Physiologic stress test
Although there can be a diversity of physiologic stress tests, this refers here to a physiologic cardiac stress test in which certain medications are administered that stimulate ...
1. Relating to physiology. 2. Normal, as opposed to pathologic; denoting the various vital processes. 3. Denoting something that is apparent from its functional effects rather ...
Physiologicjaundice of the newborn
Yellowish staining of the skin and whites of the newborn’s eyes (sclerae) by pigment of bile (bilirubin). In newborn babies a degree of jaundice is normal. It is due to the ...
The study of how living organisms function including such processes as nutrition, movement, and reproduction. The word “function” is important to the definition of physiology ...
Fever produced by a physical agent. [physio- + G. pyrexis, feverishness]
SYN: physical therapy (1). [physio- + G. therapeia, treatment]
- oral p. the use of a toothbrush, interdental stimulator, floss, irrigating device, or other adjunctive aid to ...
constitutional type; the physical or bodily structure; the “build.” [Fr.]
A term sometimes used in referring to the epiphysial cartilage. [G. growth]
1. Tendency to swell or inflate. 2. Relation to air or gas. [G. physao, to inflate, distend]
1. A circumscribed swelling due to the presence of gas. 2. A hernial sac distended with gas. [ physo- + G. kele, tumor, hernia]
A small species of spiruroid nematodes (family Spiruridae) found in the stomach of pigs, horses, camels, rabbits, and hares; worldwide in distribution, and especially prevalent ...
Swelling of the head resulting from introduction of air into the subcutaneous tissues. [ physo- + G. kephale, head]
Distention of the uterine cavity with air or gas. SYN: uterine tympanites. [ physo- + G. metra, uterus]
A subgenus of the genus Bulinus, most species of which transmit the human blood fluke, Schistosoma haematobium, and some animal schistosomes in Africa south of the Sahara. [G. ...
Pyosalpinx accompanied by a formation of gas in a uterine tube. [ physo- + G. pyon, pus, + salpinx, trumpet]
The dried seed of P. venenosum (family Leguminosae), a vine of western Africa; it contains the alkaloids physostigmine (eserine), eseramine, eseridine (geneserine) and ...
An alkaloid of physostigma; it is a reversible inhibitor of the cholinesterases, and prevents destruction of acetylcholine; used as a cholinergic agent, and experimentally to ...
The anion of phytanic acid.
- p. α-oxidase an enzyme that oxidizes phytanic acid, removing the carboxyl group.
A branched-chain fatty acid that accumulates in the serum and tissues in Refsum disease and attributed to the hereditary absence of phytanate α-oxidase; arises from phytol and ...
A salt or ester of phytic acid.
The hexakisphosphoric ester of myo-inositol; the mixed salt with magnesium and calcium is phytin.
The calcium magnesium salt of phytic acid; a dietary supplement used to provide calcium, organic phosphorus, and myo-inositol.
A lectin that causes agglutination of erythrocytes or of leukocytes.
A gastric concretion formed of vegetable fibers, with the seeds and skins of fruits, and sometimes starch granules and fat globules. SYN: food ball. [phyto- + bezoar]
The active health-protecting compounds that are found as components of plants. Currently, the terms "phytochemical" and "phytonutrient" are being used interchangeably to describe ...
The biochemical study of plants; concerned with the identification, biosynthesis, and metabolism of chemical constituents of plants; especially used in regard to natural products.
Dermatitis caused by various mechanisms, including mechanical and chemical injury, allergy, or photosensitization ( phytophotodermatitis) at skin sites previously exposed to ...
A subclass of Phytomastigophorea, the members of which have yellow or green chromatophores. [phyto- + L. flagellum, a whip]
A phytomitogen from plants that agglutinates red blood cells. The term is commonly used specifically to refer to the lectin obtained from the red kidney bean (Phaseolus ...
Resembling a plant; denoting an animal having many of the biologic characteristics of a vegetable. [G. phytodes, fr. phyton, plant, + eidos, resemblance]
An unsaturated primary alcohol derived from the hydrolysis of chlorophyll; a constituent of vitamins E and K1. SYN: phytyl alcohol.
Former term for plant-like flagellates, originally classified as a suborder or order, raised to the class Phytomastigophorea ( Phytomastigophorasida) in recent classifications. ...
