Posterior to the eyeball. [L. oculus, eye]
Short for postoperative; after a surgical operation. As opposed to preop (preoperative), before surgery.
In the posterior part of, or posterior to, the mouth. [L. os (or-), mouth]
Posterior to the palatine bones. Usually used to refer to the soft palate.
After childbirth. Cf.:antepartum, intrapartum. [L. partus, birth (noun), fr. pario, pp. partus, to bring forth]
After mealtime. A postprandial rise in the blood glucose level is one that occurs after eating. Most medical terms have a reasonably logical derivation. Not so with ...
Subsequent to the period of puberty. SYN: postpuberal, postpubertal.
Following the stage of pyknosis in a red cell, denoting the disappearance of the nucleus (chromatolysis).
: Chemotherapy to kill leukemia cells that survive after remission induction therapy.
Behind the fissure of Rolando, or central sulcus. See postcentral.
Occurring after the pulse wave. [G. sphygmos, pulse]
Pertaining to the area on the distal side of a synaptic cleft.
Relating to the posterior portion of the tarsus.
Aboral to the hidden part of the duodenum.
Posterior to the tibia; situated in the posterior portion of the leg.
Occurring after trauma and, by implication, caused by it.
Relating to the caudal surface of a branchial cleft. [ post- + G. trema, perforation]
After coughing; referring usually to certain auscultatory sounds. [L. tussis, cough]
A proposition that is taken as self-evident or assumed without proof as a basis for further analysis. SEE ALSO: hypothesis, theory. [L. postulo, pp. -atus, to demand]
- Ampère ...
In 1890 the German physician and bacteriologist Robert Koch set out his celebrated criteria for judging whether a given bacteria is the cause of a given disease. Koch's criteria ...
Pertaining to the posture or position of the body, the attitude or carriage of the body as a whole, or the position of the limbs (the arms and legs). Postural hypotension is ...
A drop in blood pressure (hypotension) due to a change in body position (posture) when a person moves to a more vertical position: from sitting to standing or from lying down to ...
The carriage of the body as a whole, the attitude of the body, or the position of the limbs (the arms and legs). " Postural" pertains to the posture or position. For example, ...
SYN: dynamic p.. [ posture + G. grapho, to write]
- dynamic p. a measurement of postural stability under varying visual and proprioceptive inputs. SYN: p..
Drinkable; fit to drink. [L. potabilis, fr. poto, to drink]
Pierre C.E., French physician, 1825–1901. See P. sign.
Morbid fears aroused by the sight, and sometimes thought, of a river or any flow of water. [G. potamos, river, + phobos, fear]
Impure potassium carbonate. SYN: pearl-ash. [E. pot-ashes]
- caustic p. SYN: potassium hydroxide.
- sulfurated p. a mixture composed chiefly of potassium polysulfides and ...
Relating to or containing potassium.
The major positive ion (cation) found inside of cells. The chemical notation for potassium is K+. The proper level of potassium is essential for normal cell function. An abnormal ...
Most abundant, nonradioactive isotope of potassium; accounts for 93.1% of natural potassium.
A naturally occurring (0.0117%) radioactive potassium isotope; beta emitter with half-life of 1.26 billion years; chief source of natural radioactivity of living tissue.
An artificial potassium isotope; beta emitter with half-life of 12.36 hr, used as a tracer in studies of potassium distribution in body fluid compartments and in localization of ...
An artificial potassium isotope; a beta emitter with a half-life of 22.3 hr, used as a tracer in myocardial perfusion studies.
1. Power, force, or strength; the condition or quality of being potent. 2. Specifically, sexual p.. 3. In therapeutics, the relative pharmacologic activity of a dose of a ...
1. Possessing force, power, strength. 2. Indicating the ability of a primitive cell to differentiate. SEE ALSO: totipotent, pluripotent, unipotent. 3. In psychiatry, ...
1. Capable of doing or being, although not yet doing or being; possible, but not actual. 2. A state of tension in an electric source enabling it to do work under suitable ...
