A form of syringe with long tubular attachment to the nozzle, used in retrojection.
Posterior to the lens of the eye. SYN: retrolenticular (1).
1. SYN: retrolental. 2. Behind the lentiform nucleus of the brain.
Relating to the back part of the tongue; posterior to the tongue. [ retro- + L. lingua, tongue]
Posterior to the lower jaw. [ retro- + L. mandibula, lower jaw]
Posterior to the mastoid process; relating to the posterior mastoid cells.
Distal (or posterior) to the last erupted (or present) molar tooth.
SYN: cataplasia. [ retro- + G. morphosis, process of forming]
Posterior nasal; relating to the posterior nares.
Inflammation of the cellular tissue behind the peritoneum.
- idiopathic fibrous r. SYN: retroperitoneal fibrosis.
That state of cell or tissue in which activity is decreased below that considered normal; associated with retrogressive changes ( e.g., injury, degeneration, death, necrosis). [ ...
Denoting retroposition. [ retro- + L. pono, pp. positus, to place]
Simple backward displacement of a structure or organ, as the uterus, without inclination, bending, retroversion, or retroflexion. [ retro- + L. positio, a placing]
A transposition of sequences in a DNA that does not originate in the DNA but rather in an mRNA that is transcribed back into the genomic DNA by reverse transcription. [ retro- ...
1. An involuntary backward walking or running, occurring in patients with the parkinsonian syndrome. 2. A pushing back of any part. [ retro- + L. pulsio, a pushing, fr. pello, ...
The act or process of surveying and reviewing the past. [ retro- + L. specto, pp. spectatus, to look at]
Slipping posteriorly of the body of a vertebra, bringing it out of line with the adjacent vertebrae. [ retro- + G. spondylos, vertebra, + olisthesis, a slipping]
Behind the sternum (the breastbone).
* * *
Posterior to the sternum.
A term sometimes used to designate a steroid in which the orientations of the substituents at carbons-9 and -10 are the opposite of those of the reference or “parent” compound.
Posterior to the tarsus, or edge of the eyelid.
1. A turning backward, as of the uterus. 2. Condition in which the teeth are located in a more posterior position than is normal. [ retro- + L. verto, pp. versus, to turn]
A family of RNA viruses 80–100 nm in diameter, enveloped, and containing two identical molecules of positive sense, single-stranded RNA, molecular weight 3–6 × 106; genomic ...
An RNA virus (a virus composed not of DNA but of RNA). Retroviruses have an enzyme called reverse transcriptase that gives them the unique property of transcribing RNA (their ...
1. Retraction of the mandible from any given point. 2. The backward movement of the mandible. [L. retrudo, pp. -trusus, to push back]
Andreas, 20th century Austrian pediatrician. See R. syndrome.
A genetic disease that is a uniform and striking, progressive neurologic developmental disorder and one of the most common causes of mental retardation in females. After normal ...
- total anomalous pulmonary venous r. ( TAPVR) See anomalous pulmonary venous connections, total or partial, under connection.
- venous r. the blood returning to the heart via the ...
Magnus G., Swedish anatomist and anthropologist, 1842–1919. See R. striae, under stria, lines of R., under line, foramen of R., calcification lines of R., under line, foramen ...
Connecting; denoting the ductus reuniens. [L. re-, again, + unio, pp. unitus, to unite]
August von, Austrian ophthalmologist, 1841–1924. See R. formula, R. test.
Vaccination of an individual previously successfully vaccinated.
Multiple echoes or reflections; in ultrasonography, an artifactual image caused by delay of an echo that has been reflected back and forward again before returning to the ...
Jacques L., Swiss surgeon, 1842–1929. See R. graft.
1. A turning or changing to the opposite direction, as of a process, disease, symptom, or state. 2. The changing of a dark line or a bright one of the spectrum into its opposite. ...
Reversal of organs, total
This condition (medically called situs inversus totalis) involves complete transposition (right to left reversal) of the thoracic and abdominal organs. The heart is not in its ...
In classic genetics, the traditional approach was to find a gene product and then try to identify the gene itself. In molecular genetics, the reverse has been done by identifying ...
