Crohns disease, a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestine primarily in the small and large intestines but which can occur anywhere in the digestive system between the ...
Cat scratch disease, a mild flu-like infection, with swollen lymph nodes (lymphadenitis) and mild fever of short duration, due to cat scratches, especially from kittens. There is ...
The file of data concerning all cases of a specified condition, such as cancer, occurring in a defined population; the r. is the actual document, and the registry is the system ...
In dentistry, a record.
- maxillomandibular r. SYN: maxillomandibular record.
- tissue r. in dentistry, 1. the accurate r. of the shape of tissues under any condition by means ...
Although a registry was originally the place (like Registry House in Edinburgh) where information was collected (in registers), the word registry has also come to mean the ...
Recorded information about the status of patients with tumors. Although a registry was originally the place (like Registry House in Edinburgh) where information was collected ...
The briefest unit of experience; the unit composed of the total physiologic processes occurring at a single moment, which constitute dominant configurations in the brain. A ...
To return or go back, particularly to return to a pattern of behavior or level of skill characteristic of a younger age. For example, if a three-year-old child begins to regress ...
1. A subsidence of symptoms. 2. A relapse; a return of symptoms. 3. Any retrograde movement or action. 4. A return to a more primitive mode of behavior due to an inability to ...
Relating to or characterized by regression.
1. Control of the rate or manner in which a process progresses or a product is formed. 2. In experimental embryology, the power of a pregastrula embryo to continue approximately ...
A substance or process that controls another substance or process.
- growth regulators substances that can alter the growth of a living organism.
- humoral r. a substance whose ...
A gene that regulates the expression of other genes. A regulatory gene is a nosy gene whose prime preoccupation is to horn in on other genes and control the rate at which they ...
A region of a chromosome that controls gene expression. In terms of DNA, it is a regulatory sequence.
A set of structural genes, all with the same gene regulation, whose gene products are involved in the same reaction pathway.
1. To flow backward. 2. To expel the contents of the stomach in small amounts, short of vomiting. [L. re-, back, + gurgito, pp. -atus, to flood, fr. gurges (gurgit-), a ...
A backward flowing. For example, of food. Or the sloshing of blood back into the heart (or between chambers of the heart) when a heart valve is incompetent and does not close ...
Sloshing of blood back down from the aorta into the left ventricle of the heart due to incompetency of the aortic valve. Also called aortic insufficiency.
Short for Rehabilitation.
The restoration of skills by a person who has had an illness or injury so they regain maximum self-sufficiency and can function in a normal or as near normal manner as possible. ...
A process associated with enhancing short-term and long-term memory wherein newly presented information, such as a name or a list of words, is repeated to oneself one or more ...
Martin E., U.S. physician, 1887–1964. See R. method, R. stomach tube.
To restore lost water to the body tissues and fluids. Prompt rehydration is imperative whenever dehydration occurs, from diarrhea, exposure, lack of drinking water, or ...
The return of water to a system after its loss.
Friedrich P., German gynecologist and surgeon, 1858–1934. See R.- Pólya stomach procedure.
Karl B., German anatomist, 1811–1883. See R. cartilage, R. cochlear recess, R.-Meissl number.
Robert W., Scottish anatomist, 1851–1939. See R. base line.
Edward C. Jr., U.S. endocrinologist, 1908–1975. See R. syndrome.
Johann C., German physician, neurologist, and histologist, 1759–1813. See R. ansa, R. band, R. ribbon, R. triangle, limiting sulcus of R., circular sulcus of R., island of ...
- extravesical r. SYN: detrusorrhaphy.
- ureteral r. SYN: ureteroneocystostomy.
A second infection by the same microorganism, after recovery from or during the course of a primary infection.
1. An increase of force or strength; denoting specifically the increased sharpness of the patellar reflex when the patient at the same time closes the fist tightly or pulls ...
In conditioning, a pleasant or satisfaction-yielding (positive r.) or painful or unsatisfying (negative r.), stimulus, object, or stimulus event that is obtained upon the ...
Friedrich B., German anatomist, 1862–1919. See R. crystalloids, under crystalloid.