Interaction between two or more drugs or agents resulting in a pharmacologic response greater than the sum of individual responses to each drug or agent.
In chemotherapy, a drug used in combination with other drugs to produce deliberate potentiation.
1. An instrument used for measuring small differences in electrical potential. 2. An electrical resistor of fixed total resistance between two terminals, but with a third ...
A draft or large dose of liquid medicine. [L. potio, potus, fr. poto, to drink]
An intense and persistent desire to drink alcohol to excess. Synonymous with dipsomania. With beer potomania there is an unquenchable thirst for beer (which is hazardous to ...
Sir Percivall, English surgeon, 1714–1788. See P. abscess, P. aneurysm, P. curvature, P. disease, P. fracture, P. paralysis, P. paraplegia.
An old term for tuberculosis of the spine that caused softening and collapse of the vertebrae, often resulting in kyphosis, a " hunchback" deformity, which was called "Pott's ...
Edith L., U.S. perinatal pathologist, *1901. See P. disease, P. facies, P. syndrome.
Irving White, U.S. obstetrician, 1868–1956. See P. version.
Willis J., U.S. pediatric surgeon, 1895–1968. See P. anastomosis, P. clamp, P. operation.
A pocket or cul-de-sac. SEE ALSO: fossa, recess, sac.
- antral p. a p. made in the antrum of the stomach of experimental animals.
- branchial pouches SYN: pharyngeal ...
Pouch of Douglas
An extension of the peritoneal cavity between the rectum and back wall of the uterus. The term " cul-de-sac," aside from being any "blind pouch or cavity that is closed at one ...
At different points along the dogs digestive tracts, the Russian physiologist Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1848-1936) surgically created pockets ("Pavlov pouches") from ...
An extension of the peritoneal cavity between the rectum and back wall of the uterus. The term " cul-de-sac," aside from being any "blind pouch or cavity that is closed at one ...
Acute inflammation of the mucosa of an ileal reservoir or pouch that has been surgically created, usually following total colectomy for inflammatory bowel disease or multiple ...
1. Powdering. 2. SYN: talc operation. [F.]
- pleural p. covering the opposing pleural surfaces with a slightly irritating powder in order to secure adhesion.
A soft magma or mush prepared by wetting various powders or other absorbent substances with oily or watery fluids, sometimes medicated, and usually applied hot to the surface; ...
A measure of weight equal to 16 ounces or, metrically, 453.6 grams. The word "pound" goes back to the Latin "pondo" which meant a "weight" (but one ...
The force required to give a mass of 1 lb an acceleration of 1 ft/s2; equal to 0.138255 N.
François, French anatomist, 1616–1708. See P. ligament, P. line.
A synthetic polymer consisting mainly of linear 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone groups, with mean molecular weights ranging from 10,000 to 70,000; used as a dispersing and suspending agent; ...
1. A dry mass of minute separate particles of any substance. 2. In pharmaceutics, a homogenous dispersion of finely divided, relatively dry, particulate matter consisting of ...
1. In optics, the refractive vergence of a lens. 2. In physics and engineering, the rate at which work is done. 3. The exponent of a number or expression that provides the ...
Power of attorney, durable
This is a type of advance medical directive in which legal documents provide the power of attorney to another person in the case of an incapacitating medical condition. The ...
1. An eruptive disease, usually qualified by a descriptive prefix; e.g., smallpox, cowpox, chickenpox. See the specific term. 2. Archaic or colloquial term for syphilis. ...
A family of large complex viruses, with a marked affinity for skin tissue, that are pathogenic for humans and other animals. Virions are large, up to 250 × 400 nm, and enveloped ...
Any virus of the family Poxviridae.
- p. officinalis SYN: vaccinia virus.
Samuel J., French gynecologist and anatomist, 1846–1918. See P. muscle.
Abbreviation for pyrophosphate.
