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Rad
Radiation absorbed dose, a measure for a dose of ionizing radiation. * * * 1. The unit for the dose absorbed from ionizing radiation, equivalent to 100 ergs per gram of tissue; ...
radarkymography
An obsolete procedure involving the video tracking of heart motion by means of image intensification and closed circuit television during fluoroscopy; enabled cardiac motion to ...
radectomy
SYN: root amputation. [L. radix, root, + G. ektome, excision]
Radford
Edward P., Jr., U.S. physiologist, *1922. See R. nomogram.
radiability
The property of being radiable.
radiable
Capable of being penetrated or examined by rays, especially by x-rays.
radiad
In a direction toward the radial side.
Radial
In skeletal anatomy, "radial" refers to the radius, the smaller of the two bones on the thumb side of the forearm. (The bigger bone in the forearm is the ulna). In ophthalmology, ...
Radial keratotomy
An eye surgery procedure designed to flatten the cornea, reducing its optical power, to correct nearsightedness (myopia). In the procedure, incisions (cuts) are made in the ...
radialis
SYN: radial (1). [Mod. L.]
radian
A supplementary SI unit of plane angle. [L. radius, ray]
radiant
1. Giving out rays. 2. A point from which light radiates to the eye.
Radiate
To spread out from a central area. For example, sciatic pain may radiate outward from the lower back. * * * 1. To spread out in all directions from a center. 2. To emit ...
radiatio
In neuroanatomy, a term applied to any one of the thalamocortical fiber systems that together compose the corona radiata of the cerebral hemisphere's white matter ( e.g., optic ...
radiation
1. The act or condition of diverging in all directions from a center. 2. The sending forth of light, short radio waves, ultraviolet or x-rays, or any other rays for treatment or ...
Radiation fibrosis
Scarring of the lungs from radiation. Radiation fibrosis is a sequel of radiation pneumonitis (inflammation of the lungs due to radiation), as from radiation therapy. Radiation ...
Radiation pneumonitis
Inflammation of the lungs as a result of radiation. Although the radiation can be from various sources including accidents, today it is usually from radiation therapy. Radiation ...
Radiation therapy, external
Radiation therapy in which the source of radiation is a machine outside the
Radiation therapy, internal
Radiation therapy in which a small container of radioactive material is
Radiation therapy, stereotactic
The use of a number of precisely aimed beams of ionizing radiation, each coming from different directions and meeting at a specific
Radiation, ultraviolet
Invisible rays that are part of the energy that comes from the sun. Ultraviolet radiation can burn the skin and cause skin cancer. Ultraviolet radiation is made up of three ...
radical
1. In chemistry, a group of elements or atoms usually passing intact from one compound to another, but usually incapable of prolonged existence in a free state ( e.g., methyl, ...
Radical dissection
Removal of not only affected tissue, but nearby tissue that may be covertly affected.
radices
Plural of radix.
radicle
A rootlet or structure resembling one, as the r. of a vein, a minute veinlet joining with others to form a vein, or the r. of a nerve, a nerve fiber that joins others to form a ...
radicotomy
SYN: rhizotomy. [L. radix (radic-), root, + G. tome, incision]
radicul-
See radiculo-.
radicula
A spinal nerve root. [L. dim of radix, root]
radiculalgia
Neuralgia due to irritation of the sensory root of a spinal nerve. [ radicul- + G. algos, pain]
radicular
1. Relating to a radicle. 2. Pertaining to the root of a tooth.
radiculectomy
SYN: rhizotomy. [ radicul- + G. ektome, excision]
radiculitis
SYN: radiculopathy. [ radicul- + G. -itis, inflammation] - acute brachial r. SYN: neuralgic amyotrophy.
radiculo-, radicul-
Radicle; radicular. [L. radicula, radicle, dim. of radix, root]
radiculoganglionitis
Involvement of roots and ganglia.
radiculomeningomyelitis
SYN: rhizomeningomyelitis.
radiculomyelopathy
SYN: myeloradiculopathy.