The enzyme that permits the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other retroviruses to use their viral RNA as a template to make DNA. Reverse transcriptase is so-named ...
Capable of reversal; said of diseases or chemical reactions.
1. The manifestation in an individual of certain characteristics, peculiar to a remote ancestor, which have been suppressed during one or more of the intermediate generations. ...
In microbial genetics, a mutant that has reverted to its former genotype (true reversion) or to the original phenotype by means of a suppressor mutation. [L. revertans, ...
drug utilization r. an authorized, structured, ongoing program that collects, analyzes, and interprets drug use patterns to improve the quality of drug use and patient outcomes.
Léon, Swiss physician, 1835–1919. See R. sign.
SYN: revivification (1). [L. re-vivesco, to come to life again, fr. vivo, to live]
1. Renewal of life and strength. SYN: revivescence. 2. Refreshening the edges of a wound by paring or scraping to promote healing. SYN: vivification. [L. re-, again, + vivo, ...
SYN: derivation (1). [L. revulsio, act of pulling away, fr. revello, pp. -vulsus, to pluck or pull away]
Application of heat to correct hypothermia.
Bror A., Swedish physician, scientist, and public servant, *1914. See lamina of R..
Ralph Douglas Kenneth, 20th century Australian pathologist. See R. syndrome.
A sudden, sometimes fatal, disease of the brain (encephalopathy) with degeneration of the liver, occurs in children (most cases 4-12 years of age), comes after the chickenpox ...
Osborne, English physicist, 1842–1912. See R. number.
Rheumatoid factor. Rheumatoid factor is an antibody that is measurable in the blood. It is commonly used as a blood test for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid ...
Symbol denoting movement of a substance in paper chromatography relative to the solvent front ( i.e., retardation factor); equal to the migration distance of a substance divided ...
Abbreviation for right frontoanterior position.
Abbreviation for restriction fragment length polymorphism.
Abbreviation for right frontoposterior position.
Abbreviation for right frontotransverse position.
Abbreviation for releasing hormone.
1. Symbol for rhodium. 2. See R. blood group, Blood Groups appendix.
An antigen found in the red blood cells of most people: those who have Rh factor are said to be Rh positive (Rh+), while those who do not are Rh negative (Rh-) Blood used in ...
The state of mother and fetus having different Rh blood group types so that their Rh types are " incompatible." The red blood cells of an Rh+ (Rh positive) fetus may in this ...
Abbreviation for l-rhamnose.
Rarely used term for band cell or metamyelocyte. [rhabdo- + G. kytos, cell]
Rod-shaped. [rhabdo- + G. eidos, resemblance]
Large round, spindle-shaped, or strap-shaped cells with deeply eosinophilic fibrillar cytoplasm that may show cross striations; found in some rhabdomyosarcomas. [rhabdo- + G. ...
A condition in which skeletal muscle cells break down, releasing myoglobin (the oxygen-carrying pigment in muscle) together with enzymes and electrolytes from inside the muscle ...
A benign neoplasm derived from striated muscle, occurring in the heart in children, probably as a hamartomatous process. [rhabdo- + G. mys, muscle, + -oma, tumor]
A malignant tumor that starts in muscle. Rhabdomyosarcoma is primarily a childhood tumor and occurs most often in children under 5 years of age. Over 60% of cases show up before ...
Morbid fear of a rod (or switch) as an instrument of punishment. [rhabdo- + G. phobos, fear]
A sphincter made up of striated musculature. SYN: striated muscular sphincter. [rhabdo- + G. sphinkter, sphincter]
A family of rod- or bullet-shaped viruses of vertebrates, insects, and plants, including rabiesvirus and vesicular stomatitis virus (of cattle). Virions (100–430 by 45–100 ...
For words so beginning, see rachi-.
A herpesvirus genus, subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae, associated with Kaposi sarcoma.
Chaps, cracks, or fissures occurring at mucocutaneous junctions; seen in vitamin deficiency diseases and in congenital syphilis. [G. rhagas, pl. r., a crack]
Resembling or characterized by rhagades. [G. rhagas (rhagad-), crack, + L. forma, shape]
A genus of shrubs and trees (family Rhamnaceae). The bark and berries of R. cathartica are cathartic; R. frangula is the source of frangula; R. purshiana is the source of ...
