A differentiated mass of cytoplasm in a protozoan, which forms the substance of later developing reproductive bodies. [proto- + G. gonos, seed, + plasma, a thing formed]
A derivative of isoproterenol with the selective β-receptor–stimulating activity of the parent compound; it is effective orally and is more stable in the body than ...
Rarely used term for a protein hydrolysate.
A structural subunit of a larger structure. Protomers may themselves consist of subunits. For example, tubulin, an αβ dimer, is the p. for microtubules. [G. protos, first, + ...
The second segment (lacking a nucleus) of a septate gregarine, between the epimerite and the deutomerite; it becomes the anterior end of the gamont after it has broken free of ...
The ancestor cell of the protoleukocyte and protoerythrocyte, or of the cells of the leukocytic and erythrocytic series. [proto- + G. meter, mother, + kytos, cell]
The positively charged unit of the nuclear mass; protons form part (or in hydrogen-1 the whole) of the nucleus of the atom around which the negative electrons revolve. [G. ntr. ...
Hypothetical primitive neuron lacking polarization. [proto- + G. neuron, nerve]
A gene conserved long on the evolutionary scale present in the normal human genome, that appears to have a role in normal cellular physiology and is often involved in regulation ...
Denoting a supposedly primitive set or system of peripheral sensory nerve fibers conducting a low order of pain and temperature sensibility that is poorly localized. ...
1. Living matter, the substance of which animal and vegetable cells are formed. SEE ALSO: cytoplasm, nucleoplasm. 2. The total cell material, including cell organelles. ...
1. Archaic term meaning the first individual of a type or race. 2. A bacterial cell from which the rigid cell wall has been completely removed; the bacterium loses its ...
Enhanced fecal excretion of protoporphyrin.
- erythropoietic p. [MIM*177000] a benign disorder of porphyrin metabolism due to a deficiency of ferrochelatase associated with ...
protoporphyrin type III
The principal protoporphyrin found in nature (one of 15 possible isomers), characterized by the presence of four methyl groups, two vinyl groups, and two propionic acid side ...
protoporphyrinogen type III
The immediate precursor of protoporphyrin III in heme biosynthesis; elevated in cases of variegate porphyria.
- protoporphyrinogen type III oxidase a mitochondrial enzyme that ...
The initial product of progressive cleavage, in which a multinucleate spore is produced. [proto- + G. sporos, seed]
SYN: blastopore. [proto- + G. stoma, mouth]
A compound of sulfuric acid with a protoxide of the metal.
In interpersonal psychiatry, a term referring to the earliest form of experience characteristic of the infant that is undifferentiated, global, and unorganized. [proto- + G. ...
A genus of an achlorophyllous alga; two species, P. zopfii and P. wickerhamii, cause protothecosis.
A rare verrucous cutaneous infection, olecranon bursitis, or disseminated disease caused by Prototheca zopfii and Prototheca wickerhamii.
A bacterial strain that has the same nutritional requirements as the wild-type strain from which it was derived. SEE ALSO: wild-type strain. [proto- + G. trophe, nourishment]
1. Pertaining to a prototroph. 2. Denoting the ability to undertake anabolism or to obtain nourishment from a single source, as with iron, sulfur, or nitrifying bacteria or ...
The primitive form; the first form to which subsequent individuals of the class or species conform. [proto- + G. typos, type]
protoveratrine A and B
A mixture of two alkaloids isolated from Veratrum album; they exert their main effect upon the cardiovascular system through the carotid sinus receptors and vagal sensory ...
1. In the older literature, a somite. 2. More recently applied to the sclerotomal concentration that becomes the centrum of a vertebra. SYN: provertebra.
A single-cell organism that can only divide within a host organism. Malaria is caused by a protozoa: Plasmodium. Other protozoan parasites Giardia and Toxoplasma.