radiculoneuropathy
Disease of the spinal nerve roots and nerves.
radiculopathy
Disorder of the spinal nerve roots. SYN: radiculitis. [radiculo- + G. pathos, suffering] - diabetic thoracic r. a type of diabetic neuropathy that affects primarily elderly ...
radiectomy
SYN: root amputation. [L. radix, root, + G. ektome, excision]
radiferous
Containing radium.
radii
Plural of radius. [L.]
radio-
1. Radiation, chiefly (in medicine) gamma or x-ray. 2. SYN: radioactive. 3. SYN: radius. [L. radius, ray]
Radioactive
Emitting energy waves due to decaying atomic nuclei. Radioactive substances are used in medicine as tracers for diagnosis, and in treatment to kill cancerous cells. * * ...
radioactive cow
Colloquialism for radionuclide generator. SEE ALSO: cow.
Radioactive iodine
An isotope of the chemical element iodine that is radioactive. Radioactive iodine is used in diagnostic tests as well as in radiotherapy of an hyperactive thyroid gland ...
Radioactive tracer
A radioactive molecule that can be sent through the body’s circulatory or urinary system, with its progress followed by a radiation-sensitive machine.
radioactivity
The property of some atomic nuclei of spontaneously emitting gamma rays or subatomic particles (α and β rays) by the process of nuclear disintegration and measured in ...
Radioallergosorbent test
RAST, an allergy test done on a sample of blood. RAST is used to check for allergic sensitivity to specific substances.
radioautogram
Older term for autoradiograph.
radioautography
SYN: autoradiography.
radiobicipital
Relating to the radius and the biceps muscle.
radiobiology
The study of the biologic effects of ionizing radiation upon living tissue. Cf. radiopathology.
radiocalcium
A radioisotope of calcium, particularly calcium-45.
radiocarbon
A radioactive isotope of carbon; e.g., 14C.
radiocardiogram
A graphic record of the concentration of injected radioisotope within the cardiac chambers.
radiocardiography
The technique of recording or interpreting radiocardiograms.
radiocarpal
1. Relating to the radius and the bones of the carpus. 2. On the radial or lateral side of the carpus.
radiocephalpelvimetry
SYN: pelvimetry. [ radio- + cephal- + pelvimetry]
radiochemistry
1. The science of using radionuclides to synthesize labeled compounds for biochemical or biologic research, or radiopharmaceuticals for clinical diagnostic studies. 2. The study ...
radiochlorine
A radioactive isotope of chlorine, e.g., 36Cl.
radiocholangiography
Cholangiography obtained by the intravenous administration of an excreted radiopharmaceutical. [ radio- + cholangiography]
radiocholecystography
Visualization of the gallbladder by scintigraphic means using a radiopharmaceutical such as technetium-99m–labeled iminodiacetic acid derivative. [ radio- + cholecysoghraphy] ...
radiocineangiocardiography
Scintigraphic motion picture of the passage of a radiopharmaceutical through the heart and great vessels. [ radio- + cineangiography]
radiocineangiography
Scintigraphic motion pictures of the passage of a radiopharmaceutical through blood vessel s.
radiocinematography
Taking a motion picture of the movements of organs or other structures as revealed by x-ray fluoroscopic examination. [ radio- + G. kinema, motion, + grapho, to write]
radiocobalt
A radioactive isotope of cobalt; e.g., 60Co.
radiocurable
Curable by irradiation therapy.
radiodense
SYN: radiopaque.
radiodensity
SYN: radiopacity.
radiodermatitis
Dermatitis due to exposure to x-rays or gamma rays causing ionization of tissue water with acute changes resembling thermal injury.
radiodiagnosis
Diagnosis using x-rays; or, more broadly, diagnostic imaging, including radiology, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance.
radiodigital
Relating to the fingers on the radial or lateral side of the hand.
radioelectrophysiologram
The record obtained by means of the radioelectrophysiolograph.
radioelectrophysiolograph
Formerly, an apparatus carried by a mobile individual by means of which changes in electrical potential from the brain or heart can be picked up and radio-transmitted to an ...