A class of the subphylum Mastigophora (flagellates) within the phylum Sarcomastigophora ( flagellate and ameboid protozoans), consisting mostly of free-living plantlike ...
A mitogenic lectin causing lymphocyte transformation accompanied by mitotic proliferation of the resulting blast cells identical to that produced by antigenic stimulation; ...
The active health-protecting Currently, the terms "phytonutrient" and " phytochemical" are being used interchangeably to describe those plant compounds which are thought to have ...
Plant-eating; vegetarian. [phyto- + G. phago, to eat]
A chronic fibrous reaction in the lungs due to the inhalation of particles of vegetable origin. [phyto- + pneumoconiosis]
1. A porphyrin similar to the pheophorbide of the chlorophylls but with the vinyl group replaced by an ethyl group, with no methoxycarbonyl group, and minus two hydrogen atoms, ...
A disease process caused by infection with a vegetable organism, such as a fungus.
An inherited disorder in which there is a hyperabsorption of phytosterols and shellfish sterols resulting in tendon and tuberous xanthomata. SYN: sitosterolemia.
1. Poisonous to plant life. 2. Pertaining to a phytotoxin.
A toxic substance of plant origin. SYN: plant toxin. [phyto- + G. toxikon, poison]
The radical found in phylloquinone (vitamin K1); a tetraprenyl radical, reduced in 3 of the 4 prenyl groups.
Symbol for inorganic orthophosphate (should not be used when covalently linked to another moiety).
Abbreviation for inorganic phosphate.
Abbreviation for Periodontal Index.
The pH value for the isoelectric point of a given substance.
1. The 16th letter of the Greek alphabet. 2. (Π). Symbol for osmotic pressure; in mathematics, symbol for the product of a series. 3. (π). Symbol for the ratio of the ...
SYN: p. mater. [L. fem. of pius, tender]
One of the meninges, the pia mater is the delicate innermost membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It is known informally as the pia.
* * *
A delicate vasculated ...
Relating to the pia mater.
- p. bois a form of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania braziliensis guyanensis in the Amazon delta; a small proportion of cases are said to ...
A dystonia that affects the muscles of the hand and sometimes the forearm and only occurs when playing the piano (or another keyboard instrument such as the harpsichord). Similar ...
A hysterical dissociative state, usually occurring in Innit women, in which the individual screams, tears off clothes, and runs out into the snow; afterward, there is no memory ...
A craving for something not normally regarded as nutritive. For example, dirt. Pica is a classic clue to iron deficiency in children. It also occurs in zinc deficiency. Pica is ...
Luigi, late 19th century Italian physician. See P. syndrome.
Arnold, Czechoslovakian psychiatrist, 1851–1924. See P. atrophy, P. bundle, P. disease.
Friedel, German physician, 1867–1926. See P. bodies, under body, P. disease, P. ...
A form of dementia characterized by a slowly progressive deterioration of social skills and changes in personality leading to impairment of intellect, memory, and language. ...
William, British general practitioner, researcher in transmission of infections in isolated communities, 1885–1969. See P. chart.
In dentistry, the process of cleansing metallic surfaces of the products of oxidation and other impurities by immersion in acid.
The combination of obesity, somnolence (sleepiness), hypoventilation (underbreathing), and plethoric (red) face. The syndrome is so named because of the "fat and red-faced boy ...
Frederick A., *1889. See Lepehne-P. stain.
1. Combining form meaning small. 2. (p) Prefix used in the SI and metric system to signify submultiples of one-trillionth (10−12). SYN: bicro-. [It. piccolo]
One trillionth of a katal (10−12 katal).
Pyridine-4-carboxylic acid; an isomer of nicotinic acid.
N-Picolinoylglycine; the amide, with glycine, of picolinic acid; a hippuric acid analog in which picolinic acid, rather than benzoic acid, is conjugated with glycine and ...
One-trillionth of a meter. SYN: bicron.
One-trillionth of a mole (10−12 mol).
A family of very small (20–30 nm) ether-resistant, nonenveloped viruses having a core of positive sense single-stranded infectious RNA enclosed in a capsid of icosahedral ...
