Necrosis of the bone of the jaw, a result of poisoning by inhalation of phosphorus fumes, occurring especially in persons who work with the element. [ phosphorus + G. nekrosis, ...
Low serum phosphate levels. SYN: phosphorpenia. [ phospho- + G. penia, poverty]
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible epimerization of a number of phosphorylated, five-carbon sugars; most notably ribulose 5-phosphate to xylulose 5-phosphate in the ...
A protein (MW 155,000) found in dentin that is believed to have a role in mineralization.
A protein containing phosphoryl groups attached directly to the side chains of some of its constituent amino acid s, usually to the hydroxyl group of an l-seryl residue or an ...
1. A chemical substance that transforms incident electromagnetic or radiation energy into light, as in scintillation radioactivity determinations or radiographic intensifying ...
The quality or property of emitting light without active combustion or the production of heat, generally as the result of prior exposure to radiation, which persists after the ...
The excretion of luminous sweat. SYN: phosphoridrosis. [G. phos, light, + phoros, bearing, + hidrosis, sweating]
Glycinamide ribonucleotide synthetase; an enzyme that reacts glycine with ribosylamine 5-phosphate and ATP to form ADP, orthophosphate, and phosphoribosylglycineamide in the ...
One of a group of enzymes (EC 2.4.2.x, pentosyltransferases) that transfers d-ribose 5-phosphate from 5-phospho-α-d-ribosyl pyrophosphate to a purine, pyrimidine, or pyridine ...
An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP, catalyzes the phosphorylation of d-ribulose 5-phosphate to d-ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate and ADP, a reaction of importance in the carbon ...
Orthophosphoric acid; a strong acid of industrial importance; m.p. 42.35°C; dilute solutions have been used as urinary acidifiers and as dressings to remove necrotic debris. ...
A reaction analogous to hydrolysis except that the elements of phosphoric acid, rather than of water, are added in the course of splitting a bond; e.g., the formation of ...
1. Relating to, containing, or resembling phosphorus. 2. Referring to phosphorus in its lower (+3) valence state.
An essential element in the diet and a major component of bone.
* * *
A nonmetallic chemical element, atomic no. 15, atomic wt. 30.973762, occurring extensively in nature always ...
Radioactive phosphorus isotope; beta emitter with half-life of 14.28 days; used as tracer in metabolic studies and in the treatment of certain diseases of the osseous and ...
A radioactive isotope of phosphorus with a half-life of 25.3 days; used as a tracer in metabolic studies.
The radical, O=P—, as in p. chloride, POCl3.
Prefix incorrectly used to signify a phosphate ( e.g., phosphorylcholine) in place of the correct O-phosphono- or phospho-.
A phosphorylated enzyme cleaving poly(1,4-α-d-glucosyl)n with orthophosphate to form poly(1,4-α-d-glucosyl)n−1 and α-d-glucose 1-phosphate. SYN: α-glucan p., glycogen p., P ...
1. General term for enzymes transferring a phosphoryl group to some organic acceptor, hence belonging to the transferases. 2. Specifically, enzymes that release a single ...
Phosphorylation is a biochemical process that involves the addition of phosphate to an organic compound. Phosphorylation may, for instance, involve the addition of phosphate to ...
A phosphorylated saccharide; any sugar containing an alcoholic group esterified with phosphoric acid.
A subclass of transferases (EC subclass 2.7) transferring phosphorus-containing groups. P. include the “kinases” (2.7.1) transferring phosphate to alcohols, to carboxyl ...
A mixture of phosphoric and tungstic acids; a protein precipitant and reagent for arginine, lysine, histidine, and cystine; used with hematoxylin for nuclear and muscle ...
Excretion of excessive amounts of phosphate in the urine. [ phospho- + G. ouresis, urination]
A phosphated protein constituting about 7% of the protein of egg yolk; it is about 60% serine, largely as O-phosphoserine, and has anticoagulant properties; an ...