radioelectrophysiolography
Formerly, recording the changes in the electrical potential of the brain or heart by means of the radioelectrophysiolograph. See telemetry.
radioelement
Any element possessing radioactivity.
radioepithelitis
Destructive changes in epithelium produced by ionizing radiation.
radiofrequency
1. Radiant energy of a certain frequency range; e.g., radio and television employ radiant energy having a frequency between 105–1011 Hz, while diagnostic x-rays have a ...
radiogallium
Gallium that is radioactive. See gallium-67, gallium-68.
radiogenesis
The formation or production of radioactivity resulting from radioactive transformation or disintegration of radioactive substances. [ radio- + G. genesis, production]
radiogenic
1. Producing rays of any sort, especially electromagnetic rays. 2. Caused by x- or gamma rays.
radiogenics
The science of radiation.
radiogold colloid
A radioactive isotope of gold emitting negative beta particles and gamma radiation, with a half-life of 2.7 days; formerly used for irradiation of closed serous cavities in the ...
radiogram
Obsolete term for radiograph. [ radio- + G. gramma, something written]
Radiograph
A film with an image of body tissues that was produced when the body was placed adjacent to the film while radiating with X-rays. * * * A negative image on photographic film made ...
radiographer
A technician trained to position patients and take radiographs or perform other radiodiagnostic procedures.
Radiography
Film records (radiographs) of internal structures of the body. Radiography is made possible by X-rays (or gamma rays) passing through the body to act on a specially sensitized ...
radiohumeral
Relating to the radius and the humerus; denoting the articulation between them.
radioimmunity
Lessened sensitivity to radiation.
Radioimmunoassay
A very sensitive, specific laboratory test (assay) using radiolabeled (and unlabeled) substances in an immunological (antibody-antigen) reaction. * * * An immunologic ...
radioimmunodiffusion
A method for the study of antigen-antibody reactions by gel diffusion using radioisotope-labeled antigen or antibody.
radioimmunoelectrophoresis
Immunoelectrophoresis in which the antigen or antibody is labeled with a radioisotope; e.g., in testing for insulin-binding antibodies by treating the test serum with ...
radioimmunoprecipitation
Immunoprecipitation utilizing a radioisotope-labeled antibody or antigen.
Radioinsensitive
Not sensitive to X-rays and other forms of radiant energy. For example, a tumor may be radioinsensitive, and therefore cannot be successfully attacked using radiation therapy. ...
radioiodinated
Treated or combined with radioiodine.
Radioiodine
An isotope of the chemical element iodine that is radioactive. Radioiodine is used in diagnostic tests as well as in radiotherapy of an hyperactive thyroid gland ...
radioiron
A radioactive isotope of iron; e.g., 59Fe.
Radioisotope
A radioactive isotope. (An isotope is an alternate version of a chemical element that has a different atomic mass). * * * An isotope that changes to a more stable state by ...
radiolabeled
See tag (1).
radiolead
A radioactive isotope of lead, usually 210 Pb. See lead.
radiolesion
A lesion produced by ionizing radiation.
radioligand
A molecule with a radionuclide tracer attached; usually used for radioimmunoassay procedures. [ radio- + L. ligandus, that which is to be bound, fr. ligo, to bind]
radiologic, radiological
Pertaining to radiology.
Radiologist
A physician specialized in radiology, the branch of medicine that uses ionizing and nonionizing radiation for the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Like other physicians, a ...
radiology
1. The science of high-energy radiation and of the sources and the chemical, physical, and biologic effects of such radiation; the term usually refers to the diagnosis and ...
Radiology, interventional
The use of image guidance methods to gain access to the deepest interior of most organs and organ systems. Through a galaxy of techniques, interventional radiologists can treat ...
radiolucency
A region of a radiograph showing increased exposure, either because of greater transradiancy of the corresponding portion of the subject or because of inhomogeneity in the source ...