Red crystals sometimes found in the blood of persons poisoned with picric acid; the crystals are formed as a result of partial reduction of picric acid.
See quassia. [L., fr. G. pikrasmos, bitterness]
Has been used as an application in burns, eczema, erysipelas, and pruritus. SYN: carbazotic acid, nitroxanthic acid. [G. pikros, bitter]
A very bitter neutral principle derived from the fruit of Anamirta cocculus (family Menispermaceae); a central nervous system stimulant, used as an antidote for poisoning by ...
A lactone breakdown product of picrotoxin; pharmacologic properties resemble those of picrotoxin.
The organic radical derived from picric acid by removal of the hydroxyl group.
Abbreviation for pelvic inflammatory disease.
PID (pelvic inflammatory disease)
Despite its seeming lack of gender, this term is applied to women only. PID refers exclusively to ascending infection of the female upper genital tract (the female structures ...
Pidgin Sign English
A system of communication that is a manual representation of English in which American Sign Language signs are used in English word order; there are no inflectional signs, and ...
Patchy absence of the pigment of scalp hair, giving a streaked appearance; patches of vitiligo may be present in other areas due to absence of melanocytes; often transmitted as ...
A part or portion.
- end p. a part of the spermatozoon consisting of an axoneme surrounded only by the flagellar membrane.
- Fab p. SYN: Fab fragment.
- Fc p. SYN: Fc ...
A fungus disease of the hair characterized by the formation of numerous waxy, small, firm, nodular masses on the hair shaft. SEE ALSO: trichosporosis. [Sp. a stone]
- black p. p. ...
A genus of fungi, based on P. hortae, which is probably the only species and which causes black piedra. [see piedra]
Using a sharp instrument, usually a needle, to make a temporary or permanent hole through an earlobe or other body part. Humans have practiced piercing for body decoration since ...
Luigi, 20th century Argentinian dermatologist. See atrophoderma of Pasini and P..
An instrument for measuring the pressure of a gas or a fluid. SYN: piezometer. [G. piesis, pressure]
- Hales p. a glass tube inserted into an artery at right angles to its axis, ...
SYN: blood pressure. [G. pressure]
The study of the effect of very high pressures on chemical reactions.
Electric currents generated by pressure upon certain crystals, e.g., quartz, mica, calcite. [G. piezo, to press, squeeze, + electricity]
Resulting from pressure. [G. piezo, to press, squeeze, + genesis, origin]
A container, usually made of lead, used for shielding vials or syringes containing radioactive materials. [ jargon]
A type of necrotizing enteritis endemic in the Papua New Guinea highlands caused by the B toxin of Clostridium perfringens type C; occurs predominantly in children because of ...
: A substance that gives color to tissue. Pigments are responsible for the color of skin, eyes, and hair.
* * *
1. Any coloring matter, as that of the red blood cells, hair, ...
The coloring of the skin, hair, mucous membranes, and retina of the eye. Pigmentation is due to the deposition of melanin which is a coloring matter. The melanin is produced by ...
Colored as the result of a deposit of pigment.
An antibody causing destruction of pigment. [L. pigmentum, pigment, + G. lysis, a loosening]
Maurice-C.J., French surgeon, *1871. See P. formula.
1. A series of plates of two different metals imposed alternately one on the other, separated by a sheet of material moistened with a dilute acid solution, used to produce a ...
SYN: hemorrhoids. [L. pila, a ball]
SYN: greater omentum. [L. pileum or p., a felt cap]
Plural of pilus. [L.]
Passage of hairs in the urine, as in cases of dermoid tumors, or of threads of mucus in the urine. [L. pilus, hair, + mictio, urination]
The protein component of bacterial adhesive appendages that help the bacterium to stick to tissue or container surfaces, often the glycoproteins on the surface of eukaryotic ...
1. A small globular mass of some coherent, but soluble, substance containing a medicinal substance to be swallowed. SEE ALSO: tablet. 2. The P.; a colloquial term for oral ...
Commonly called "the pill," combined oral contraceptives are the most commonly used form of reversible birth control in the United States. This form of birth control ...
A circular movement of the opposed tips of the thumb and the index finger appearing as a form of tremor in paralysis agitans.
A structure or part having a resemblance to a column or p.. [L. pila]
- anterior p. of fauces palatoglossal arch.