A unit of illumination; 1 p. equals 1 lumen/cm2 of surface. [G. phos (p.-), light]
Light-induced pain, especially of the eyes; for example, in uveitis, the light-induced movement of the iris may be painful. SYN: photodynia, photophobia. [ phot- + G. algos, ...
Morbid fear of, or overreaction to, a glare of light. [G. photaugeia, glare of light, + phobos, fear]
Perception of light. [photo- + G. aisthesis, sensation]
Photic sneeze reflex
A disorder, also known as the achoo syndrome, characterized by nearly uncontrollable paroxysms of sneezing provoked in a reflex fashion by the sudden exposure of a dark-adapted ...
Production of a sensation of light or color by a stimulus to another sense organ, such as of hearing, taste, or touch. SYN: pseudophotesthesia.
The process of photoablative decomposition of tissue by laser light, e.g., in photorefractive keratectomy.
Denoting radiation that produces both luminous and chemical effects. [photo- + G. aktis, ray]
Damage from years of sun exposure, particularly wrinkling of skin. [[photo- + aging]]
An organism that depends solely on light for its energy and principally on carbon dioxide for its carbon. Cf.:photoheterotroph, photolithotroph, phototroph. [photo- + G. autos, ...
A genus of motile and nonmotile, aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria (family Pseudomonadaceae) containing Gram-negative coccobacilli and occasional rods; under adverse ...
A vernacular term used to refer to any member of the genus P..
The study of the effects of light upon plants and animals.
Living or flourishing only in the light. [photo- + G. bios, life]
To lose color or make white by the action of light; E.G., the use of a laser to bleach a fluorescent dye covalently linked to a macromolecule.
A substance that helps bring about a light-catalyzed reaction; e.g., chlorophyll. [photo- + G. katalysis, dissolution (catalysis)]
Denoting chemical changes caused by or involving light.
The branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical changes caused by or involving light.
A type of therapy in which the patient is exposed first to psoralens (drugs containing chemicals that react with ultraviolet light to cause darkening of the skin) and then to ...
SYN: Runyon group I mycobacteria. [photo- + G. chroma, color, + -gen, producing]
The coagulation (clotting) of tissue using a laser which produces light in the visible green wavelength that is selectively absorbed by hemoglobin, the pigment in red blood ...
The apparatus used in photocoagulation.
- laser p. a high-energy source of electromagnetic radiation. See laser.
- xenon-arc p. a p. in which a xenon-arc bulb delivers ...
Dermatitis caused or elicited by exposure to sunlight; may be phototoxic or photoallergic, and can result from topical application, ingestion, inhalation, or injection of ...
Areas on the skin that receive the greatest amount of exposure to sunlight, and which are involved in eruptions due to photosensitivity.
In the induced or spontaneous clarification of certain suspensions, the settlement of particles on the side nearest the light (positive p.) or on the dark side (negative p.). ...
Relating to the energy or force exerted by light. [photo- + G. dynamis, force]
: Treatment that destroys cancer cells with lasers and drugs that become active when exposed to light.
SYN: photalgia. [photo- + G. odyne, pain]
Extreme photophobia. [photo- + G. dysphoria, extreme discomfort]
Denoting electronic or electric effects produced by the action of light. See p. effect, p. absorption.
A device employing a photoelectric cell for measuring the concentration of substances in solution.
Erythema caused by exposure to light. [photo- + G. erythema, flush]
Sensitive to light. [photo- + G. aisthesis, sensation]
Miniature radiographs made by contact photography of a fluoroscopic screen, formerly used in mass radiographic examination of the lungs. SYN: fluorography, ...
An instrument for taking photographs of the interior of the stomach. [photo- + G. gaster, stomach, + skopeo, to view]
A microorganism that produces luminescence. [photo- + G. gen-, producing]
Production of light, as by bacteria, insects, or phosphorescence. [photo- + G. genesis, production]
An appliance for recording photographically the rapidity of the blood current. [photo- + G. haima, blood, + tachos, speed, + metron, measure]
An organism that depends on light for most of its energy and principally on organic compounds for its carbon. Cf.:photoautotroph, photolithotroph, phototroph. [photo- + G. ...