Radiolucent
Anything that permits the penetration and passage of X-rays or other forms of radiation. Radiolucent is as opposed to radiopaque (which refers to anything that blocks the ...
radiolus
A probe or sound. [L. dim. of radius, spoke]
radiometer
A device for determining the penetrative power of x-rays. SYN: roentgenometer. [ radio- + G. metron, measure]
radiomicrometer
A sensitive thermopile designed for the measurement of minute changes in radiant energy.
Radiomimetic
Imitating radiation. A radiomimetic drug is one that imitates the effects of radiation as in the case of chemicals such as nitrogen mustards which are used in cancer chemotherapy. ...
radiomuscular
Relating to the radius and the neighboring muscles; denoting certain nerves and muscular branches of the radial artery.
radionecrosis
Necrosis due to radiation; e.g., after excessive exposure to x- or gamma rays. See radiation burn.
radioneuritis
Neuritis caused by prolonged or repeated exposure to x-rays or radium.
radionitrogen
A radioactive isotope of nitrogen; e.g., 13N.
radionuclide
An isotope of artificial or natural origin that exhibits radioactivity.
Radionuclide scan
An exam that produces pictures (scans) of internal parts of the body. The patient is given an injection or swallows a small amount of radioactive material. A machine called a ...
Radionuclide stress testing
This procedure involves injecting a radioactive isotope (typically thallium or cardiolyte) into the patient’s vein after which an image of the patient’s heart becomes visible ...
radiopacity
The x-ray shadow of a radiopaque object. SYN: radiodensity.
radiopalmar
Relating to the radial or lateral side of the palm.
Radiopaque
Anything that does not let X-rays or other types of radiation penetrate. Radiopaque objects block radiation. They are opaque to radiation. A metal object, for example, is ...
radiopathology
A branch of radiology or pathology concerned with the effects of radiation on cells and tissues. Cf.:radiobiology.
radiopelvimetry
Radiographic measurement of the pelvis. See pelvimetry.
radiopharmaceutical
A radioactive chemical or pharmaceutic preparation, labeled with a radionuclide in tracer or therapeutic concentration, used as a diagnostic or therapeutic agent.
radiophobia
Morbid fear of radiation, as from x-rays or nuclear energy. [ radio- + G. phobos, fear]
radiophosphorus
A radioactive isotope of phosphorus; e.g., 32P.
radiopill
SYN: radiotelemetering capsule.
radiopotassium
A radioactive isotope of potassium; e.g., 40K.
radioprotectant
Substance that prevents or lessens the effects of radiation.
radioreceptor
1. A receptor that normally responds to radiant energy such as light or heat. 2. A receptor used as a binding agent for unlabeled and radiolabeled analyte in a type of ...
radioresistant
Indicates cells or tissues that are less affected than average mammalian cells on exposure to radiation; when applied to neoplasms, indicates less susceptibility to damage from ...
radioscopy
Obsolete term for fluoroscopy. [ radio- + G. skopeo, to view]
Radiosensitive
Sensitive to X-rays and other forms of radiant energy. For example, a tumor may be radiosensitive, and therefore potentially treatable with radiation therapy. The opposite is ...
radiosensitivity
The condition of being readily affected by radiant energy.
radiosensitization
The use of chemotherapy or other agents that increase the sensitivity of tissue to the effects or radiation therapy, usually by inhibiting cellular repair or increasing the ...
radiosensitizer
A chemical substance that increases the radiosensitivity of tissues; restoring normal tissue oxygen tension to an anoxic region is also an effective r..
radiosodium
A radioactive isotope of sodium; e.g., 24Na.
radiostereoscopy
Simultaneous viewing of two radiographs made in slightly different projections, usually with a device that reflects the image of one on each eye, allowing three-dimensional ...
radiostrontium
A radioactive isotope of strontium; e.g., 90Sr.
radiosulfur
A radioactive isotope of sulfur; e.g., 35S.
radiosurgery
Radiotherapy with a sharply delimited field, optimistically considered to be equivalent to resecting the irradiated region.
radiotelemetry
See telemetry, biotelemetry.
radiotherapeutic
Relating to radiotherapy or to radiotherapeutics.
radiotherapeutics
The study and use of radiotherapeutic agents.
radiotherapist
One who practices radiotherapy or is versed in radiotherapeutics. SYN: radiation oncologist.
