGC, PGD
Abbreviations, with numeric subscripts according to structure, often used for prostaglandins. Letters A, B, etc., indicate the nature of the cyclopentane ring (substituents, ...
Abbreviation for psychogalvanic response.
Symbol for the negative decadic logarithm of the H+ ion concentration (measured in moles per liter); a solution with pH 7.00 (1 × 10−7 g molecular weight of hydrogen per ...
The acidity or alkalinity of urine. The pH of any fluid is the measure of the hydrogen ion (H-) concentration. A pH of 7 is neutral. The lower the pH, the more acidic the urine. ...
A device for continuously sensing the pH of a solution and automatically adding acid or alkali as necessary to keep the pH constant; used to follow the time course of reactions ...
Doctor of Philosophy. (From the New Latin, philosophiae doctor). Ph.D.'s are involved in clinical care (as in clinical psychology), biomedical research (as in the Genome ...
1. Abbreviation for Pharmacopoeia Germanica; German Pharmacopoeia. 2. Abbreviation for Graduate in Pharmacy, a degree no longer offered in the U.S.
Abbreviation for Philadelphia chromosome.
Abbreviation for phytohemagglutinin.
1. Lens-shaped, relating to a lens; 2. Birthmark; as in phacomatosis. [G. phakos, lentil (lens), anything shaped like a lentil]
Hernia of the lens of the eye through the sclera. [ phaco- + G. kele, hernia]
SYN: capsule of lens. [ phaco- + G. kystis, bladder]
Rarely used term for surgical removal of a portion of the capsule of the lens of the eye. [ phaco- + G. kystis, bladder, + ektome, excision]
Tremulousness of the lens of the eye. [ phaco- + G. doneo, to shake to and fro]
A type of contemporary cataract surgery. Most cataract surgeries today are performed using phacoemulsification, a procedure in which the lens with the cataract is broken up by ...
Extraction of the lens of the eye by means of a suction cup called the erysophake. [ phaco- + G. erysis, pulling, drawing off]
Of lentil shape. [ phaco- + G. eidos, resemblance]
Operative breaking down and removal of the lens. [ phaco- + G. lysis, dissolution]
Characterized by or referring to phacolysis.
A hamartoma found in phacomatosis; often refers to a retinal hamartoma in tuberous sclerosis. SYN: phakoma. [ phaco- + G. -oma, tumor]
Softening of the lens, as may occur in hypermature cataract. [ phaco- + G. malakia, softness]
A generic term for a group of hereditary diseases characterized by hamartomas involving multiple tissues; e.g., von Hippel-Lindau disease, neurofibromatosis, Sturge-Weber ...
An instrument in the form of a dark chamber for observing the changes in the lens during accommodation. [ phaco- + G. skopeo, to view]
A common species of yellowish or metallic green blowfly (family Calliphoridae, order Diptera); an abundant scavenger feeding on carrion or excrement, and implicated in sheep ...
A group of superficial and deep infections caused by fungi that form pigmented hyphae and yeastlike cells in tissue, i.e., dematiaceous fungal infections other than ...
Short for bacteriophage, a virus that lives within a bacteria. Bacteriophages have been very important and heuristic in bacterial and molecular genetics. Phages were studied by ...
Obsolete term for an ulcer that rapidly spreads peripherally, destroying the tissues as it increases in size. [G. phagedaina, a canker]
- p. gangrenosa severe gangrene with ...
Obsolete term for relating to or having the characteristics of phagedena.
This is trench mouth, a progressive painful infection with ulceration, swelling and sloughing off of dead tissue from the mouth and throat due to the spread of infection from the ...
Eating, devouring. [G. phago, to eat]
Eating, devouring. From the Greek "phago" meaning "to eat." Examples of words starting with phago- include: phagocyte, a cell that can engulf particles; and phagophobia, an ...
A cell possessing the property of ingesting bacteria, foreign particles, and other cells. Phagocytes are divided into two general classes: 1) microphages, polymorphonuclear ...
Relating to phagocytes or phagocytosis.
A very labile bactericidal substance that may be isolated from polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
A primitive cell developing into a phagocyte. [ phagocyte + G. blastos, germ]
1. Destruction of phagocytes, or leukocytes, occurring in the process of blood coagulation or as the result of the introduction of certain antagonistic foreign substances into ...
To perform phagocytosis, denoting the action of phagocytic cells. SYN: phagocytize.
The process of ingestion and digestion by cells of solid substances, e.g., other cells, bacteria, bits of necrosed tissue, foreign particles. SEE ALSO: endocytosis. [ phagocyte + ...
A device for measuring the force required to chew various foods. [ phago- + G. dynamis, force, + metron, measure]
A body formed by union of a phagosome or ingested particle with a lysosome having hydrolytic enzymes.