Restoration of nerve control of a paralyzed muscle or other effector organ by means of regrowth of nerve fibers, either spontaneously or after anastomosis.
Adolf, German physician, 1862–1916. See R. test.
In the mental health professions, the return to well-adjusted functioning following disturbances due to mental illness.
The correction, spontaneous or operative, of an inversion, as of the uterus.
Heinrich Maria Wilhelm, German ophthalmologist, *1872. See R.-Bücklers corneal dystrophy. SEE ALSO: R.-Bücklers corneal dystrophy.
Franz D., German anatomist, 1773–1828. See R. muscles, under muscle.
Ernst, German anatomist, 1824–1878. See R. fiber, R. membrane.
Ralph M., U.S. psychologist, *1922. See Halstead-R. battery.
Hans, German bacteriologist, 1881–1969. See R. test, R. disease, R. syndrome, Fiessinger-Leroy-R. syndrome.
A chronic form of inflammatory arthritis wherein the following three conditions are combined: (1) arthritis; (2) inflammation of the eyes (conjunctivitis); and (3) inflammation ...
In transplantation biology, the refusal by the body to accept transplanted cells, tissues or organs. For example, a kidney transplanted may be rejected.
* * *
1. The immunologic ...
A renewal of youth; return of a cell or tissue to a state in which it was in an earlier stage of existence. [L. re-, again, + juvenesco, to grow young, fr. juvenis, a youth]
The return of signs and symptoms of a disease after the patient has enjoyed a remission. For example, a 51-year-old man had a cancer of the colon treated and went into remission ...
Recurring; said of a disease or its manifestations that returns in a new attack after an interval of improvement.
1. An association or connection between or among people or objects. SEE ALSO: relationship. 2. In dentistry, the mode of contact of teeth or the positional relationship of oral ...
The state of being related, associated, or connected.
- dose-response r. r. in which a change in the amount, intensity, or duration of exposure is associated with a change in risk ...
1. To loosen; to slacken. 2. To cause a movement of the bowels. [L. re-laxo, to loosen]
Something that relaxes, relieves, reduces tension. For example, a muscle relaxant is often administered during abdominal surgery to relax the diaphragm and keep it from moving ...
1. Loosening, lengthening, or lessening of tension in a muscle. 2. In nuclear magnetic resonance, r. is the decay in magnetization of protons after the direction of the ...
A hormone produced during pregnancy that facilitates the birth process by causing a softening and lengthening of the cervix and the pubic symphysis (the place where the pubic ...
The process of regaining a skill or ability that has been partially or entirely lost; savings involved in r., as compared with original learning, give an index of the degree of ...
Release, carpal tunnel
A surgical procedure to relieve pressure exerted on the median nerve within the carpal tunnel (the carpal tunnel syndrome). The median nerve is pinched in the wrist as it passes ...
The degree of stability exhibited when a measurement is repeated under identical conditions. See correlation coefficient, r. coefficient. [M.E. relien, fr. O.Fr. relier, fr. L. ...
1. Removal of pain or distress, physical or mental. 2. In dentistry, reduction or elimination of pressure from a specific area under a denture base. SEE ALSO: r. area, r. ...
To free wholly or partly from pain or discomfort, either physical or mental. [through O. Fr. fr. L. re-levo, to lift up, lighten]
In dentistry, to resurface the tissue side of a denture with new base material to make it fit more accurately. SEE ALSO: rebase.
In radiation, Roentgen equivalent for man, a roentgen (an international unit of X- or gamma-radiation) adjusted for the atomic makeup of the human body. In ophthalmology, rapid ...
REM sleep is the portion of sleep when there are rapid eye movements (REMs). Dreams occur during REM sleep. We typically have 3 to 5 periods of REM sleep per night. They occur at ...
Ernst J., German neurologist, 1848–1911. See R. reflex, R. sign.
Robert, Polish-German anatomist and histologist, 1815–1865. See R. nuclear division, R. fibers, under fiber, ...
Curable. [L. remediabilis, fr. remedio, to cure]
Curative or acting as a remedy.
Something that consistently helps treat or cure a disease. From the Latin "remedium" meaning that which heals again (and again). A remedy for a wound is also called a ...