Radiotherapy
The treatment of disease with ionizing radiation. Also called radiation therapy. In radiotherapy, high-energy rays are often used to damage cancer cells and stop them from growing ...
Radiotherapy, stereotactic
Radiation therapy in which a number of precisely aimed beams of ionizing radiation coming from different directions meet at a specific point, delivering the radiation treatment to ...
radiothermy
Diathermy effected by heat from radiant sources. [ radio- + G. therme, heat]
radiothyroidectomy
The destruction of thyroid tissue by administration of radioactive iodine.
radiothyroxin
SYN: radioactive thyroxine.
radiotoxemia
Radiation sickness caused by the products of disintegration produced by the action of x-rays or other forms of radioactivity and by the depletion of certain cells and enzyme ...
radiotracer
A radionuclide or radiolabeled chemical; a radioactive tracer.
radiotransparent
Allowing relatively free transmission of radiant energy. Cf.:radiolucent.
radiotropic
Affected by radiation. [ radio- + G. trope, a turning]
radioulnar
Relating to both radius and ulna.
radisectomy
SYN: root amputation. [L. radix, root, + G. ektome, excision]
Radium
The celebrated radioactive element discovered by Marie and Pierre Curie in 1898. * * * A metallic element, atomic no. 88, extracted in very minute quantities from pitchblende; ...
Radius
In anatomy, the radius is the smaller of the two bones on the thumb side of the forearm. (The bigger one is the ulna). The word "radius" comes unchanged from the Latin meaning a ...
radix
1. SYN: root (1). 2. SYN: root of tooth. 3. The hypothetical size of the birth cohort in a life table, commonly 1,000 or 100,000. [L.] - r. accessoria [TA] SYN: accessory root ...
Radon
A radioactive element formed as a gas during the breakdown of radium. * * * A gaseous radioactive element, atomic no. 86, resulting from the breakdown of radium; of the ...
Raeder
Georg Johann, Norwegian ophthalmologist, 1889–1956. See R. paratrigeminal syndrome.
Raeder’s syndrome
A distinctive syndrome of headaches, also known as cluster headache or migrainous neuralgia. The common pattern of cluster headache is termed “episodic” and is ...
raffinose
A dextrorotatory trisaccharide, occurring in cotton seed and in the molasses of beet root, composed of d-galactose, d-glucose, and d-fructose and formed by transfer of ...
rage
Violent anger; a total discharge of the sympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system. [Fr., fr. L. rabies, violent anger, fr. rabo, to rave] - sham r. a quasiemotional ...
Ragweed
Any of a number of weedy composite herbs that produce a pollen that is a frequent cause of allergies. Of all allergy sufferers in the United States, 75% are allergic to ...
Rahe
Richard H., U.S. psychiatrist, *1936. See Holmes-R. questionnaire.
Rahn
Hermann, U.S. respiratory physiologist, 1912–1990. See R.- Otis sample.
Raillietina
A genus of tapeworms (family Davaineidae, order Cyclophyllidea), three species of which, R. madagascariensis or R. demerariensis, R. asiatica, and R. formsana, have been found in ...
raillietiniasis
Infection of rodents and monkeys, and occasionally humans, with tapeworms of the genus Raillietina.
Rainey
George, English anatomist, 1801–1884. See R. corpuscles, under corpuscle.
Rale
A type of abnormal lung sound heard through a stethoscope. Rales may be sibilant (whistling), dry (crackling) or wet (more sloshy) depending on the amount and density of fluid ...
raloxifene
A selective estrogen receptor modulator ( SERM) that has estrogen-agonistic effects on bone and lipid metabolism but estrogen-antagonistic effects on breast and uterus; used in ...
ramal
Relating to a ramus.
Raman
Sir Chandrasekhara V., Indian physicist and Nobel laureate, 1888–1970. See R. effect, R. spectrum.