Inactivation by light; e.g., as in the treatment of herpes simplex by local application of a photoactive dye followed by exposure to a fluorescent lamp.
A burn of the cornea (the clear front surface of the eye) by ultraviolet B rays (UVB). Also called radiation keratitis or snowblindness. The condition typically occurs at high ...
Alteration of random movements of motile organisms in response to light. [photo- + G. kinesis, movement]
1. Pertaining to photokinesis. 2. Pertaining to photokinetics.
The changes in rate of a chemical reaction in response to light. [photo- + G. kinetikos, relating to movement]
A device for moving film at a constant speed so that a continuous record of a physiologic event may be obtained, as by a beam of light shining on the film. [photo- + G. kyma, ...
An organism that requires inorganic compounds and that uses light for most of its energy needs. Cf.:photoautotroph, photoheterotroph, phototroph. [photo- + G. lithos, stone, ...
Having the ability to become luminescent upon exposure to visible light. [photo- + L. lumen, light]
See deoxyribodipyrimidine p.. [photo- + G. lyo, to loosen, + -ase]
Decomposition of a chemical compound or cleavage of a chemical bond by the action of light. [photo- + G. lysis, dissolution]
Any product of decomposition by light.
A technique for investigating and recording conditions and procedures involving small objects that ordinarily would be inspected through a loupe rather than a microscope. [photo- ...
Morbid or exaggerated desire for light. [photo- + G. mania, frenzy]
An instrument designed to measure the intensity of light or to determine the light threshold. [photo- + G. metron, measure]
- flame p. an instrument that uses flame emission ...
The measurement of the intensity of light.
An enlarged photograph of an object viewed with a microscope, as distinguished from microphotograph. SYN: micrograph (2). [photo- + G. mikros, small, + graphe, a record]
Clonic spasms of muscles in response to visual stimuli. [photo- + G. mys, muscle, + klonos, confused motion]
- hereditary p. [MIM*172500] p. associated with diabetes mellitus, ...
In physics, a corpuscle of energy or particle of light; a quantum of light or other electromagnetic radiation.
Any disease caused by exposure to light. [photo- + G. pathos, suffering]
The characteristic energies of photons emitted by a radionuclide, used to set scanning parameters.
The periodic (seasonal or diurnal) activities, behavior, or changes in plants or animals brought about by the action of light.
Painful oversensitivity to light. For example, there is photophobia in measles (rubeola). Keeping the lights dim or the room darkened may be useful. Sunglasses may also help. ...
In bacteriology, the organ producing intracellular bioluminescence in certain organisms. [photo- + G. phoros, bearing]
See extracorporeal p..
- extracorporeal p. destruction of cells separated from blood in an extracorporeal flow system by ultraviolet activation of chemotherapeutic agents such ...
Keratoconjunctivitis caused by ultraviolet energy, as in snow blindness, exposure to an ultraviolet lamp, arc welding, or the short circuit of a high-tension electric current. ...
SYN: photopic vision. [photo- + G. opsis, vision]
A subjective sensation of lights, sparks, or colors due to electrical or mechanical stimulation of the ocular system. SEE ALSO: Moore lightning streaks, under streak. SYN: ...
The protein moiety ( opsin) of the pigment ( iodopsin) in the cones of the retina.
Sneezing on looking at a light, especially a bright light ( e.g., sunlight), a reflex of which the neuroanatomic pathways are debated; autosomal dominant transmission. SYN: ...
Treatment of cancer by intravenous injection of a photosensitizing agent, such as hematoporphyrin, followed by exposure to visible light of superficial tumors or of deep tumors ...
A reaction caused or affected by light; e.g., a photochemical reaction, photolysis, photosynthesis, phototropism, thymine dimer formation.