1. The return to the body or a local area of necessary mineral constituents lost through disease or dietary deficiencies; commonly used in referring to the content of calcium ...
In the psychology of learning, an improvement in recall, over that shown on the last trial, of incompletely learned material after an interval without practice. [L. ...
1. Abatement or lessening in severity of the symptoms of a disease. 2. The period during which such abatement occurs. [L. remissio, fr. re-mitto, pp. -missus, to send back, ...
To become less severe for a time without absolutely ceasing. [see remission]
A temporary amelioration, without actual cessation, of symptoms.
Characterized by temporary periods of abatement of the symptoms of a disease.
Something remaining, a residue or vestige. [O. Fr., fr. remaindre, to remain, fr. L. remaneo]
1. A cyclic process by which bone maintains a dynamic steady state through sequential resorption and formation of a small amount of bone at the same site; unlike the process of ...
Surgical procedures carried out at a great distance thanks to advances in robotic and computer technology and their applications to surgery. The first demonstration of ...
Abbreviation for [L.] renovetur semel, shall be renewed (only) once.
Having to do with the kidney. From the Latin renes (the kidneys), which gave the French les reins which mean both the kidneys and the lower back.
* * *
Kidney stones. A common cause of blood in the urine and pain in the abdomen, flank, or groin. Occurs in 1 in 20 people at some time in their life. Development of the stones is ...
Malignancy of the kidney, the organ that is primarily responsible for the removal of metabolic waste products from the body. The types of kidney cancer in adults and children are ...
: The fibrous connective tissue that surrounds each kidney.
Renal cell carcinoma
Cancer that develops in the lining of the renal tubules, which filter the blood and produce the urine. Also called renal cell cancer.
A combination of bone disorders usually caused by chronic kidney failure (renal disease). Can also occur because of abnormal kidney functioning at birth (congenital). When the ...
: The area at the center of the kidney. Urine collects here and is funneled into the ureter.
A stone in the kidney (or lower down in the urinary tract). Also called a kidney stone. Renal stones are a common cause of blood in the urine and pain in the abdomen, flank, ...
Renal syndrome with hemorrhagic fever
A number of diseases characterized by an abrupt onset of high fever and chills, headache, cold and cough, and pain in the muscles, joints and abdomen with nausea and vomiting ...
Small structures in the kidney that filter the blood and produce the urine.
The conversion of a denatured and inactive macromolecule back to its natured and bioactive configuration.
1. SYN: cortical lobules of kidney, under lobule. 2. SYN: reniculus (2).
Henri J.L.M., French physician, 1844–1902. See R.-Osler- Weber syndrome.
The capsule of the kidney. [ reni- + L. capsula, capsule]
SYN: cardiorenal. [ reni- + G. kardia, heart]
1. SYN: cortical lobules of kidney, under lobule. 2. A lobe of the human fetal kidney and that of some lower animals in which fibrous septa subdivide the organ. SYN: renculus ...
A term originally used for a pressor substance obtained from rabbits' kidneys, now an enzyme that converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. SYN: angiotensinogenase.
1. Relating to the hilum of the kidney. 2. Relating to the portal, or venous capillary circulation in the kidney. [ reni- + L. porta, gate]
Relating to the kidneys and the skin. [reno- + L. cutis, skin]
Relating to the kidneys and the stomach. [reno- + G. gaster, stomach]
The assessment of renal function by external radiation detectors after the administration of a radiopharmaceutical that is filtered and excreted by the kidney. [reno- + G. ...
1. Quiet; repose. [A.S. raest] 2. To repose; to cease from work. [A.S. raestan] 3. A group of cells or a portion of fetal tissue that has become displaced and lies embedded in ...
Recurrence of stenosis after corrective surgery on the heart valve; narrowing of a structure (usually a coronary artery) following the removal or reduction of a previous ...
Ropelike; rope-shaped; referring to the r. body, the larger (lateral) part of the inferior cerebellar peduncle; contains fibers from the spinal cord (spinocerebellar) and medulla ...
More appropriately called interphase. The interval in the cell cycle between two cell divisions when the individual chromosomes cannot be distinguished, interphase was once ...