Morbid fear of eating. [ phago- + G. phobos, fear]
A vesicle that forms around a particle (bacterial or other) within the phagocyte that engulfed it, separates from the cell membrane, and then fuses with and receives the contents ...
In microbiology, a subdivision of a species distinguished from other strains therein by sensitivity to a certain bacteriophage or set of bacteriophages. [ phago- + G. typos, ...
For words so beginning and not listed here, see phaco-.
Excision of one or more of the phalanges of hand or foot. [phalang- + G. ektome, excision]
The bones of the fingers by Aristotle in the 4th century B.C. (and since extended to the bones of the toes) because they were arrayed like Greek soldiers for battle. There are ...
Anatomically, any one of the bones in the fingers or toes. (The plural of phalanx is phalanges.) There are 3 phalanges (the proximal, middle, and proximal phalanx) in most of ...
SYN: phallodynia. [phall- + G. algos, pain]
Surgical removal of the penis. SYN: penectomy. [phall- + G. ektome, excision]
1. Relating to the penis. 2. In psychoanalysis, relating to the penis, especially during the phases of infantile psychosexuality. SEE ALSO: p. phase. [G. phallos, penis]
Worship of the male genitalia. SYN: phallism.
Curvature of the erect penis. SEE ALSO: chordee. [ phallo- + G. kampsis, a bending]
Dislocation and retraction of the penis. [ phallo- + G. krypsis, concealment]
Pain in the penis. SYN: phallalgia. [ phallo- + G. odyne, pain]
Resembling in shape a penis. SYN: phalliform. [ phallo- + G. eidos, resemblance]
Best known of the toxic cyclic peptides produced by the poisonous mushroom, Amanita phalloides; closely related to amanitin.
A glycoprotein that is the heat-sensitive (destroyed in cooking) toxin of the mushroom Amanita phalloides.
A tumor or swelling of the penis. [ phallo- + G. onkos, mass]
Surgical reconstruction of the penis. [ phallo- + G. plastos, formed]
Surgical incision into the penis. SYN: penotomy. [ phallo- + G. tome, a cutting]
A class of heterodetic cyclic heptapeptides present in Amanita phalloides; together with the amatoxins, the main toxin components of this fungus.
SYN: penis. [L.; G. phallos]
Visible, obvious. [G. phaneros]
Denoting a disease, the etiology of which is manifest. Cf.:cryptogenic. [ phanero- + G. genesis, origin]
Obsolete term for constant preoccupation with some external part, as plucking the beard, pulling the lobe of the ear, picking at a pimple, etc. [ phanero- + G. mania, frenzy] ...
A lens used to concentrate the light from a lamp upon the skin, to facilitate examination of lesions of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. [ phanero- + G. skopeo, to view]
The act or process of becoming visible. [ phanero- + G. osis, condition]
- fatty p. presumed unmasking of previously invisible fat in the cytoplasm of cells; marked fatty ...
An exoerythrocytic tissue stage of malaria infection other than the primary exoerythrocytic stages ( cryptozoite and metacryptozoite generations); consists chiefly of ...
The mental imagery produced by fantasy. SYN: phantom (1). [G. phantasma, an appearance]
A fantastic sequence of haphazardly associative imagery.
The study of spiritualistic manifestations and of apparitions. [G. phantasma, an appearance, + logos, study]
1. SYN: phantasm. 2. A model, especially a transparent one, of the human body or any of its parts. SEE ALSO: manikin. 3. In radiology, a mechanical or computer-originated ...
Phantom limb syndrome
In the phantom limb syndrome, a person continues to feel sensations, usually including pain, in an arm or leg long after the limb has been amputated. Phantom sensations can ...
In psychiatry, to create mental imagery by fantasy.
Abbreviation for Doctor of Pharmacy.
1. SYN: pharmacy (1). 2. The science of pharmaceutical systems, i.e., preparations, dosage forms, etc.
A professional who fills prescriptions, and in the case of a compounding pharmacist, makes them. Pharmacists are familiar with medication ingredients, interactions, cautions, and ...
The study of the use of drugs in society. The process of identifying and responding to safety issues about drugs. Pharmaco-epidemiology has been called pharmaco-vigilance. For ...
The study of uptake, movement, binding, and interactions of pharmacologically active molecules at their tissue site(s) of action. [ pharmaco- + G. dynamis, force]
The study of the distribution and determinants of drug-related events in populations, and the application of this study to efficacious drug treatment.
The convergence of pharmacology and genetics dealing with genetically determined responses to drugs. For example, after the administration of a muscle relaxant commonly used in ...
The study of how an individual's genetic inheritance (their genome) affects their body's response to drugs. The term "pharmacogenomics" comes from the words pharmacology and ...