Activation by light of something or of some process previously inactive or inactivated; e.g., pyrimidine dimers, formed in polynucleic acids by the action of UV light, can be ...
A receptor that is sensitive to light, e.g., a retinal rod or cone. SYN: photoceptor. [photo- + L. re-cipio, pp. -ceptus, to receive, fr. capio, to take]
Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK)
A kind of laser eye surgery designed to change the shape of the cornea to eliminate (or reduce) the need for glasses and contact lenses. The laser is used to remove the outer ...
Light-enhanced respiration in photosynthetic organisms; i.e., light increases O2 utilization.
A macular burn from excessive exposure to sunlight or other intense light ( e.g., the flash of a short circuit); characterized subjectively by reduced visual acuity. SEE ALSO: ...
1. An abnormally heightened reactivity of the skin to sunlight. 2. Responding to light, e.g., as by a photocell. [photo + L. sensus, a feeling, fr. sentio, to feel]
In medicine, increased sensitivity of the skin to light and other sources of UV. Photosensitivity commonly causes reddening and blistering of the skin with exposure to sunlight ...
1. Sensitization of the skin to light, usually due to the action of certain drugs, plants, or other substances; may occur shortly after administration of the drug ( phototoxic ...
A device designed to respond to light and to transmit resulting impulses for interpretation, movement, or operating control. See sensor.
Not subject to change upon exposure to light.
Device that converts sound into flashes of light; used for continuous observation of the fetal heart.
Exposure to intense illumination. SEE ALSO: p. test.
1. The compounding or building up of chemical substances under the influence of light. 2. The process by which green plants, using chlorophyll and the energy of sunlight, ...
Reaction of living protoplasm to the stimulus of light, involving bodily motion of the whole organism toward (positive p.) or away from (negative p.) the stimulus. ...
Treatment with light. For example, a newborn with jaundice may be "put under the lights."
* * *
Treatment of disease by means of light rays. SYN: light treatment.
Relating to radiant heat. [photo- + G. therme, heat]
An electronic device in radiography that measures the radiation that has passed through the patient and terminates the x-ray exposure when it is sufficient to form an image.
Relating to, characterized by, or causing phototoxicity.
The condition resulting from an overexposure to ultraviolet light, or from the combination of exposure to certain wavelengths of light and a phototoxic substance. SEE ALSO: ...
An organism that uses light for its energy needs. Cf.:photoautotroph, photoheterotroph, photolithotroph.
Movement of a part of an organism toward (positive p.) or away from (negative p.) the stimulus of light. Cf.:phototaxis. [photo- + G. trope, a turning]
The passage of phosphorescent urine. [photo- + G. ouron, urine]
Abbreviation for panhypopituitarism.
Barrel-shaped enlargement of the spindle associated with formation of the new cell membrane during telophase in plant cells. [G. phragma, hedge, enclosure, + plasso, to form]
1. SYN: diaphragm (1). 2. The mind. [G. p., the diaphragm, mind, heart (as seat of emotions)]
1. SYN: psychalgia (1). 2. Pain in the diaphragm. [ phren- + G. algos, pain]
SYN: phreniclasia. [ phren- + G. emphraxis, a stoppage]
1. Frenzied; maniacal. 2. An individual exhibiting such behavior. [G. phrenitikos, frenzied]
1. SYN: diaphragmatic. 2. Relating to the mind.
Exsection of a portion of the phrenic nerve, to prevent reunion such as may follow phrenicotomy. SYN: phrenectomy, phrenicoexeresis, phreniconeurectomy. [ phreni- + G. ...
Crushing of a section of the phrenic nerve to produce a temporary paralysis of the diaphragm. SYN: phrenemphraxis, phrenicotripsy. [ phreni- + G. klasis, a breaking away]
Relating to the diaphragm and the colon. SYN: phrenocolic.
SYN: phrenicectomy. [phrenico- + G. exairesis, a taking out, fr. haireo, to take, grasp]
Relating to the diaphragm and the stomach. SYN: phrenogastric.