Abbreviation for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. There are 3 known subtypes of PPARs — PPAR-alpha, PPAR-delta, and PPAR-gamma. The PPARs are members of the nuclear ...
Abbreviation for parts per billion.
Abbreviation for proserum prothrombin conversion accelerator.
Abbreviation for plasmin prothrombins conversion factor.
Abbreviation for purified protein derivative of tuberculin.
Abbreviation for inorganic pyrophosphate (diphosphate).
Abbreviation for pleuropneumonia-like organisms, under organism.
Abbreviation for parts per million.
PPMA (post-polio muscular atrophy)
Late muscle wasting that occurs as part of the post-polio syndrome (PPS), a constellation of symptoms and signs that appear belatedly, from 20 to 40 years, after the initial ...
Abbreviation for 2,5-diphenyloxazole, a liquid scintillator; preferred provider organization.
A mnemonic of 6 Ps designating the symptom complex of acute arterial occlusion. [pain, pallor, paresthesia, pulselessness, paralysis, prostration]
Abbreviation for 5-phospho-α-d-ribosyl-1-pyrophosphate.
PPS (post-polio syndrome)
A constellation of symptoms and signs that appear from 20 to 40 years after the initial polio infection, and at least 10 years after what was thought to be recovery from polio ...
Abbreviation for plastoquinone.
Abbreviation for plastoquinone-9.
1. Abbreviation for presbyopia. 2. Symbol for praseodymium; propyl.
Abbreviation for plasma renin activity; phosphoribosylamine.
The exercise of the profession of medicine or one of the allied health professions. [Mediev. L. practica, business, G. praktikos, pertaining to action]
- extramural p. delivery ...
A person who practices medicine or one of the allied health care professions.
Andrea, Swiss pediatrician, *1919. See P.-Willi syndrome.
A condition characterized by muscle floppiness (hypotonia), excess appetite that if unchecked leads to obesity, small hands and feet and mental retardation. The syndrome is due ...
A branch of semiotics; the theory that deals with the relation between signs and their users, both senders and receivers. [G. pragmatikos, fr. pragma, thing done]
A philosophy emphasizing practical applications and consequences of beliefs and theories, that the meaning of ideas or things is determined by the testability of the idea in real ...
Used to restore the inactivated cholinesterase activity resulting from organophosphate poisoning; has some limited value as an antagonist of the carbamate type of cholinesterase ...
Of or relating to a meal. Prandial pain is pain while eating. Although medical terms usually have a reasonably logical derivation, this is not the case with "prandial." It comes ...
An element of the lanthanide or “rare earth” group; atomic no. 59, atomic wt. 140.90765. [G. prasios, leekgreen, fr. prason, a leek, + didymos, twin]
Joseph H., U.S. physician, 1872–1956. See P. symptom.
Otto Carl, German hygienist, 1876–1963. See P.- Küstner antibody, P.- Küstner reaction, reversed P.- Küstner reaction.
An inhibitor of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA), the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol; used in the treatment of ...
The science or study of behavior; it excludes the study of consciousness and similiar nonobjective metaphysical concepts. [G. praxis, action, + logos, study]
The performance of an action. [G. p., action]
Prayer of Maimonides
A prayer that is said to have been written by the 12th-century physician-philosopher Moses Maimonides. Like the famous oath of Hippocrates, the prayer of Maimonides is often ...
An antianxiety agent of the benzodiazepine class; a prodrug for nordiazepam.
A pyrazinoisoquinoline derivative; a synthetic heterocyclic broad-spectrum anthelmintic agent effective against all schistosome species parasitic of humans as well as most ...
Anterior; before (in time or space). SEE ALSO: ante-, pro- (1). [L. prae]
A condition in pregnancy characterized by abrupt hypertension (a sharp rise in blood pressure), albuminuria (leakage of large amounts of the protein albumin into the urine) and ...