A branch of pharmacology concerned with the physical characteristics and botanical and animal sources of crude drugs. SYN: pharmaceutical biology. [ pharmaco- + G. gnosis, ...
A treatise on or description of drugs. [ pharmaco- + G. graphe, description]
Relating to the disposition of drugs in the body ( i.e., their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination).
Movements of drugs within biologic systems, as affected by uptake, distribution, binding, elimination, and biotransformation; particularly the rates of such movements. [ ...
Pharmacologic stress test
There are a diversity of pharmacologic stress tests. Here this refers specifically to a pharmacologic cardiac stress test in which certain medications are administered that ...
1. Relating to pharmacology or to the composition, properties, and actions of drugs. 2. Sometimes used in physiology to denote a dose (of a chemical agent that either is or ...
A specialist in the study of medications and their effects on the body.
* * *
A specialist in pharmacology.
- clinical p. a p. who has undergone training in basic pharmacology, ...
The study of drugs, their sources, their nature, and their properties. Pharmacology is the study of the body’s reaction to drugs. It emerged as a major area in American medicine ...
Morbid impulse to take drugs. [ pharmaco- + G. mania, frenzy]
Also spelled pharmacopoeia, an official authoritative listing of drugs. Aspirin has, for example, long been in the pharmacopeia. By extension, a pharmacopeia is a collection or ...
A work containing monographs of therapeutic agents, standards for their strength and purity, and their formulations. The various national pharmacopeias are referred to by ...
Relating to the Pharmacopeia; denoting a drug in the list of the Pharmacopeia. SEE ALSO: official.
Morbid fondness for taking drugs. [ pharmaco- + G. phileo, to love]
Morbid fear of taking drugs. [ pharmaco- + G. phobos, fear]
An official authoritative listing of drugs. Aspirin has, for example, long been in the pharmacopoeia. By extension, a pharmacopoeia is a collection or stock of drugs.
Rarely used term for a psychosis causally related to taking a drug. [ pharmaco- + psychosis]
Treatment of disease by means of drugs. SEE ALSO: chemotherapy. [ pharmaco- + G. therapeia, therapy]
A location where prescription drugs are sold. A pharmacy is constantly supervised by a licensed pharmacist.
* * *
1. The practice of preparing and dispensing drugs. SYN: ...
A facility that both makes and sells prescription drugs. A compounding pharmacy can often concoct drug formulas that are specially tailored to patients: for example, liquid ...
Carbonyl chloride; a colorless liquid below 8.2°C, but an extremely poisonous gas at ordinary temperatures; it is an insidious gas, since it is not immediately irritating, even ...
Energy-rich guanidinium or amidine phosphate, serving as an energy store in muscle and brain; e.g., phosphocreatine in mammals, phosphoarginine in invertebrates. Other ...
R–NH–PO3H2, one of the three types of high-energy phosphates (the others being phosphophosphoric acids and phosphosulfuric acids).
A conceptual mechanism whereby the parathyroid hormone is increased when the levels of phosphorus rise to an above-normal level; there is as yet no satisfactory evidence for ...
Any of a group of enzymes (EC 3.1.3.x) that liberate orthophosphate from phosphoric esters. SEE ALSO: phosphohydrolases.
- acid p. a p. with an optimum pH of less than 7.0 (for ...
Acid phosphatase is an enzyme that works under acid conditions and is made in the liver, spleen, bone marrow and the prostate gland. Abnormally high serum levels of the enzyme ...
An enzyme made in the liver, bone, and the placenta and normally present in high concentrations in growing bone and in bile. Alkaline phosphatase is released into the blood ...
A form of phosphoric acid. Calcium phosphate makes bones and teeth hard.
* * *
1. A salt or ester of phosphoric acid. For individual phosphates not listed here, see under the ...
An enzyme-catalyzing transfer of an acetyl moiety from acetyl-CoA to orthophosphate, forming acetyl phosphate and coenzyme A. SYN: phosphoacylase, phosphotransacetylase. ...
An abnormally high concentration of inorganic phosphates in the blood. [phosphate + G. haima, blood]
Older trivial name for alk-1-enylglycerophospholipid; plasmenyl.
A salt or ester of a phosphatidic acid.
- p. phosphatase an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of p. producing orthophosphate and 1,2-diacylglycerol; this enzyme ...
Former name for 1) phosphatidic acid and 2) phosphatidate.
1,2-Diacylglycerol phosphate; a derivative of glycerophosphoric acid in which the two remaining hydroxyl groups of the glycerol are esterified with fatty acid s; e.g., ...
The radical of a phosphatidic acid; e.g., phosphatidylcholine.
The condensation product of a phosphatidic acid and ethanolamine; found in biomembranes. SEE ALSO: cephalin.