The absolute unit of fluidity, the reciprocal of the unit of viscosity. [G. rheos, a stream]
A rent or fissure. [G. breakage]
Arising from a bursting or fractionating of an organ. See r. retinal detachment. [G. rhegma, breakage, + -gen, producing]
Relating to Rheum (rhubarb).
A metallic element of the platinum group; atomic wt. 186.207, atomic no. 75. [Mod. L., fr. L. Rhenus, Rhine river]
Blood flow; electrical current. [G. rheos, stream, current, flow]
The minimal strength of an electrical stimulus of indefinite duration that is able to cause excitation of a tissue, e.g., muscle or nerve. SEE ALSO: chronaxie. SYN: galvanic ...
Pertaining to or having the characteristics of a rheobase.
Impedance plethysmography applied to the heart. [ rheo- + cardiography]
Graphic registration of the changes in conductivity of tissue of the head caused by vascular factors.
The technique of measuring blood flow of the brain; commonly used to denote impedance r., which uses changes in electrical impedance and resistance as a measure of flow. [ rheo- ...
A plot of the shear stress versus the shear rate for a fluid. [ rheo- + G. gramma, something written]
The study of the deformation and flow of materials. [ rheo- + G. logos, study]
1. An instrument for measurement of the rheologic properties of materials, e.g., of blood. 2. A galvanometer. [ rheo- + G. metron, measure]
Measurement of electrical current or blood flow.
A property of certain materials in which an increased rate of shear favors an increase in viscosity. [ rheo- + G. pexis, fixation]
A variable resistor used to adjust the current in an electrical circuit. [ rheo- + G. statos, stationary]
A hypertrophying and condensing osteitis that tends to run in longitudinal streaks or columns, like wax drippings on a candle, and that involves a number of the long bones. SYN: ...
A form of positive barotaxis, in which a microorganism in a fluid is impelled to move against the current flow of its medium. [ rheo- + G. taxis, orderly arrangement]
A movement contrary to the motion of a current, involving part of an organism, rather than the organism as a whole, as in rheotaxis. [ rheo- + G. tropos, a turning]
An obsolete term for the presence of broken-down red blood cells in the peripheral circulation. [G. rhaio, to destroy, + kytos, a hollow (a cell), + haima, blood]
Generic name for Macaca mulatta. [Mod. L., fr. L. R., G. Rhesos, a mythical king of Thrace]
A mucous or watery discharge. [G. rheuma, a flux]
Obsolete term for rheumatic pain. [G. rheuma, flux, + algos, pain]
Relating to or characterized by rheumatism. SYN: rheumatismal. [G. rheumatikos, subject to flux, fr. rheuma, flux]
Rheumatic heart disease
Heart damage caused by rheumatic fever. Treatment is by preventing reinfection with strep and by treating with heart drugs as needed.
Rheumatic nodules or other eruptions that may accompany rheumatism. [G. rheum, flux, + -id (1)]
Rheumatism is an older term, used to describe any of a number of painful conditions of muscles, tendons, joints, and bones. Rheumatism conditions have been classified as either ...
Rheumatism in which the patient reports inconsistent pains of muscles and joints that do not correspond to true anatomy and physiology. The patient is felt to have underlying ...
Resembling r. arthritis in one or more features. [G. rheuma, flux, + eidos, resemblance]
Rheumatoid nodules are firm lumps in the skin of patients with rheumatoid arthritis that usually occur in pressure points of the body, most commonly the elbows
A specialist in the non-surgical treatment of rheumatic illnesses, especially arthritis. Rheumatologists have special interests in unexplained rash, fever, arthritis, anemia, ...
A physician who specializes in providing comprehensive care to children (as well as their families) with rheumatic diseases, especially arthritis. Pediatric rheumatologists are ...
A subspecialty of internal medicine that involves the non-surgical evaluation and treatment of the rheumatic diseases and conditions. Rheumatic diseases and conditions are ...
SYN: recombinant human interleukin 11.