Relating to the diaphragm and the glottis; denoting a spasm involving the diaphragm and the vocal cords.
Relating to the diaphragm and the liver. SYN: phrenohepatic.
Section of the phrenic nerve in order to induce unilateral paralysis of the diaphragm, which is then pushed up by the abdominal viscera and exerts compression upon a diseased ...
Precordial pain and dyspnea of psychogenic origin, often a symptom of anxiety neurosis. See cardiac neurosis. SYN: cardiophrenia. [phreno- + G. kardia, heart]
SYN: phrenicocolic. [phreno- + G. kolon, colon]
SYN: phrenicogastric. [phreno- + G. gaster, stomach]
An instrument for recording graphically the movements of the diaphragm. [phreno- + G. grapho, to record]
One who claims to be able to diagnose mental and behavioral characteristics by a study of the external configuration of the skull. [see phrenology]
The study of variations in size, shape, and proportion of the cranium. Phrenology was a pseudoscience of the 18th and 19th centuries based on the belief that a person's character ...
Paralysis of the diaphragm. [phreno- + G. plege, stroke]
An abnormal sinking down of the diaphragm. [phreno- + G. ptosis, a falling]
A cerebroside abundant in white matter of the brain, composed of cerebronic acid, d-galactose, and sphingosine. SYN: cerebron.
Diaphragmatic spasm, as in hiccup. [phreno- + G. spasmos, spasm]
Affecting or working through the mind or brain. [phreno- + G. trope, a turning]
A follicular hyperkeratotic eruption thought to be due to deficiency of vitamin A. SYN: toad skin. [G. phrynos, toad, + derma, skin]
The poison of the fire-toad (Bombinator igneus). [G. phrynos, toad, + lysis, solution]
The Public Health Service, the agency responsible for the public health of the American people. The Public Health Service (PHS) administers a number of critically important ...
One of a group of highly colored compounds based on a triphenylmethyl base; e.g., phenolphthalein.
The diacyl radical of phthalic acid.
The monoacyl radical of phthalic acid.
N1-acetyl-N4-phthalylsulfanilamide; a sulfonamide used in the treatment of enteric infections.
SYN: pediculophobia. [G. phtheir, louse, + phobos, fear]
See Pthirus. [L. phthir; G. phtheir, a louse]
Phthisis (tuberculosis). [G. phthisis, a wasting]
A good trivia or crossword item. A Greek word meaning "a dwindling or wasting away." Pronounced "thi-sis." The tongue-twisting name "nephronophthisis" is derived from " nephron" ...
- subcutaneous p. SYN: entomophthoramycosis basidiobolae.
Stimulating the production of protective antibodies. [G. phylaxis, a guarding, protection, + agogos, leading]
Protection against infection. [G. a guarding, protection]
Denoting the evolution of sequential changes in a line of descent by which one species is transformed into a new species. [G. phyletikos, tribal, fr. phyle, a tribe]
A leaf; leaf-like; chlorophyll. [G. phyllon, foliage]
A flattened leaflike petiole; applied to any structure resembling a leaf, especially to a cross section of a neoplasm with a foliated structure, such as cystosarcoma phyllodes. ...
Isolated from alfalfa; also prepared synthetically; major form of vitamin K found in plants. SYN: phytomenadione, phytonadione, vitamin K1, vitamin K1(20).
- p. reductase SYN: ...
Tribe, race; a taxonomic phylum. [G. phylon, tribe]
1. The study of bioracial origins. 2. A rarely used term for a method of investigating individual and collective behavioral disorders putatively arising from impaired tensional ...
The evolutionary development of species, as distinguished from ontogeny, development of the individual. SYN: phylogenesis.
A taxonomic division below the kingdom and above the class. [Mod. L. fr. G. phylon, tribe]
Resembling a neoplasm. [G. phyma, a tumor, + eidos, resemblance]
A variety of melanin obtained from certain melanotic neoplasms, and from hair and other heavily pigmented parts. [G. phyma (phymat-), tumor, + rhysis, a flowing]
Type genus of the freshwater pulmonate snails (family Physidae), which includes several common American species such as P. parkeri, P. gyrina, and P. integra; they are ...