The part of the T cell receptor that associates with the class II major histocompatibility molecule. [restriction + -tope]
In cytogenetics, the spontaneous rejoining of broken chromosomes to reconstitute the original chromosome configuration.
* * *
In obstetrics, the return of the rotated head of ...
Restless leg syndrome
An uncomfortable creeping, crawling, tingling, pulling, twitching, tearing, aching, throbbing, prickling or grabbing sensation in the calves that occurs while sitting or while ...
In dentistry : 1. A prosthetic r. or appliance; a broad term applied to any inlay, crown, bridge, partial denture, or complete denture that restores or replaces lost tooth ...
1. Renewing health and strength. 2. An agent that promotes a renewal of health or strength. [L. restauro, to restore]
In hospital psychiatry, intervention to prevent an excited or violent patient from doing harm to self or others; may involve the use of a camisole (straightjacket). [O. Fr. ...
1. The process with which foreign DNA that has been introduced into a prokaryotic cell becomes ineffective. 2. A limitation.
- asymmetric fetal growth r. normal fetal head size ...
An enzyme from bacteria that can recognize specific base sequences in DNA and cut (restrict) the DNA at that site (the restriction site). Also called a restriction enzyme.
An enzyme from bacteria that can recognize specific base sequences in DNA and cut the DNA at that site (the restriction site). A restriction enzyme acts as a biochemical ...
An array of sites in DNA susceptible to cleavage by diverse restriction enzymes.
A sequence in DNA that can be recognized and cut by a specific restriction enzyme.
To perform resuscitation. [L. resuscito, to raise up again, revive]
Revival from potential or apparent death. [L. resuscitatio]
- cardiopulmonary r. (CPR) restoration of cardiac output and pulmonary ventilation following cardiac arrest and ...
Any type of clasp, attachment, or device used for the fixation or stabilization of a prosthesis; an appliance used to prevent the shifting of teeth following orthodontic ...
A mildly pejorative term, which is decreasing in usage, for a person who has mental retardation. [L. retardo, to delay, hinder]
Slowness or limitation of development.
- intrauterine growth r. SYN: fetal growth restriction.
- mental r. subaverage general intellectual functioning that originates during the ...
Reading retardation means impaired ability to read. Reading retardation is an impairment that may, for example, reflect mental retardation or cultural deprivation. Reading ...
An agent used to slow the chemical hardening of gypsum, resins, or impression materials used in dentistry.
To make an involuntary effort to vomit. [A.S. hraecan, to hawk]
Gastric and esophageal movements of vomiting without expulsion of vomitus. SYN: dry vomiting, vomiturition.
1. SYN: network (1). 2. A structure composed of a fibrous network or mesh. [L. a net]
- r. acromiale arteriae thoracoacromialis [TA] SYN: acromial anastomosis of the ...
1. The keeping in the body of what normally belongs there, especially the retaining of food and drink in the stomach. 2. The keeping in the body of what normally should be ...
Plural of rete. [L.]
The presence or formation of a reticulum or network, such as that observed in the red blood cells during active regeneration of blood. Also used to describe a chest ...
Name given to the chemical substance of reticular fibers, which once were thought to be distinct from collagen by reason of their distinctive structure and staining properties but ...
A young red blood cell containing a basophilic cytoplasmic network precipitated by brilliant cresyl blue representing residual polyribosomes; such cells become more numerous ...
Paucity of reticulocytes in the blood. SYN: reticulopenia. [ reticulocyte + G. penia, poverty]
An increase in the number of circulating reticulocytes above the normal, which is less than 1% of the total number of red blood cells; it occurs during active blood regeneration ...
Obsolete term for a localized reticulosis, or neoplasm derived from reticuloendothelial tissue. [ reticuloendothelium + G. -oma, tumor]
The cells making up the reticuloendothelial system. [reticulo- + endothelium]
A solitary skin nodule composed of glycolipid-containing multinucleated large histiocytes; multiple lesions sometimes occur in association with arthritis. [reticulo- + ...
- multicentric r. a rare disease in which cutaneous papules composed of histiocytes containing glycolipids are associated with polyarthritis, often leading to ...