Pain in the nose. SYN: rhinodynia. [rhin- + G. algos, pain]
Swelling of the nasal mucous membrane. [rhin- + G. oidema, swelling]
A largely archaic collective term denoting the parts of the cerebral hemisphere directly related to the sense of smell : the olfactory bulb, olfactory peduncle (together still ...
A nasal douche; washing out the nasal cavities. [rhin- + G. enchysis, a pouring in]
A craniometric point : the lower end of the internal suture. [G. r., nostril, dim. of rhis (rhin-), nose]
Irritation of the nose. Derived from the Greek word rhinos meaning of the nose.
* * *
Inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane. SYN: nasal catarrh. [rhin- + G. -itis, ...
Inflammation of the nose that occurs for only a few days. Typically this is caused by a virus (“a cold”); if it goes on beyond a week then it is probably bacterial.
inflammation of the nose that goes on for weeks to months which is different from “a cold”, and may be caused by allergy, nasal irritants, structural, or physiological ...
The medical term for hayfever. (Hay fever is a misnomer since hay is not a usual cause of this problem and there is no fever. Many substances cause the allergic symptoms in hay ...
Inflammation of the nose (rhinitis) due to abnormal neuronal (nerve) control of the blood vessels in the nose. Vasomotor rhinitis is not allergic rhinitis.
SYN: rhinomanometer. [ rhino- + G. anemos, wind, + metron, measure]
Cavity (ventricle) of the rhinencephalon, the primitive olfactory part of the telencephalon. [ rhino- + G. koilia, a hollow]
Rhinencephaly; a form of cyclopia in which the nose is represented by a fleshy proboscis-like protuberance arising above the slitlike orbits, and the rhinencephalic lobes of ...
A genus of dematiaceous (dark colored) fungi, characterized by acrotheca, that cause chromoblastomycosis. SEE ALSO: Phialophora.
SYN: rhinostenosis. [ rhino- + G. kleisis, a closure]
Duplication of the nose on an otherwise normal face. [ rhino- + G. -dymos, fold]
SYN: rhinalgia. [ rhino- + G. odyne, pain]
Infection of horses and donkeys, rarely humans, with larvae of the fly Rhinoestrus purpureus; human infection is usually benign and of short duration, limited to the first stage ...
A species of fly of the family Oestridae, the nasal botflies, that causes rhinoestrosis.
Originating in the nose. [ rhino- + G. -gen, producing]
A hump deformity of the nose. [ rhino- + G. kyphosis, humped condition]
Nasalized speech. SYN: rhinism, rhinophonia. [ rhino- + G. lalia, talking]
- r. aperta abnormal speech attributable to inadequate velopharyngeal closure.
- r. clausa abnormal ...
A calcareous concretion in the nasal cavity often around a foreign body. SYN: nasal calculus, rhinolite. [ rhino- + G. lithos, stone]
The presence of a nasal calculus. [ rhinolith + G. -iasis, condition]
The branch of medical science concerned with the nose and paranasal sinuses and their diseases. [ rhino- + G. logos, study]
A manometer used to determine the presence and amount of nasal obstruction, and the nasal air pressure and flow relationships. SYN: rhinoanemometer. [ rhino- + manometer]
1. The use of a rhinomanometer. 2. The study and measurement of nasal air flow and pressures.
Necrosis of the bones of the nose. [ rhino- + necrosis]
Disease of the nose. [ rhino- + G. pathos, suffering]
A concretion in the nasopharynx. [ rhinopharynx + G. lithos, stone]
SYN: rhinolalia. [ rhino- + G. phone, voice]
Pronounced (ryno-fee-ma), a bulbous enlarged red nose and puffy cheeks (like those of the old comedian W.C. Fields). There may also be thick bumps on the lower half of the nose ...
Plastic surgery on the nose, known familiarly as a nose job. Rhinoplasty is a facial cosmetic procedure, usually performed to enhance the appearance of the nose. During ...
Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose and lung. [ rhino- + G. pneumon, lung, + -itis, inflammation]
Medical term for a runny nose. From the Greek words "rhinos" meaning "of the nose" and "rhoia" meaning "a flowing."
* * *
A discharge from ...