Immediately preceding death. [ pre- + G. agon, struggle (agony)]
1. A protein component of plasma having a molecular weight of about 55,000 and containing 1.3% carbohydrate; estimated plasma concentration is 0.3 g per 100 mL; abnormal levels ...
Denoting the period, especially in relation to surgery, before the adoption of the principles of antisepsis.
Anterior to the aorta; denoting certain lymph node s so situated.
Denoting the period, especially the early antiseptic period in relation to surgery, before the principles of asepsis were known or adopted.
Anterior to the auricle of the ear; denoting lymphatic nodes so situated.
A common minor anomaly, this is a rudimentary tag of ear tissue. It often contains a core of cartilage. The tag is typically located just in front of the ear (auricle) and is ...
1. Anterior to the axis of the body or a limb, the latter being in the anatomical position. 2. Denoting the portion of a limb bud that lies cranial to the axis of the limb : the ...
The immediate precursor of ergocalciferol and lumisterol.
A lesion from which a malignant neoplasm is believed to develop in a significant number of instances, and which may or may not be recognizable clinically or by microscopic changes ...
Pertaining to any lesion that is interpreted as precancer. SYN: premalignant.
A closely packed aggregation of mesenchymal cells just prior to their differentiation into embryonic cartilage.
Referring to the cerebral convolution immediately anterior to the central sulcus : p. gyrus.
Treatment of a tissue or fabric first with a metal mordant, followed by a dye.
Anything causing a precipitation from a solution.
1. To cause a substance in solution to separate as a solid. 2. A solid separated out from a solution or suspension; a floc or clump, such as that resulting from the mixture of ...
1. The process of formation of a solid previously held in solution or suspension in a liquid. 2. The phenomenon of clumping of proteins in serum produced by the addition of a ...
An antibody that under suitable conditions combines with and causes its specific and soluble antigen to precipitate from solution. SYN: precipitating antibody.
1. An antigen that stimulates the formation of specific precipitin when injected into an animal body. 2. A precipitable soluble antigen. SYN: precipitogen. [ precipitin + G. ...
A precipitinogen that is altered by means of heating, thereby resulting in a substance that combines with the specific precipitin, but does not lead to the formation of a ...
A heat-treated precipitin that when mixed with specific precipitinogen does not cause a precipitate and also interferes with the precipitating effect of additional nonheated ...
In Ehrlich side chain theory, the portion of a precipitin molecule that is required in the formation of a precipitate, as distinguished from the haptophore group. [ precipitin + ...
1. The quality of being sharply defined or stated; one measure of p. is the number of distinguishable alternatives to a measurement. 2. In statistics, the inverse of the ...
1. Before the onset of disease. 2. A period in medical education before the student becomes involved with patients and clinical work.
A study to test a drug, procedure or other medical treatment in animals. The aim is to collect data in support of safety. Preclinical studies are required before clinical trials ...
Unusually early development, whether it be of intellectual powers, speech, physical traits, etc. Precocious puberty is the unusually early development of secondary sexual ...
Unusually early or rapid development of mental or physical traits. [see precocious]
Advance knowledge, by means other than the normal senses, of a future event; a form of extrasensory perception. [L. praecogito, to ponder before]
The interchange of information prior to pregnancy. Usually for pregnancy planning and care, but sometimes in the form of genetic counseling. See also genetic counseling.
In psychoanalysis, one of the three divisions of the psyche according to Freud's topographic psychology, the other two being the conscious and unconscious; includes all ideas, ...
Denoting the stage in an epileptic paroxysm preceding convulsions ( e.g., aura).
The epigastrium and anterior surface of the lower part of the thorax. SYN: antecardium. [L. praecordia (ntr. pl. only), the diaphragm, the entrails, fr. prae, before, + cor ...
Pain in the precordial region. [ precordia + G. algos, pain]
Anterior to the ribs. [ pre- + L. costa, rib]
A division of the medial surface of each cerebral hemisphere between the cuneus and the paracentral lobule; it lies above the subparietal sulcus and is bounded anteriorly by ...