1. Resembling a reticulosis. 2. A condition resembling reticulosis.
- actinic r. chronic pruritic erythema beginning on sun-exposed areas in elderly males, with marked ...
An increase in histiocytes, monocytes, or other reticuloendothelial elements. [reticulo- + G. -osis, condition]
- benign inoculation r. SYN: catscratch disease.
- leukemic r. ...
Production of lesions in the reticular formation. [reticulo- + G. tome, incision]
1. A fine network formed by cells, or formed of certain structures within cells or of connective tissue fibers between cells. 2. SYN: neuroglia. 3. The second compartment of ...
Resembling a net or network. [L. rete, network]
The retina is the nerve layer that lines the back of the eye, senses light, and creates impulses that travel through the optic nerve to the brain. There is a small area, called ...
: A retina that separates from its connection at the back of the eye. The process of retinal detachment is usually due to a tear (a rip) in the retina, often when the vitreous ...
A frenum, or a retaining band or ligament. [L. a band, a halter, fr. retineo, to hold back]
- antebrachial flexor r. thickening of distal antebrachial fascia just proximal to ...
1. Relating to the retina. 2. Retinaldehyde; most commonly referring to the all-trans form.
- r. dehydrogenase an oxidoreductase catalyzing the interconversion of ...
Retinal artery, central
The blood vessel that carries blood into the eye and supplies nutrition to the retina. The counterpart to the central retinal artery is the central retinal vein, the vessel that ...
A separation of the retina from its connection at the back of the eye. The separation usually results from a tear (that is, a rent or rip, not a tear drop) in the retina. The tear ...
The interior lining of the eyeball, including the retina (the light-sensitive screen), optic disc (the head of the nerve to the eye), and the macula (the small spot in the retina ...
Retinal pigment epithelium
The pigment cell layer that nourishes the retinal cells. The retinal pigment epithelium is located just outside the retina and is attached to what is called the choroid, a layer ...
The retina is the portion of the eye that contains the nerves of sensation that perceive light. It is also filled with tiny blood vessels. Vasculitis of the eye is typically the ...
Retinal vein, central
The blood vessel that carries blood away from the retina of the eye. The counterpart to the central retinal vein is the central retinal artery, the blood vessel that carries ...
Retinol oxidized to a terminal aldehyde; retinal; a carotene released (as all-trans-retinal) in the bleaching of rhodopsin by light and the dissociation of opsin in the ...
A surgical excision of a piece of the retina.
Inflammation of the retina. [retina + G. -itis, inflammation]
- albuminuric r. hypertensive retinopathy.
- circinate r. circinate retinopathy.
- diabetic r. diabetic ...
Retinitis pigmentosa and congenital deafness
(Also called Usher syndrome.) A genetic disorder characterized by hearing impairment and an eye disorder called retinitis pigmentosa in which vision worsens over time. Some ...
A malignant eye tumor caused by the loss of a pair of tumor-suppressor genes. An inherited form of retinoblastoma (it typically appears at birth, leads to multiple tumors and ...
Inflammation of the retina extending to the choroid. SYN: chorioretinitis. [ retinochoroid + G. -itis, inflammation]
- bird shot r. bilateral diffuse retinal vasculitis with ...
SYN: dialysis retinae. [retino- + G. dialysis, separation]
Vitamin A1 acid; retinal in which the terminal –CHO has been oxidized to a –COOH; used topically in the treatment of acne; plays an important role in growth and ...
1. Resembling a resin; resinous. [G. retine, resin, + eidos, resemblance] 2. Resembling the retina. [Mediev. L. retina] 3. In plural form, term used to describe the natural ...
A class of keratolytic drugs derived from retinoic acid and used for treatment of severe acne and psoriasis.
Retinol is vitamin A. Carotene compounds (found, for example, in egg yolk, butter and cream) are gradually converted by the body to vitamin A (retinol). A form of vitamin A ...
Inflammation of the retina extending to the optic disk.
- r. of premature infants SYN: retinopathy of prematurity.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the retina. [retino- + G. pathos, suffering]
- arteriosclerotic r. r. distinguished by attenuated retinal arterioles with increased ...