* * *
1. A member of the phylum Protozoa. SYN: protozoon. 2. Relating to protozoa. SYN: protozoal.
An agent used to kill protozoa. [protozoa + L. caedo, to kill]
The science concerned with all aspects of the biology and human interest in protozoa. [protozoa + G. logos, study]
A phagocyte that ingests protozoa. [protozoa + G. phago, to eat]
In dentistry, the extension of teeth or other maxillary or mandibular structures into a position anterior to normal. [see protractor]
- mandibular p. a type of facial anomaly in ...
A muscle drawing a part forward, as antagonistic to a retractor; e.g., the serratus anterior muscle is a p. of the scapula; the lateral pterygoid muscle is a p. of the mandible. ...
1. The state of being thrust forward or projected. 2. In dentistry, a position of the mandible forward from centric relation. [L. protrusio]
- bimaxillary p. the excessive ...
A swelling or knoblike outgrowth. A bulging, swelling, or protruding part. SEE ALSO: p.. SYN: protuberantia [TA]. [Mod. L. protuberantia]
- Bichat p. SYN: buccal fat-pad.
SYN: protuberance. SEE ALSO: protuberance, prominence, eminence. [Mod. L. fr. protubero, to swell out, fr. tuber, a swelling]
- p. laryngea SYN: laryngeal prominence.
- p. ...
The precursor of an activator of plasminogen, urokinase.
T., 19th century French physician. See P. space.
Louis J., French chemist, 1755–1826. See P. law.
A genus of motile, peritrichous, nonsporeforming, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria (family Enterobacteriaceae) containing Gram-negative rods. These organisms do not ...
The precursor of an animal virus, usually a retrovirus; theoretically analogous to the prophage in bacteria, the p. is integrated in the nucleus of infected cells, and can be ...
A substance that can be converted into a vitamin; e.g., β-carotene.
- p. A trivial name for carotenoids exhibiting qualitatively the biologic activity of β-carotene, i.e., ...
Stanislas J.M. von, German protozoologist, 1876–1915. See Prowazekia, P. bodies, under body, P.-Greeff bodies, under body, Halberstaedter-P. bodies, under body.
A genus of coprozoic flagellate protozoans, formerly part of the genus Bodo; the organisms may be parasitic but are not, so far as is known, pathogenic. [S. Prowazek]
Surname of a patient in whom the Stuart-P. factor was first discovered.
The scientific discipline concerned with the various aspects of urban overcrowding. [L. proximus, nearest, next]
In a direction toward a proximal part, or toward the center; not distad. [L. proximus, nearest, next, + ad, to]
1. Nearest the trunk or the point of origin, said of part of a limb, of an artery or a nerve, etc., so situated. Toward the median plane following the curvature of the dental ...
Proximal (anatomic orientation)
Toward the beginning, as opposed to distal. The tongue is proximal to the esophagus, which is proximal to the stomach. The shoulder is proximal to the elbow. The proximal end of a ...
Proximal white subungual onychomycosis
The rarest form of fungus infection of the finger or toenail. (Fungus infection of the finger or toenail is also called onychomycosis.) The infection begins in the nail fold ...
Ataxia or lack of muscular coordination in the proximal portions of the extremities, i.e., arms and forearms, thighs and legs. Cf.:acroataxia. [proximo- + ataxia]
Relating to the proximal and buccal surfaces of a tooth; denoting the angle formed by their junction.
Relating to the proximal and labial surfaces of a tooth; denoting the angle formed by their junction.
Relating to the proximal and lingual surfaces of a tooth; denoting the angle formed by their junction.
Proxy, health care
A health care proxy is one form of advance medical directive. Advance medical directives pertain to treatment preferences and the designation of a surrogate decision-maker in ...
In the case of agglutination and of precipitation, the phenomenon in which visible reaction does not occur in mixtures of specific antigen and antibody because of antibody ...
SYN: syncephaly. [G. pro, before, + zygosis, a yoking]
Abbreviation for prion protein.