- anterior p. of fornix SYN: column of fornix.
- Corti ...
An alkaloid obtained from the leaves of Pilocarpus; Microphyllus or P. jaborandi (family Rutaceae), shrubs of the West Indies and tropical America; a parasympathomimetic agent ...
A genus of trees and shrubs found in Central and South America and in the West Indies. Constitutes the botanical source for pilocarpine, an alkaloid that activates cholinergic ...
Denoting a dermoid cyst containing hair. [ pilo- + G. kystis, bladder]
Erection of the hair of the skin. Piloerection of the hair, for example, on the arm makes it "stand on end." Piloerection starts when a stimulus such as cold or fright causes a ...
Hairlike; resembling hair. [ pilo- + G. eidos, resemblance]
A benign solitary hair follicle tumor, often starting in childhood, containing cells resembling basal cell carcinoma and areas of epithelial necrosis forming eosinophilic ghost ...
Moving the hair; denoting the arrectores pilorum muscles of the skin and the postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers innervating these small smooth muscles. [ pilo- + L. motor, ...
Denoting the presence of hair in a dermoid cyst or in a sinus opening on the skin. [ pilo- + L. nidus, nest]
A special kind of abscess that occurs in the cleft between the buttocks. Forms frequently in adolescence after long trips that involve sitting.
SYN: hairy. [L. pilosus]
Relating to the hair follicles and sebaceous glands. [ pilo- + L. sebum, suet]
SYN: hirsutism. [ pilo- + G. -osis, condition]
Jan, Polish neurologist, 1870–1931. See P. sign, Westphal-P. phenomenon.
A pill or pilule. [L. dim. of pila, a ball]
A small pill. [L. pilula]
1. [TA] SYN: hair (1). 2. A fine filamentous appendage, somewhat analogous to the flagelium, that occurs on some bacteria. Pili consist only of protein and are shorter, ...
An antifungal antibiotic for topical use, produced by Streptomyces natalensis; effective against Aspergillus, Candida, and Mucor species. SYN: natamycin.
Heptanedioic acid; an intermediate in the oxidation of oleic acid in some microorganisms; a precursor of biotin.
Fat, fatty. [G. pimele, soft fat, lard, fr. piar, fat]
SYN: fatty diarrhea. [ pimelo- + G. rhoia, a flux]
Orthopnea; difficulty breathing in any but the erect posture, due to obesity. SYN: piorthopnea. [ pimelo- + G. orthos, straight, + pnoe, breath]
The dried fruit of P. officinalis (family Myrtaceae), a tree native in Jamaica and other parts of tropical America, used as a carminative and aromatic spice; p. oil comprises 3 ...
A tranquilizing antipsychotic drug.
A papule or small pustule; usually meant to denote an inflammatory lesion of acne.
Oil (sebaceous) glands infected with bacteria, resulting in an inflamed area with pus formation. Pimples are due to overactivity of the oil glands located at the base of the hair ...
Abbreviation for prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.
A metallic implant used in surgical treatment of bone fractures. SEE ALSO: nail. [O.E. pinn, fr. L. pinna, feather]
- Steinmann p. a p. that is used to transfix bone for ...
A basic dye, used as a color sensitizer (violet red in water, blue in alcohol) in photography and for vital staining of leukocytes.
Adolphe, French obstetrician, 1844–1934. See P. maneuver.
A pinching manipulation in massage. [Fr. pinching]
occupational therapy Grip between fingers at the most distal joints.
Jens J., Danish oral pathologist, 1921–1995. See P. tumor.
A β-adrenergic blocking agent used in the treatment of hypertension; also possesses intrinsic sympathomimetic activity.
An evergreen coniferous tree of the genus Pinus (family Pinaceae), various species of which yield tar, turpentine, resin, and volatile oils. [L. pinus, a p. tree]
- p.-needle ...
1. Shaped like a pine cone. SYN: piniform. 2. Pertaining to the p. body. [L. pineus, relating to the pine, pinus]
A small gland located deep within in the brain. It is believed to secrete melatonin, and may therefore be part of the body’s sleep-regulation apparatus.
Pineal region tumor
: A brain tumor on or near the pineal gland. There are at least 17 types of pineal gland tumors, most of which are not cancerous but can nonetheless cause extreme distress. ...