- p. cytidylyltransferase a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ...
A phosphatidic acid in which a second glycerol molecule replaces the usual choline, or ethanolamine or serine; a constituent in human amniotic fluid that denotes fetal lung ...
A phosphatidic acid combined with inositol found in biomembranes and a precursor to certain cellular signals. Sometimes referred to as inositide. SYN: phosphoinositide.
- p. ...
The condensation product of phosphatidic acid and serine; found in biomembranes. SEE ALSO: cephalin.
Excessive excretion of phosphates in the urine. SYN: phosphoruria, phosphuria. [phosphate + G. ouron, urine]
Sensation of light produced by mechanical or electrical stimulation of the peripheral or central optic pathway of the nervous system. [G. phos, light, + phaino, to show]
A compound of phosphorus with valence −3; e.g., sodium p., Na3P.
A colorless poisonous war gas with a characteristic garlic-like odor; also the active agent in some rodenticides; formed in small quantities in the putrefaction of organic matter ...
In chemistry, symmetrically doubly substituted phosphinic acid, R2P(O)OH.
Prefix for O-phosphono-, which may replace the suffix phosphate; e.g., glucose phosphate is O-phosphonoglucose or phosphoglucose. SEE ALSO: phosph-, phosphoryl-.
An enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of phosphorus-nitrogen bonds, notably the hydrolysis of N-phosphocreatine to creatine and orthophosphate. SYN: phosphamidase.
Amides of phosphoric acid (phosphoramidic acids) and their salts or esters (phosphoramidates), of the general formula (HO)2P(O)–NH2; e.g., creatine phosphate.
A compound (in particular, a phosphagen) of l-arginine with phosphoric acid containing the phosphoamide bond; a source of energy in the contraction of muscle in invertebrates, ...
Choline O-phosphate; important in choline metabolism, e.g., in the biosynthesis of lecithins. SYN: phosphorylcholine.
- p. cytidylyltransferase an enzyme that catalyzes the ...
A phosphagen; a compound of creatine (through its NH2 group) with phosphoric acid; a source of energy in the contraction of vertebrate muscle, its breakdown furnishing ...
A diesterified orthophosphoric acid, RO–(PO2H)–OR′, as in the nucleic acid s.
- p. hydrolases SYN: phosphodiesterases.
Enzymes (EC 3.1.4.x) cleaving phosphodiester bonds, such as those in cAMP or between nucleotides in nucleic acid s, liberating smaller poly- or oligonucleotide units or ...
The phosphoric ester of pyruvic acid in the latter's p. form; an intermediate in the conversion of d-glucose to pyruvic acid and an example of a high-energy phosphate ester.
A key intermediate in the formation of cephalins; formed in liver and brain by phosphorylation of ethanolamine.
- p. cytidylyltransferase a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ...
An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP, catalyzes the phosphorylation of d-glucose 1-phosphate to form d-glucose 1,6-bisphosphate and ADP; found in yeast and muscle; d-glucose ...
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible reaction, α-d-glucose 1-phosphate ⇋ α-d-glucose 6-phosphate, with glucose 1,6-bisphosphate a necessary cofactor; one of the steps in ...
6-phosphogluconic dehydrogenase; an enzyme catalyzing the reaction of 6-phospho-d-gluconate and NAD(P)+ to form 6-phospho-2-keto-d-gluconate and NAD(P)H; a deficiency of this ...
An enzyme catalyzing the formation of 3-phospho-d-glyceroyl phosphate and ADP from 3-phospho-d-glycerate and ATP; this enzyme is a part of the glycolytic pathway; a deficiency of ...
1. Glyceroyl phosphoric acid; glyceroyl phosphate; an acid anhydride between glyceric acid and phosphoric acid. 2. 2-P.; the deprotonated form, 2-phosphoglycerate, is an ...
Acylglycerol and diacylglycerol phosphates; constituents of nerve tissue, and involved in fat transport and storage.
An isomerizing enzyme catalyzing the reversible interconversion of 2-phosphoglycerate and 3-phosphoglycerate with 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate present as a cofactor; a deficiency of ...
Phosphoric monoester hydrolases; enzymes (EC 3.1.3.x) cleaving phosphoric acid (as orthophosphate) from its esters; trivial name s usually end in phosphate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a phospholipid. SYN: lecithinase.
- p. A1 an enzyme that hydrolyzes a lecithin (1,2-diacylglycerophosphocholine) to a ...
A lipid containing phosphorus, thus including the lecithins and other phosphatidyl derivatives, sphingomyelin, and plasmalogens; the basic constituents of biomembranes.
One of a number of enzymes (mutases) (EC 5.4.2.x) that apparently catalyze intramolecular transfer because the donor is regenerated ( e.g., phosphoglyceromutase, ...