A genus of the invertebrate phylum Cnidaria that includes the Portuguese man-of-war.
- P. physalis the Portuguese man-of-war, a jellyfishlike animal consisting of a complex ...
Like a bubble or small bleb. [G. physallis, bladder, bubble, + L. forma, form]
A mother cell, or giant cell containing a large vacuole, in a malignant growth. [G. physallis, bladder, bubble, + phoros, bearing]
Having bubbles or vacuoles. SYN: physaliferous. [G. physallis, bladder, bubble, + phoros, bearing]
A vacuole in a giant cell found in certain malignant neoplasms, such as chordoma. [G. physallis, a bladder]
A large genus of spiruroid roundworms parasitic in the stomach and duodenum of vertebrates, especially birds and mammals; they are transmitted via insect and annelid intermediate ...
Infection of animals and humans with nematodes of the genus Physaloptera.
Pertaining to the physis, or growth cartilage area, separating the metaphysis and the epiphysis in skeletally immature bones.
A physician who specializes in physiatry ( rehabilitation medicine).
1. Old term for physical therapy. 2. Rehabilitation management. [G. physis, nature, + iatrikos, healing]
A physician specializing in physical medicine and rehabilitation. Physiatrists specialize in restoring optimal function to people with injuries to the muscles, bones, tissues, ...
1. The art of medicine. 2. A medicine; often a lay term for a cathartic. [G. physikos, natural, physical]
Relating to the body, as distinguished from the mind. [Mod. L. physicalis, fr. G. physikos]
Physical child abuse
Next to child neglect, physical abuse is the second most frequently reported form of child abuse, accounting for 25% of all cases of child abuse. Physical child abuse is ...
A map of the locations of identifiable landmarks on chromosomes. Physical distance is measured in base pairs. The physical map differs from the genetic map which is based purely ...
A person trained and certified by a state or accrediting body to design and implement physical therapy programs. Physical therapists may work within a hospital or clinic, in a ...
A branch of rehabilitative health that uses specially designed exercises and equipment to help patients regain or improve their physical abilities. Physical therapists work with ...
A physician is a person trained in the art of healing. In reality, contemporary physicians express their skills by combining art with science. A physician is also referred to as ...
A person who is trained, certified, and licensed to perform history taking, physical examination, diagnosis, and treatment of commonly encountered medical problems, and certain ...
Physician assistant (PA)
A mid-level medical practitioner who works under the supervision of a licensed doctor (an MD) or osteopathic physician (a DO). The physician assistant came about in the 1960s ...
A physician who is educated and trained in family practice. "Family physicians possess unique attitudes, skills, and knowledge which qualify them to provide continuing and ...
Physicians Desk Reference
A thick volume that provides a guide to all prescription drugs available in the United States. Although not exactly recommended fare for bedtime reading, the PDR is a key ...
Philip Syng, U.S. surgeon, 1768–1837. See P. pouches, under pouch.
The branch of science concerned with the phenomena of matter and energy and their interactions. See physic.
- radiation p. the scientific discipline of the application of p. to ...
The science of human health and radiation exposure. Health physics, also called medical physics, is devoted to radiation safety. The international professional body for health ...
1. Physical, physiological. 2. Natural, relating to physics. [G. physis, nature]
Related to or caused by physiologic activity. [physio- + G. genesis, origin]
1. The physical appearance of one's face, countenance, or habitus, especially regarded as an indication of character. 2. Estimation of one's character and mental qualities by a ...
Diagnosis of disease based upon a study of the facial appearance or bodily habitus. [physio- + G. gnosis, knowledge]
Something that is normal, neither due to anything pathologic nor significant in terms of causing illness.
The cessation of menstruation that it is completely normal and is not caused by anything pathologic. The lack of menstruation during pregnancy is a form of physiologic ...