Rambourg stains
See Rambourg chromic acid - phosphotungstic acid stain, Rambourg periodic acid -chromic methenamine- silver stain.
rami
Plural of ramus. [L.]
ramicotomy
SYN: ramisection. [L. ramus, branch, + G. tome, incision]
ramification
The process of dividing into a branchlike pattern.
ramify
To split into a branchlike pattern. [L. ramus, branch, + facio, to make]
ramisection
Section of the rami communicantes of the sympathetic nervous system. SYN: ramicotomy. [L. ramus, branch, + L. sectio, section]
ramitis
Inflammation of a ramus. [L. ramus, branch, + G. -itis, inflammation]
Ramón y Cajal
See Cajal.
ramose, ramous
SYN: branching. [L. ramosus, fr. ramus, a branch]
ramp
In electrical recording, a uniformly rising voltage or current. If reset to zero at regular intervals, it forms a sawtooth pattern used to provide the time sweep of a cathode ...
Ramsay Hunt
See Hunt.
Ramsden
Jesse, English optician, 1735–1800. See R. ocular.
Ramsey Hunt syndrome
A herpes virus infection of the geniculate nerve ganglion, the Ramsey Hunt syndrome causes paralysis of the facial muscles on the same side of the face as the infection. It is ...
Ramstedt
Conrad, German surgeon, 1867–1962. See R. operation, Fredet-R. operation.
ramulus
A small branch or twig; one of the terminal divisions of a ramus. [L. dim. of ramus, a branch]
Ramus
In anatomy, a branch, such as a branch of a blood vessel or nerve. For example, the ramus acetabularis arteriae circumflexae femoris medialis is the branch of an artery that goes ...
Ramus of the mandible
One of the two prominent, projecting back parts of the horseshoe-shaped lower jaw bone.
ramycin
SYN: fusidic acid.
rancid
Having a disagreeable odor and taste, usually characterizing fat undergoing oxidation or bacterial decomposition to more volatile odoriferous substances. [L. rancidus, stinking, ...
rancidify
To make or become rancid.
rancidity
The state of being rancid.
Rand
Gertrude, U.S. visual psychologist, 1886–1970. See Hardy-R.- Ritter test. M.J., 20th century pharmacologist. See Burn and R. theory.
Randall
Alexander, U.S. urologist, *1883. See R. stone forceps.
Random
The process by which an outcome is determined solely by chance, for example, by a coin flip. A randomized controlled trial is a clinical trial that involves at least one test ...
Random mating
Totally haphazard mating with no regard to the genetic makeup (genotype) of the mate so that any sperm has an equal chance of fertilizing any egg. This rarely, if ever, occurs ...
randomization
Allocation of individuals to groups, e.g., for experimental and control regimens, by chance.
Raney Nickel
Proprietary name for a finely powdered nickel catalyst made from Raney alloy by dissolving out the aluminum with alkali; used in the hydrogenation of organic substances. SYN: ...
Range
In medicine and statistics, the difference between the lowest and highest numerical values. For example, if five premature infants are born weighing two, three, four, four, and ...
Range of motion
The range through which a joint can be moved, usually its range of flexion and extension. Due to an injury, the knee may for example lack 10 degrees of full extension.
Range, normal
By convention, the normal range for whatever (a particular test, condition, symptom, behavior, etc.) is set to cover ninety-five percent (95%) of all values from the general ...
ranine
1. Relating to the frog. 2. Relating to the undersurface of the tongue. [L. rana, a frog]
ranitidine
A histamine H2 antagonist used in the treatment of duodenal and gastric ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux, where it reduces hydrochloric acid secretion.
rank
1. The ordinal position of an observation in the set of observations of which it is a member. 2. To order a set of observations according to their r..
Ranke
Karl E. von, German chemist, 1870–1926. See R. formula. Johannes, German anthropologist and physician, 1836–1916. See R. angle.
Rankin
Fred Wharton, U.S. surgeon, 1886–1954. See R. clamp.