Abbreviation for 5-phospho-α-d-ribosyl-1-pyrophosphate.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of α-d-ribose 5-phosphate and ATP to produce PRPP and AMP; a regulatory enzyme in purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis; enhanced activity ...
The dried ripe fruit of Prunus domestica (family Rosaceae), a tree cultivated in warm, temperate regions; a food with laxative properties.
Prune belly syndrome
Partial or complete absence of the abdominal muscles so that the outlines of the intestines are visible through the thin, lax, protruding abdominal wall. The abdominal wall looks ...
A genus of trees (family Rosaceae) including the cherry, plum, peach, and apricot trees. [L. a plum-tree]
- P. serotina the wild black cherry; a botanical source of wild cherry. ...
A chronic disease of the skin marked by a persistent eruption of papules that itch intensely. [L. itch, fr. prurio, to itch]
- actinic p. SYN: p. aestivalis.
- p. aestivalis p. ...
: Itching. Pruritus can result from drug reaction, food allergy, kidney or liver disease, cancers, parasites, aging or dry skin, contact skin reaction, such as poison ivy, and ...
Pruritus ani is a medical name for anal itching: irritation of the skin at the exit of the rectum (the anus) accompanied by the desire to scratch. Anal itching can be caused by ...
Alexander, Russian otologist, 1839–1897. See P. fibers, under fiber, P. pouch, P. space.
1. A cyanide; a salt of hydrocyanic acid. 2. A ferricyanide or ferrocyanide.
Abbreviation for prostate-specific antigen.
SYN: commissura fornicis. [G. psalterion, harp]
Obsolete term for a carcinoma that contains calcified foci resembling psammoma bodies.
Obsolete term for psammomatous meningioma or meningioma. [ psammo- + G. -oma, tumor]
- Virchow p. SYN: psammomatous meningioma.
Possessing or characterized by the presence of psammoma bodies; refers usually to certain types of meningioma or to meningeal hyperplasia with psammoma bodies.
J., 20th century French physician. See Papillon-Léage and P. syndrome.
PSC (primary sclerosing cholangitis)
1. A chronic disorder of the liver in which the ducts carrying bile from the liver to the intestine and, often, the ducts carrying bile within the liver, become inflamed, ...
Abbreviation for Pidgin Sign English.
SYN: stammering. [G. psellismos, a stammering]
Enlargement of the extremities and face, not caused by acromegaly.
Partial agraphia in which one can do no original writing, but can copy correctly. SYN: pseudoagraphia. [ pseud- + G. a- priv. + grapho, to write]
Albuminuria that is not associated with renal disease. SYN: pseudoalbuminuria.
A species of fungus that causes eumycotic mycetoma and pseudallescheriasis; its conidial ( asexual) state is Scedosporium apiospermum; formerly called Allescheria boydii. ...
A variety of clinical diseases resulting from infection with Pseudallescheria boydii; e.g., bronchial colonization, and invasive pneumonitis, as well as mycotic keratitis, ...
A genus of digenetic flukes of the family Opisthorchiidae; P. truncatum is a species that infects the bile ducts of the dog and cat (rarely of humans) in Europe and India. [ ...
A new, false joint arising at the site of an ununited fracture. SYN: false joint, pseudoarthrosis. [ pseud- + G. arthrosis, a joint]
Anything having the appearance of an intestinal worm. [ pseud- + G. helmins, worm]
1. SYN: paraphia. 2. A subjective sensation not arising from an external stimulus. SYN: pseudoesthesia (2). 3. SYN: phantom limb pain. [ pseud- + G. aisthesis, sensation] ...
Nonspontaneous amputation of a digit, caused by a variety of disorders such as neural leprosy, syringomyelia, and palmoplantar keratoderma.
Alopecia in which mild inflammatory changes develop at the orifices of the affected hair follicles.
A rare genetic disease that is passed on via an autosomal recessive gene. It is characterized by abnormal lysosomal enzyme transport in cells of mesenchymal origin, causing ...