Removal of the pineal body. [ pineal + G. ektome, excision]
A cell of the pineal body with long processes ending in bulbous expansions. Pinealocytes receive a direct innervation from sympathetic neurons that form recognizable synapses. ...
A term that has been variably used to designate germ cell tumors, pineocytomas, and pineoblastomas of the pineal gland. [ pineal + G. -oma, tumor]
- ectopic p. an obsolete term ...
Disease of the pineal gland. [ pineal + G. pathos, disease]
The fruit of Ananas sativa or Bromelia ananas (family Bromeliaceae); it contains a proteolytic and milk-clotting enzyme, bromelain.
Philippe, French psychiatrist, 1745–1826. See P. system.
The policy of treating the mentally ill in hospitals and other institutions humanely and without the use of forcible restraints of any type. Named for the great French ...
A poorly differentiated tumor of the pineal gland most frequently occurring in the first three decades of life consisting of small cells with a scant amount of cytoplasm and ...
A tumor arising in the pineal gland that resembles normal pineal parenchyma.
See ping-pong mechanism. [Ping-Pong, trademark for table tennis]
A yellow spot on the white of the eye, usually toward the inside (nose side) of the eye, associated with aging. It looks fatty (in Latin the word pinguiculus means fattish), and ...
A yellowish accumulation of connective tissue that thickens the conjunctiva; occurs in the aged. [L. pinguiculus, fattish, fr. pinguis, fat]
Alternate spelling of pinguecula. Irrespective of spelling, the accent is on the second syllable which is pronounced gwek.
SYN: pineal (1). [L. pinus, pine, + forma, form]
Also called conjunctivitis. Redness or irritation of the conjuctivae, the membranes on the inner part of the eyelids and the membranes covering the whites of the eyes. These ...
A cast metal dental restoration or technique that employs parallel pins as part of the casting to increase retention of the restoration.
The ear or, to be more precise, the part of the ear that projects like a little wing from the head. In Latin, pinna means wing.
* * *
1. SYN: auricle (1). 2. A feather, wing, ...
A member of the suborder Pinnipedia, aquatic carnivorous mammals with all four limbs modified into flippers ( e.g., seal, walrus). [L. pinna, feather (wing), + pes (ped-), ...
A cell that exhibits pinocytosis. [G. pineo, to drink, + kytos, cell]
A cellular process that permits the active transport of fluid from outside the cell through the membrane surrounding the cell into the inside of the cell. In pinocytosis, tiny ...
A tiny fluid-filled vesicle (bubble) within a cell. Pinosomes are created in the process of pinocytosis in which tiny incuppings called caveolae (little caves) in the surface of ...
Emil, Austrian physician, 1845–1913. See P. sign, P. syndrome.
A measure of quantity (U.S. liquid), containing 16 fluid ounces, 28.875 cubic inches; 473.1765 cc. An imperial p. contains 20 British fluid ounces, 34.67743 cubic inches; 568.2615 ...
A disease caused by a spirochete, Treponema carateum, endemic in Mexico and Central America, and characterized by a small primary papule followed by an enlarging plaque and ...
Eruptions of plaque-like lesions in the secondary phase of pinta; the lesions, which vary in color ( hypochromic, hyperchromic, and erythematosquamous), result in ...
SYN: pineal body. [L. a pine tree]
A member of the genus Enterobius or related genera of nematodes in the family Oxyuridae, abundant in a large variety of vertebrates, including such species as Oxyuris equi (the ...
An infection caused by a small, white intestinal worm: the pinworm or, more formally, Enterobius vermicularis. The pinworm is about the length of a staple and lives for the ...
The cheese fly, a species of muscoid flies whose eggs are deposited on exposed cheese, cured meats, and other foods and are thus ingested, sometimes giving rise to temporary ...
SYN: pimelorthopnea. [G. pion, fat, + orthos, straight, + pnoe, breath]
Abbreviation for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
A phenothiazine analogue with antiemetic and tranquilizing properties.
Dihydrobaikiaine; 2-piperidinecarboxylic acid; saturated picolinic acid; the l-isomers of the Δ1- and Δ6-dehydropipecolic acids are intermediates in the catabolism of ...