A procedure to repair a detached retina by holding it in place; e.g., by producing chorioretinal adhesions by freezing (“retinal cryopexy”). [retino- + G. pexis, ...
Repositioning a detached retina by pressing it into position by gas or fluid. See retinopexy. [retino- + G. piesis, pressure]
Degenerative splitting of the retina, with cyst formation between the two layers. [retino- + G. schisis, division]
- juvenile r. [MIM*268100] r. occurring before 10 years of age ...
An optical device used to illuminate a subject's retina during retinoscopy. [retino- + G. skopeo, to view]
- luminous r. a portable optical device providing either a circular or ...
A method of determining errors of refraction by illuminating the retina and observing the rays of light emerging from the eye. SYN: scotoscopy, shadow test, skiascopy. ...
A surgical incision through the retina.
The phosphoester of all-trans-retinol; essential for the biosynthesis of certain glycoproteins needed for growth regulation and for mucous secretion.
The reticular cells related to the reticular fiber network, as in the stroma of lymphatic tissue. [L. rete, net, + G. peri, around, + Mod. L. thelium, fr. G. thele, nipple]
1. A flasklike vessel with a long neck passing outward, once used in distilling. 2. A small furnace. [Mediev. L. retorta, fem. pp. of retorqueo, pp. -tortus, to twist or bend ...
A genus of protozoan flagellates, one species of which, R. intestinalis, is found occasionally in the human intestine, although it is nonpathogenic and infrequently reported. [L. ...
To shrink, draw back, or pull apart. [L. re-traho, pp. -tractus, a drawing back]
Retractable; capable of being drawn back.
1. A shrinking, drawing back, or pulling apart. 2. Posterior movement of teeth, usually with the aid of an orthodontic appliance. [L. retractio, a drawing back]
- gingival r. ...
1. An instrument for drawing aside the edges of a wound or for holding back structures adjacent to the operative field. 2. A muscle that draws a part backward, e.g., the middle ...
Backward; toward the back part; directed posteriorly. [L. retro, backward, + ad, to]
retreat from reality
Substitution of imaginary satisfactions or fantasy for relations with the real world.
The cutting away of superfluous tissue. [F. re-, back, + trancher, to cut]
The third stage in the memory process, after encoding and storage, involving mental processes associated with bringing stored information back into consciousness. SEE ALSO: ...
Backward or behind. [L. back, backward]
Relating to the back part of, or behind, the cheek.
1. A going back; a relapse. 2. Cessation of the external symptoms of a disease followed by signs of involvement of some internal organ or part. 3. Denoting a position of the ...
A form of acupressure for the arrest of bleeding; the needle is passed through the tissues above the cut end of the artery, is turned around, and then is passed backward beneath ...
Posterior to the colon. [ retro- + G. kolon, colon]
Relating to the back of the neck; drawing back the head. [ retro- + L. collum, neck]
Running backward. [ retro- + L. cursus, a running]
Any backward displacement, such as retroversion or retroflexion of the uterus.
Placement of a sealing material into the apical foramen of a dental root from the apical end.
Bent backward or posteriorly. SYN: retroflected. [ retro- + L. flecto, pp. flexus, to bend]
Backward bending, as of the uterus when the corpus is bent back, forming an angle with the cervix. SYN: retroflection.
- r. of iris abnormal position of the iris on the ciliary ...
Denoting a state in which the mandible is located posterior to its normal position in relation to the maxillae.
A condition of facial disharmony in which one or both jaws are posterior to normal in their craniofacial relationships; usually used in reference to the mandible. [ retro- + G. ...
1. Moving backward. 2. Degenerating; reversing the normal order of growth and development. [L. retrogradus, fr. retro- + gradior, to go]
Amnesia in which the lack of memory relates to events occurring before a traumatic occurrence.
Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS)
Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is a procedure for doing surgery within the kidney using a viewing tube called a fiberoptic endoscope. In RIRS the scope is placed through ...
SYN: mirror-writing. [ retro- + G. grapho, to write]
SYN: cataplasia. [L. retrogressus fr. retrogradior, to go backwards]
The washing out of a cavity by the backward flow of an injected fluid. [L. retro, backward, + jacio, to throw]