Acanthosis nigricans secondary to maceration of the skin from excessive sweating, or occurring in obese and dark-complexioned adults, or in association with endocrine ...
An apparently headless placental parasitic twin that, however, has rudimentary cephalic structures that can be demonstrated by dissection. [pseudo- + G. a- priv. + kephale, ...
A skeletal dysplasia characterized by short-limb dwarfism with leg deformities associated with genu varum or genu valgum and ligamentous laxity, allowing the joints to ...
1. Agglomeration of particles in solution that does not involve antigen-antibody combination. SYN: false agglutination. 2. SYN: rouleaux formation.
SYN: paraphasia. [pseudo- + G. a- priv. + gramma, writing, + -ismos, condition]
A group of compounds that are structurally similar to alkaloids.
Relationship of two or more loci that are difficult to distinguish from a single locus by classical genetic analysis. For instance, the states of the D, D, and E components of the ...
A condition resembling anaphylaxis, but not due to specific antigen-antibody reaction. SYN: anaphylactoid crisis (2).
Pallor of the skin and mucous membranes without the blood changes of anemia. SYN: false anemia.
1. Pulsating, encapsulated hematoma in communication with the lumen of a ruptured vessel. 2. Ventricular p., a cardiac rupture contained and loculated by pericardium, which ...
Clinical absence of teeth due to a failure in eruption. [pseudo- + G. an- priv. + odous, tooth]
A symptom complex simulating appendicitis without inflammation of the appendix.
A condition of exaggerated awkwardness in which the person makes wrong use of objects.
False or copied expression of thoughts and feelings. [pseudo- + G. authentikos, original]
Any microscopic object, such as a poikilocyte, resembling a bacillus.
Any microscopic object resembling a small bacillary organism or other bacterial form.
Denoting a supranuclear paralysis of the bulbar nerves.
SYN: cavity of septum pellucidum. [pseudo- + G. koilia, cavity]
A partial or false celom, typical of Nematoda (roundworms) and related phyla, in which the body cavity is lined by mesoderm along only one surface ( hypodermis, under the ...
Acquired herniation of intracranial tissues caused by injury or disease. [pseudo- + G. kephale, head, + kele, tumor]
A nonspecific indurated sore, usually located on the penis, resembling a chancre.
- atypical p. [MIM*177400, MIM*177500, MIM*177600] a genetic variant of cholinesterase that fails to catalyze the hydrolysis of succinylcholine. SEE ...
A spasmodic affection or extensive tic resembling chorea.
An anomaly in which each vowel in the printed word is seen as colored. SEE ALSO: photism, color hearing. [pseudo- + G. chroma, color, + aisthesis, sensation]
The presence of pigment on the skin in association with sweating, but due to the local action of pigment-forming bacteria and not to the excretion of colored sweat. [pseudo- + G. ...
Unsustained clonic response despite continued force to elicit it.
Distortion, often with slight narrowing, of the aortic arch at the level of insertion of the ligamentum arteriosum. SYN: buckled aorta, kinked aorta.
A colloid-like or mucoid substance found in ovarian cysts and elsewhere.
In psychoanalysis, a merely apparent sense of closeness emanating from a transference. [pseudo- + Fr. collusion, fr. L. colludo, to play together]
SYN: Legg-Calvé- Perthes disease. [pseudo- + L. coxa, hip, + G. algos, pain]
A temporary fall of the temperature in a disease usually ending by crisis; not a true crisis.
SYN: retractile testis. [pseudo- + G. kryptos, hidden, + orchis, testis]
A colorless liquid obtained from coal tar; used in the sterilization of catgut. SYN: pseudocumol.
SYN: false pregnancy. [pseudo- + G. kyesis, pregnancy]
A shred of mucus or other substance in the urine resembling a renal cast.