A nondepolarizing steroid muscle relaxant structurally related to pancuronium and characterized by long duration of action.
A neuromuscular blocking agent with nondepolarizing properties, thus resembling d-tubocurarine but having a shorter duration of paralytic action.
E.B., U.S. obstetrician-gynecologist, 1881–1935. See P. forceps.
Black pepper, the dried unripe fruit of P. nigrum (family Piperaceae), a climbing plant of the East Indies; used as a condiment, diaphoretic, stimulant, and carminative, and ...
A semisynthetic extended spectrum penicillin active against a wide variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
Its former use in gout was based upon its property of dissolving uric acid in vitro, but it is ineffective in increasing uric acid excretion; its compounds are now used as ...
1. Hexahydropyridine; a compound from which are derived phenothiazine antipsychotics such as thioridazine hydrochloride and mesoridazine besylate. 2. One of a class of ...
An adrenergic (α-receptor blocking agent of the Fourneau series of benzodioxanes); used as a diagnostic test for pheochromocytoma. SYN: Fourneau 933.
Abbreviation for piperazine diethanesulfonic acid.
A graduated tube (marked in mL) used to transport a definite volume of a gas or liquid in laboratory work. [Fr. dim. of pipe, pipe]
- blowout p. a p. calibrated to deliver its ...
An alkylating agent used in polycythemia vera and chronic granulocytic leukemia.
p-Iodophenylsulfonyl, the radical of p. chloride that combines with the amino groups of amino acid s and proteins.
A selective β2-adrenergic bronchodilator used to treat bronchospasm in asthma or chronic obstructive lung disease.
A genus of marine and brackish water operculate (prosobranch) snails. P. conica is the initial intermediate host of Heterophyes heterophyes, the fish-borne fluke of humans and ...
An anticholinergic agent exhibiting relative specificity for suppression of gastric hydrochloric acid secretion; relatively free of anticholinergic side effect s; used in the ...
High ceiling loop diuretic similar to bumetanide and furosemide; used as a diuretic in hypertension and congestive heart failure.
An agent that stimulates dopamine receptors in the brain and also exerts a peripheral vasodilator effect.
George A., Scottish radiologist, 1864–1929. See P. bone.
Pear-shaped. SYN: pyriform. [L. pirum, pear, + forma, form]
A muscle that begins at the front surface of the sacrum (the V-shaped bone between the buttocks at the base of the spine) and passes through the greater sciatic notch to attach ...
Irritation of the sciatic nerve caused by compression of the nerve within the buttock by the piriformis muscle. Typically, the pain of the piriformis syndrome is increased by ...
Nikolai I., Russian surgeon, 1810–1881. See P. amputation, P. angle, P. triangle.
A sterile, nonprotein, nonanaphylactogenic extract of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris. The active components are bacterial polysaccharides of low toxicity; used ...
Former name for Babesia. [L. pirum, pear, + G. plasma, a thing formed]
An order of sporozoan protozoa ( subclass Piroplasmia, class Sporozoea) consisting of the families Habesiidae, Theileriidae, and Dactylosomatidae; includes heteroxenous ...
A long-acting nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic actions.
An anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
A condition in which there is sustained involuntary flexion of the body and head to one side and slight rotation of the trunk so the person appears to lean like the Leaning Tower ...
A superclass of vertebrates, generally known as fish; the term is sometimes confined to the bony fishes. [L. pl. of piscis, a fish]
Pea-shaped or pea-sized. [L. pisum, pea, + forma, appearance]
1. SYN: fovea. 2. One of the pinhead-sized depressed scars following the pustule of acne, chickenpox, or smallpox (pockmark). 3. A sharp-pointed depression in the enamel ...
Tiny pit in front of the ear. Also preauricular pit. A minor anomaly of no great consequence in itself. More common in blacks than whites and in females than males. Can recur ...
A nuclear binding transcriptional factor found in many cells in normal human pituitary glands and expressed in a large percentage of pituitary adenomas, in particular those ...
Abbreviation for phenylisothiocyanate.
A resinous substance obtained from tar after the volatile substances have been expelled by boiling. SYN: pix. [L. pix]
- Burgundy p. a resinous exudation from the spruce fir or ...