Rankine
William J. McQ., Scottish physicist, 1820–1870. See R. scale.
Ransohoff
Joseph, U.S. surgeon, 1853–1921. See R. sign.
RANTES
A member of the interleukin-8 superfamily of cytokines. This cytokine is an 8-kD protein that is a selective chemoattractant for memory T lymphocytes and monocytes. [Regulated ...
ranula
1. Hypoglottis. 2. Obsolete term for any cystic tumor of the undersurface of the tongue or floor of the mouth, especially one of the floor of the mouth due to obstruction of the ...
ranular
Relating to a ranula.
Ranvier
Louis A., French pathologist, 1835–1922. See R. crosses, under cross, R. disks, under disk, node of R., R. plexus, R. segment.
RAO
Abbreviation for right anterior oblique, a radiographic projection.
Raoult
François, M., French physicist, 1830–1899. See R. law.
RAPD
Abbreviation for rapid analysis of polymorphic DNA.
Rape
Forced sexual intercourse; sexual assault; sexual intercourse between an adult and a minor. Rape may be heterosexual (involving members of opposite sexes) or homosexual ...
Rape, date
Rape of a woman by a man with whom she is acquainted. The rapist is usually the woman's "date" (escort). Although there are many possible date rape scenarios, in a common one, ...
rapeseed oil
The compressed oil from the seeds of Brassica campestris (family Cruciferae); used in the manufacture of soaps, margarine, and lubricants. [L. rapa, turnip]
raphania
A spasmodic disease supposed to be due to poisoning by the seeds of Rhaphanus rhaphanistrum, the wild radish. SYN: rhaphania.
raphe
The line of union of two contiguous, bilaterally symmetrical structures. SYN: rhaphe. [G. rhaphe, suture, seam] - amnionic r. the line of fusion of the amnionic folds over ...
Rapid eye movement sleep
Rapid eye movement sleep (REM) sleep is the portion of sleep when there are rapid eye movements (REMs). Dreams occur during REM sleep. We typically have 3 to 5 periods of REM ...
Rapid plasma reagin test
A screening blood test for syphilis. Rapid plasma reagin is commonly abbreviated RPR. A negative ("nonreactive") RPR test result is compatible with a person not having ...
Rapid strep test
A diagnostic test commonly used to demonstrate whether streptococcus bacteria ("strep") are present in the throat. A throat infection with strep needs to be treated with an ...
Rapoport
Samuel Mitja, Russian biochemist, 1912–1977. See R.- Luebering shunt. Abraham, Canadian urologist, *1926. See R. test.
Rappaport
Henry, U.S. pathologist, *1913. See R. classification.
rapport
1. A feeling of relationship, especially when characterized by emotional affinity. 2. A conscious feeling of harmonious accord, trust, empathy, and mutual responsiveness between ...
rapture of the deep
SYN: nitrogen narcosis (2).
rarefaction
1. The process of becoming light or less dense; the condition of being light; opposed to condensation. 2. In vascular physiology, the process that results in a reduction in the ...
rarefy
To become light or less dense.
RAS
Abbreviation for reticular activating system.
rasceta
The transverse wrinkling on the anterior surface of the wrist. [Mod. L. raseta, fr. Ar. rahah, the palm of the hand]
rash
Lay term for a cutaneous eruption. [O. Fr. rasche, skin eruption, fr. L. rado, pp. rasus, to scratch, scrape] - antitoxin r. a cutaneous manifestation of serum sickness. - ...
Rash, butterfly
A red, flat facial rash over the bridge of the nose. Over half of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) develop this characteristic rash. Because of its shape, it is ...
Rash, yeast diaper
Infection in the diaper area caused by a yeast formerly called Monilia and now called Candida. These organisms are part of the germs normally found in various parts of the body ...
rasion
The subdivision of a crude drug by a rasp to prepare it for extraction. [L. rasio, a scraping, fr. rado, pp. rasus, to scrape, shave]
Rasmussen
Grant L., American neuroanatomist, *1904. See bundle of R., r. encephalitis, R. syndrome. Fritz W., Danish physician, 1834–1881. See R. aneurysm.