1. An accumulation of fluid in a cystlike loculus, but without an epithelial or other membranous lining. SYN: adventitious cyst, false cyst. 2. A cyst whose wall is formed by a ...
A decidual response of endometrium in the absence of pregnancy. [pseudo- + L. deciduus, falling off]
A severe form of depression resulting from a progressive brain disorder in which cognitive changes mimic those of dementia.
* * *
A condition resembling dementia but usually due ...
Displacement of the heart to the right, either congenital or due to trauma, with all the chambers and vessels in their correct positions.
A condition in which a false positive test for sugar in the urine occurs.
SYN: false thirst. [pseudo- + G. dipsa, thirst]
An outpouching from the lumen into an area of central necrosis within a large smooth muscle tumor, along any part of the intestinal wall.
Occurrence of symptoms indistinguishable from those of bacillary dysentery, due to causes other than the presence of the specific microorganisms of bacillary dysentery.
The naturally occurring isomer of ephedrine; a sympathomimetic amine with actions and uses similar to those of ephedrine.
1. SYN: paraphia. 2. SYN: pseudesthesia (2). 3. SYN: phantom limb pain.
A condition simulating exfoliation in some respects, but in which the surface layer is not actually detached.
- p. of lens capsule deposition in all parts of the eye, including ...
A wavelike sensation, resembling fluctuation, obtained by tapping muscular tissue.
Erythematous follicular papules or, less commonly, pustules resulting from close shaving of very curly hair; growing tips of hairs consequently reenter the skin adjacent to ...
A condition in which a radiograph shows formation of new bone with thickening of periosteum at site of an injury to bone.
A localized thickening of a nerve trunk having the appearance of a ganglion.
1. A sequence of nucleotides that is not transcribed and therefore has no phenotypic effect. 2. An inactive DNA segment that arose by a mutation of a parental active gene.
A subjective taste sensation not produced by an external stimulus. [pseudo- + G. geusis, taste]
Any intraocular opacity liable to be mistaken for retinoblastoma.
The fraction of the serum globulin that is more soluble in an ammonium sulfate solution than is the euglobulin fraction.
A structure within a neoplasm microscopically resembling a renal glomerulus but not representing renal glomerular differentiation.
A substance sometimes present in normal urine that gives a reaction in the phenylhydrazine test.
Inflammation of the joints caused by deposits of calcium pyrophosphate crystals, resulting in arthritis, most commonly of the knees, wrists, shoulders, hips, and ankles, usually ...
Enlargement of the male breast by an excess of adipose tissue without any increase in breast tissue. [pseudo- + G. gyne, woman, + mastos, breast]
A red pigmentation of urine caused by certain foods or drugs, and thus not actually hematuria. SYN: false hematuria.
Spitting of blood that does not come from the lungs or bronchial tubes. [pseudo- + G. haima, blood, + ptysis, a spitting]
A state in which the individual is of an unambiguous gonadal sex ( i.e., possesses either testes or ovaries) but has ambiguous external genitalia. Cf.:steroid 5α-reductase. ...
Inflammation of the scrotal tissues or of an inguinal gland, simulating a strangulated hernia.
A seeming displacement of certain tissues observed postmortem; actually an artifact, rather than a true heterotopia.
Condition characterized by an enlargement of the head without concomitant enlargement of the ventricular system.
A spurious elevation of the serum concentration of potassium occurring when potassium is released in vitro from cells in a blood sample collected for a potassium measurement. ...
Hypercalcemia in a patient with a malignant neoplasm in the absence of skeletal metastases or primary hyperparathyroidism; believed to be due to formation of parathyroid-like ...
An appearance of excessive distance between the eyes (ocular telorism) due to lateral displacement of the inner canthi. See Waardenburg syndrome.
Increase in size of an organ or a part, due not to increase in size or number of the specific functional elements but to that of some other tissue, fatty or fibrous. SYN: false ...
A chain of easily disrupted fungal cells that is intermediate between a chain of budding cells and a true hypha, marked by constrictions rather than septa at the junctions. ...