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose and eustachian tube. [ rhino- + G. salpinx, tube, + -itis, inflammation]
A chronic granulomatous process involving the nose, upper lip, mouth, and upper air passages; starts usually as a growth of hard smooth nodules in the anterior nares that spreads ...
A small mirror attached at a suitable angle to a rodlike handle, used in posterior rhinoscopy and nasopharyngoscopy.
Relating to the rhinoscope or to rhinoscopy.
Inspection of the nasal cavity. [ rhino- + G. skopeo, to view]
- anterior r. inspection of the anterior portion of the nasal cavity with or without the aid of a nasal ...
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose and paranasal sinuses.
Invasion of the nasal cavity or, occasionally, the conjunctiva, or other superficial structures by Rhinosporidium seeberi, resulting in a chronic granulomatous disease producing ...
A funguslike organism, of worldwide distribution and uncertain taxonomic position, found in certain vascular raspberry-like nasal polyps (rhinosporidiosis). [ rhino- + G. ...
Nasal obstruction. SYN: rhinocleisis. [ rhino- + G. stenosis, a narrowing]
Compulsive nose picking. "Rhinotillexomania" is among the more obscure and exotic terms in medicine but it has drawn attention because of the habit to which it refers. It is "a ...
1. Any cutting operation on the nose. 2. Operative procedure in which the nose is incised along one side so that it may be turned away to provide full vision of the nasal ...
Inflammation of the nasal cavities and trachea. [ rhino- + trachea + -itis, inflammation]
A genus of acid-labile viruses (family Picornaviridae) of worldwide distribution, with a single-stranded positive sense RNA genome, associated with the common cold in humans. ...
Any virus of the genus R..
- bovine rhinoviruses viruses that cause widespread subclinical and occasionally mild clinical respiratory diseases of calves in the United States and ...
A genus of inornate hard ticks (family Ixodidae) consisting of about 50 species, all of which are Old World except R. sanguineus. Eyes and festoons are present in both sexes; ...
Combining form denoting root. [G. rhiza]
1. Rootlike. 2. Irregularly branching, like a root; denoting a form of bacterial growth. 3. In fungi, the rootlike hyphae that arise at the nodes of the hyphae of Rhizopus ...
The creeping underground stem of plants such as iris, calamus, and sanguinaria. [G. rhizoma, mass of roots, fr. rhiza, root, + -oma, mass]
1. Disproportion in the length of the most proximal segment of the limbs (upper arms and thighs). 2. A disorder involving the shoulder and hip joint. [ rhizo- + G. melos, limb]
Of or relating to the hip joint or the shoulder joint.
Inflammation of the nerve roots, the meninges, and the spinal cord. SYN: radiculomeningomyelitis. [ rhizo- + G. meninx, membrane, + myelon, marrow, + -itis, inflammation]
A genus of fungi in the family Mucoraceae; a cause of mucormycosis.
A fine connection between the flagellum or blepharoplast and the nucleus of a protozoan. [ rhizo- + G. plastos, formed]
A superclass in the subphylum Sarcodina that includes the amebae of humans, having pseudopodia of various forms but without axial filaments. SYN: Rhizopodasida, Rhizopodea. ...
SYN: Rhizopoda. [ rhizo- + G. pous (pod-), foot]
A folic acid factor for certain bacteria. SYN: SLR factor, Streptococcus lactis R factor.
A genus of fungi (class Zygomycetes, family Mucoraceae); some species cause mucormycosis in humans.
Section of the spinal nerve roots for the relief of pain or spastic paralysis. SYN: radicotomy, radiculectomy. [G. rhiza, root, + tome, section]
- anterior r. section of ...
1. The 17th letter of the Greek alphabet. 2. Symbol for density. 3. See r. factor.
A fluorescent red basic xanthene dye, tetraethylrhodamine chloride, used in histology as a contrasting stain to methylene blue and methyl green, and as a vital fluorochrome. ...
SYN: thiosulfate sulfurtransferase.
A dye mixture, considered by some to be a salt of rhodamine B and Nile blue, used to stain keratinized epithelium (red) and fibroblasts (blue), as well as spermatozoa and ...
A dihydroporphyrin derivative (the two additional hydrogens being at positions 17 and 18) of the type found in chlorophyll b and with a formyl group on position 7 rather than a ...