Forerunner. That which precedes or is derived from an available source. The term "precursor" is applied to an inactive substance converted to an active one (such as an enzyme, ...
The organic fibrillar matrix of the dentin before its calcification.
A state of potential diabetes mellitus, with normal glucose tolerance but with an increased risk of developing diabetes, ( e.g., family history). Term declared obsolete by ...
The interval in the cardiac rhythm immediately preceding diastole. SYN: late systole.
To prepare the skin or other body surface for an operative procedure, usually by cleaning and application of antiseptic solutions. [slang for preparation or prepare]
Relating to the anterior part of the palate, or anterior to the palate bone.
1. A getting ready. 2. Something made ready, as a medicinal or other mixture, or a histologic specimen. [L. praeparatio, fr. prae, before, + paro, pp. -atus, to get ready]
Denoting a fatty layer between the peritoneum and the transversalis fascia in the lower anterior abdominal wall.
An intermediate in the microbial conversion of shikimic acid to l-phenylalanine and l-tyrosine.
Quality of outweighing, or exceeding in extent or importance.
- directional p. a right or left predominance of nystagmus calculated from the responses to the binaural, bithermal ...
A gradual rise in potential between action potentials as a phasic swing in electric activity of the cell membrane, which establishes its rate of automatic activity, as in the ...
The precursor of collagen that is synthesized on ribosomes; procollagen with a leader or signal sequence that directs the polypeptide chain into the vesicular space of the ...
The precursor protein to proinsulin. See preprotein.
A secretory protein with a signal peptide region attached.
1. Relating to the period antedating the onset of psychosis. 2. Denoting a potential for a psychotic episode, one that appears imminent under continued stress.
Before puberty, the period during which secondary sex characteristics start to develop and the capability for sexual reproduction is attained.
Immediately prior to the commencement of puberty.
The fold of skin that covers the head of the penis. Also known as the foreskin. Only about 1 in every 20 boys is born with a retractable foreskin. This reflects the fact that ...
Prepuce, inflammation of the
Inflammation of the prepuce (the foreskin of the penis) is called posthitis. In the uncircumcised male, posthitis and balanitis (inflammation of the glans, the rounded head ...
Incision of prepuce. [ preputium + G. tome, incision]
SYN: prepuce. [L. praeputium]
- p. clitoridis SYN: prepuce of clitoris.
- p. penis [TA] SYN: prepuce of penis.
Anterior to or preceding the pylorus; denoting a temporary constriction of the wall of the stomach separating the fundus from the antrum during digestion.
Anterior to or preceding the rectum.
Pertaining to bacteriologic media that are boiled, tubed under oxygen-free gas with chemical reducing agents and colorimetric redox indicator in stoppered tubes or bottles, and ...
Anterior to a kidney. [L. ren, kidney]
Anterior to or preceding the sacrum.
Loss of ability to perceive or discriminate sounds associated with aging; the pattern and age of onset vary. SYN: presbyacousia, presbycusis. [presby- + G. akousis, hearing]
Impairment of vestibular function associated with aging. [presby- + G. a- priv. + stasis, standing]
Rarely used terms for geriatrics. [presby- + G. iatreia, medical treatment]
The loss of the eye's ability to change focus to see near objects. The reasons for this loss of the power of accommodation are not yet fully known. It is conventionally said to ...
Relating to or suffering from presbyopia.
To give directions, either orally or in writing, for the preparation and administration of a remedy to be used in the treatment of any disease. [L. prae-scribo, pp. -scriptus, to ...
A physician's order for the preparation and administration of a drug or device for a patient. A prescription has several parts. They include the superscription or heading with ...
A prescription, as is well known, is a physician's order for the preparation and administration of a drug or device for a patient. What may be less well known is that a ...
A drug requiring a prescription, as opposed to an over-the-counter drug, which can be purchased without one. The word "prescription" comes from the Latin ...
Prior to the usual onset of senility, as in the milder, p. dementia.