A low serum sodium concentration due to volume displacement by massive hyperlipidemia or hyperproteinemia; also used to describe the low serum sodium concentration that may ...
A disorder resembling hypoparathyroidism, with high serum phosphate and low calcium levels but with normal or elevated serum parathyroid hormone levels; the defect is due to ...
Yellowish discoloration of the skin not due to bile pigments, as in Addison disease. SYN: pseudojaundice.
Absolute obstipation, stimulating ileus, due to paralysis of the intestinal wall.
Any condition mimicking myocardial infarction, for example, acute pericarditis, dissecting aneurysm of the aorta, etc.
Apparently of the same color; denoting certain charts containing colored spots mixed with figures printed in confusion colors; used in testing for color vision deficiency.
Multiple forms of enzymes that catalyze the same reaction and have the same amino acid sequence; differences are due to effects of some posttranslational modification.
A protein extracted from epidermis and nervous tissue ( glial fibrils), probably involved in keratinization.
Any circumscribed, soft, smooth, usually movable swelling or tumefaction that grossly resembles a lipoma.
A disorder resembling one of the syndromes associated with a stone in a hollow viscus or elsewhere. [pseudo- + G. lithos, stone]
Pathologic lying in speech or writing. [pseudo- + G. logos, word]
- p. phantastica an elaborate and often fantastic account of a patient's exploits, which are completely false but ...
A small neutrophilic leukocyte with a single round nucleus, characteristic of the rare homozygous Pelger-Huët anomaly.
A benign infiltration of lymphoid cells or histiocytes that microscopically resembles a malignant lymphoma.
- cutaneous p. SYN: benign lymphocytoma cutis.
The condition in which a bacteriophage is maintained (carried) in a culture of a bacterial strain by infecting susceptible variants of the strain, in contradistinction to true ...
A benign tumor that appears, clinically or histologically, to be a malignant neoplasm. SEE ALSO: pseudotumor.
Obsolete term for a glandular structure resembling the mammary gland, occurring in dermoid cysts.
1. A factitious mental disorder. 2. A mental disorder in which the patient falsely claims to have committed a crime. 3. Generally, the morbid impulse to falsify or lie, as in ...
Enlargement of the distal colon with sluggish muscular function without the neurologic abnormalities of congenital megacolon ( Hirschsprung disease).
A dark greenish or blackish postmortem discoloration of the surface of the abdominal viscera, resulting from the action of sulfureted hydrogen upon the iron of disintegrated ...
Severe inflammation of the inner lining of the colon. Pseudomembranous colitis is characterized by pus and blood in the stool and often caused by antibiotics.
A subjective impression of memory of events that have not occurred. [pseudo- + G. mnesis, memory]
A vernacular term used to refer to any member of the genus Pseudomonas.
A genus of motile, polar-flagellate, non–spore-forming, strictly aerobic bacteria (family Pseudomonadaceae) containing straight or curved, but not helical, Gram-negative rods ...
The versatile "blue-green pus bacteria" that opportunistically infects people, especially those who are immunocompromised. Pseudomonas rarely causes infection in healthy ...
Infection usually with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the versatile "blue-green pus bacteria" that opportunistically infects people, especially those who are immunocompromised. ...
A bacteria that causes an infectious illness called melioidosis or Whitmore's disease that is most frequent in Southeast Asia and Northern Australia. Melioidosis most commonly ...
A nodal trichodystrophy similar to monilethrix but with fractures within the nodal swellings; autosomal dominant inheritance with late onset.
A mineral found crystallized in a form that is not proper to it but to some other mineral. [pseudo- + G. morphe, form]
A condition simulating myopia and due to spasm of the ciliary muscle.
A gelatinous mass resembling a myxoma but composed of mucus.
- p. peritonei the accumulation of large quantities of mucinous material in the peritoneal cavity, as a result of ...