Rasmussen encephalitis
A rare progressive neurological disorder that is characterized by intractable seizures and progressive neurologic deterioration. To be more precise, there are frequent and ...
Rasmussen syndrome
A brain disorder caused by inflammation of brain cells in one hemisphere. Its cause is unknown. Rasmussen syndrome causes seizures often difficult or impossible to control with ...
raspatory
A surgical instrument used to smooth the edges of a divided bone. [L. raspatorium]
RAST
An allergy test done on a sample of blood. The aim with RAST, as with skin tests, is to check for allergic sensitivity to specific substances. RAST stands for ...
Rastelli
Gian C. See R. operation.
rat
A rodent of the genus Rattus (family Muridae), involved in the spread of some diseases, including bubonic plague. - albino rats rats with white fur and pink eyes; used ...
Rat-flea typhus
Murine typhus, an acute infectious disease with fever, headache, and rash, all quite similar to, but milder than, epidemic typhus, caused by a related microorganism, Rickettsia ...
rate
1. A record of the measurement of an event or process in terms of its relation to some fixed standard; measurement is expressed as the ratio of one quantity to another ( e.g., ...
Rate, basal metabolic
A measure of the rate of metabolism. For example, someone with an overly active thyroid will have an elevated basal metabolic rate.
Rate, birth
The birth rate is usually given as the number of live births divided by the average population (or the population at midyear). This is termed the crude birth rate. In 1995, for ...
Rate, death
The number of deaths in the population divided by the average population (or the population at midyear) is the crude death rate. In 1994, for example, the crude death rate per ...
Rate, erythrocyte sedimentation
A sedimentation rate, or "sed rate", is a blood test that detects and is used to monitor inflammation activity. It is measured by recording the rate at which red blood ...
Rate, fetal mortality
The ratio of fetal deaths divided by the sum of the births (the live births + the fetal deaths) in that year. In the United States, the fetal mortality rate plummeted from 19.2 ...
Rate, heart
Number of heart beats per minute. The normal resting adult heart beats regularly at an average rate of 60 times per minute. (Young children’s hearts beat faster). The speed ...
Rate, infant mortality
The number of children dying under a year of age divided by the number of live births that year. The infant mortality rate is also called the infant death rate. The infant ...
Rate, maternal mortality
The number of maternal deaths related to childbearing divided by the number of live births (or by the number of live births + fetal deaths) in that year. The maternal mortality ...
Rate, neonatal mortality
The number of children dying under 28 days of age divided by the number of live births that year. The neonatal mortality rate in the United States, which was 8.4 per 1,000 live ...
Rate, pulse
The pulse rate is most often taken at the wrist. It measures the number of pulsations in the radial artery each minute.
Rate, respiratory
The number of breaths per minute (or, more formally, the number of movements indicative of inspiration and expiration per unit time). In practice, the respiratory rate is usually ...
Rate, sed
A sedimentation rate, or "sed rate", is a blood test that detects and is used to monitor inflammation activity. It is measured by recording the rate at which red blood ...
Rate, sedimentation
A blood test that detects and monitors inflammation in the body. It measures the rate at which red blood cells (RBCs) in a test tube separate from blood serum over time, becoming ...
Rathke
Martin H., German anatomist, physiologist, and pathologist, 1793–1860. See R. bundles, under bundle, R. cleft cyst, R. diverticulum, R. pocket, R. pouch, R. pouch tumor.
rating of perceived exertion
Subjective numerical rating (range 6–19) of exercise intensity based on how an individual feels in relation to level of physiologic stress. An RPE of 13 or 14 (exercise that ...
ratio
An expression of the relation of one quantity to another ( e.g., of a proportion or rate). SEE ALSO: index (2), quotient. [L. r. (ration-) a reckoning, reason, fr. reor, pp. ...
rational
1. Pertaining to reasoning or to the higher thought processes; based on objective or scientific knowledge, in contrast to empiric (1). 2. Influenced by reasoning rather than by ...

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