Premature old age; the condition of an individual, not old in years, who displays the physical and mental characteristics of old age but not to the extent of senility. [ pre- + ...
1. To precede or appear first at the os uteri, said of the part of the fetus first felt during examination. 2. To appear for examination, treatment, etc., said of a patient. [L. ...
That part of the fetus presenting at the superior strait of the maternal pelvis; occiput, chin, and sacrum are, respectively, the determining points in vertex, face, and ...
There are single-footling or double-footling presentations depending upon whether the presenting part of the baby at delivery is just one foot or both feet.
In a vertex presentation, the top of the babys head comes first at delivery. The vertex here refers specifically to the top of the head The word "vertex" in ...
A substance added to food products or to an organic solution to prevent chemical change or bacterial action.
Relating to the embryonic stage before the appearance of somites (before day 19 in the human).
In front of the sphenoid bone or cartilage.
Preceding the pulse beat; denoting a brief interval following the filling of the ventricles with blood before their contraction forces open the semilunar valves, corresponding ...
A condition predisposing to spondylolisthesis, consisting of a defect in the laminae of a lumbar vertebra but before development of any displacement of the vertebral body. See ...
Causing a rise in blood pressure. A pressor base is a substance (chemically classified as a base) capable of raising the blood pressure. A pressor nerve is a nerve that, when ...
Capable of receiving as stimuli changes in pressure, especially changes of blood pressure. SYN: pressosensitive.
The state of being able to perceive changes in pressure. SEE ALSO: pressoreceptive.
- reflexogenic p. p. also capable of initiating the regulation of heart rate, vascular tone, ...
1. A stress or force acting in any direction against resistance. 2. (P, frequently followed by a subscript indicating location)In physics and physiology, the force per unit ...
“Pinching” a nerve by putting too much pressure on it. For example, the sciatic nerve may be painfully compressed by a ruptured disc in the lower spine, causing ...
The pressure created by the continual renewal of fluids within the eye. The intraocular pressure is increased in glaucoma. In acute angle-closure glaucoma, the intraocular ...
Pressure, low blood
Any blood pressure that is below the normal expected for an individual in a given environment. Low blood pressure is also referred to as hypotension. Low blood pressure is a ...
Denoting an early stage in an inflammation prior to the formation of pus.
Pertaining to the area on the proximal side of a synaptic cleft.
That part of diastole immediately preceding systole. SYN: late diastole.
Late diastolic, relating to the interval immediately preceding systole.
Denoting the anterior, or inferior, portion of the tarsus.
Orad to the hidden part of the duodenum.
Relating to the anterior portion of the leg; denoting especially certain muscles.
Anterior to the trachea; denoting especially the middle layer of deep cervical fascia.
Relating to the cranial surface of a branchial cleft. [ pre- + G. trema, perforation]
The proportion of individuals in a population having a disease. Prevalence is a statistical concept referring to the number of cases of a disease that are present in a particular ...
SYN: prophylactic (1). [L. prae-venio, pp. -ventus, to come before, prevent]
Medicine designed to avert and avoid disease. Screening for hypertension and treating it before it causes disease is good preventive medicine. Preventive medicine is a proactive ...
Anterior to the body of a vertebra or of the vertebral column; denoting especially the deepest layer of deep cervical fascia and the muscles on the anterior aspect of the ...
Anterior to the bladder; denoting especially the retropubic space. [ pre- + L. vesica, bladder]
Genus of Gram-negative, nonmotile, nonsporeforming, obligately anaerobic, chemoorganotrophic, and pleomorphic rods; contains many species previously classified in the genus ...
Abnormally persistent erection of the penis in the absence of sexual desire. Priapism can occur in persons with sickle cell anemia. Named after Priapus, the Greek and Roman god ...
SYN: penis. [L. fr. P. (G. Priapos), god of procreation]
David, 20th-century U.S. molecular biologist. See P. box.
Ernest Arthur, English biochemist, *1882. See Carr-P. reaction.