A metallic element, atomic no. 45, atomic wt. 102.90550. [Mod. L. fr. G. rhodon, a rose]
Genus of reduvid bug that is the principal vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in Venezuela, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, and Surinam.
- R. prolixus a reduvid bug, an important ...
A genus of rod-shaped, Gram-positive, partially acid-fast, aerobic bacteria found in soil and in the feces of herbivores. Some species are pathogenic for animals and humans. The ...
The production of rhodopsin by the combination of 11-cis-retinal and opsin in the dark. [ rhodopsin + G. genesis, production]
The action of the pigment cells of the choroid in preserving or facilitating the reproduction of rhodopsin. [ rhodopsin + G. phylaxis, a guarding]
A purplish-red thermolabile protein, MW about 40,000, found in the external segments of the rods of the retina; it is bleached by the action of light, which converts it to opsin ...
A genus of yeasts, usually pink to red and of questionable pathogenicity, which are generally introduced iatrogenically in prosthetic implants and into immunocompromised ...
Rh0(D) immune globulin, an injectable drug used to protect an Rh+ fetus from antibodies in an Rh- mother’s blood, and to prevent Rh allergy in the mother.
That part of the developing brain that is the most caudal of the three primary vesicles of the embryonic neural tube; secondarily divided into metencephalon and myelencephalon; ...
1. SYN: rhomboid. 2. Relating to the rhombencephalon.
Rhombic, rhomboid. [G. rhombos]
SYN: rhomboidal sinus. [ rhombo- + G. koilia, a hollow]
Resembling a rhomb; i.e., an oblique parallelogram, but having unequal sides; in anatomy, denoting especially a ligament and two muscles. SYN: rhombic (1). [ rhombo- + G. eidos, ...
Segments of the developing neural tube in the rhombencephalon; nine rhombomeres appear in the developing human. [ rhombencephalon + G. meros, part]
An added sound with a musical pitch occurring during inspiration or expiration, heard on auscultation of the chest and caused by air passing through bronchi that are narrowed ...
Formation of vacuoles at a cell surface without prior formation of cytoplasmic projections, by which the cell appears to aspirate surrounding material. SEE ALSO: pinocytosis. ...
Electron-dense club-shaped, tubular or saccular organelles, extending back from the anterior end of sporozoites and other stages of certain sporozoans in the subphylum ...
Mispronunciation of the “r” sound. [G. rho, the letter r]
Any plant of the genus Rheum (family Polygonaceae), especially R. rhaponticum, garden r., and R. officinale or R. palmatum; the last two species or their hybrids, deprived of ...
A genus of vines and shrubs (family Anacardiaceae) containing various species that are used for their ornamental foliage; formerly used in tanning. Certain poisonous species are ...
SYN: mysophobia. [G. rhypos, filth, + phobos, fear]
1. Measured time or motion; the regular alternation of two or more different or opposite states. 2. SYN: r. method. 3. Regular or irregular occurrence of an electrical event in ...
Also known as fertility awareness, natural family planning, and periodic abstinence, this approach to contraception entails not having sexual intercourse on the days of a ...
The normal regular rhythm of the heart set by the natural pacemaker of the heart called the sinoatrial (or sinus) node. It is located in the wall of the right atrium (the right ...
A skin wrinkle. [[G. rhytis, -idos, wrinkle]]
Elimination of wrinkles from, or reshaping of, the face by excising any excess skin and tightening the remainder; the so-called face-lift. SYN: face-lift, rhytidoplasty. [G. ...
SYN: rhytidectomy. [G. rhytis, a wrinkle, + plastos, formed]
1. Wrinkling of the face to a degree disproportionate to age. 2. Laxity and wrinkling of the cornea, an indication of approaching death. SYN: rutidosis. [G. a wrinkling, fr. ...
Abbreviation for radioimmunoassay.
One of the 12 paired arches of bone which form the skeletal structure of the chest wall (the rib cage). The ribs attach to the building blocks of the spine (vertebrae) in the ...
A extra rib which arises from the seventh cervical vertebra. It is located above the normal first rib. A cervical rib is present in only about 1 in 200 (0.5%) of people. It may ...