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Seventh cranial nerve
The seventh cranial nerve is the facial nerve, a mixed nerve that has fibers both going out and coming in (both efferent and afferent fibers). It supplies the muscles of facial ...
Seventh cranial nerve paralysis
Known as Bell’s palsy, this is paralysis of the facial nerve, the nerve that supplies the facial muscles on one side of the face. The cause of Bell’s palsy is not known, ...
Sever condition
Inflammation of the growth plate of the calcaneus, the bone at the back of the heel. The inflammation is at the point where the Achilles tendon attaches. Sever condition occurs ...
severe combined immunodeficient mice
Mice that lack both T and B lymphocytes and are used for transplantation and study of human lymphoid tissues resulting in a SCID-human mouse chimera. SEE ALSO: severe combined ...
Severe congenital neutropenia
An condition characterized by a lack of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell that is important in fighting infection. It is usually, but not always, hereditary Children with ...
Severinghaus
John W., U.S. physiologist and anesthesiologist, *1922. See S. electrode.
sevoflurane
A halogenated ether for inhalation anesthesia.
sevum
Suet or tallow. [L.]
sex
1. The biologic character or quality that distinguishes male and female from one another as expressed by analysis of the individual's gonadal, morphologic (internal and ...
Sex region Y
A region on the Y chromosome that determines the sex of the individual. This region which goes by the symbol SRY (sex region Y) is necessary and sufficient for male sex ...
sex-influenced
Denoting a class of genetic disorders in which the same genotype has differing manifestations in the two sexes; the variation may be rational ( e.g., breast cancer occurs less ...
sex-limited
Occurring in one sex only. See sex-limited inheritance.
sex-linked
See sex linkage.
sexdigitate
Having six digits on one or both hands or feet. SYN: sedigitate. [L. sex, six, + digitus, finger or toe]
sexivalent
Having a valence of six. [L. sex, six, + valencia, strength]
sexology
The scientific study of all aspects of sex, including differentiation and dimorphism, and, particularly, sexual behavior. [L. sexus, sex, + G. logos, study]
sextan
Denoting a malarial fever the paroxysms of which recur every sixth day, counting the day of the episode as the first; i.e., with a four-day asymptomatic interval. [L. sextus, ...
sexual
Relating to sex, including stimulation, responsiveness, and functioning of the sex organs. [L. sexualis, fr. sexus, sex]
Sexual child abuse
Child abuse comprises four basic types of mistreatment: child neglect, physical abuse of a child, emotional abuse of a child, and sexual abuse of a child. Sexual abuse is the ...
sexual preference
The gender sought in one's sexual partners. 2. A particular mode of behavior leading to sexual satisfaction.
sexuality
1. The sum of a person's sexual behaviors and tendencies, and the strength of such tendencies. 2. One's degree of sexual attractiveness. 3. The quality of having sexual functions ...
sexualization
1. The state characterized by the presence of sexual energy or drive. 2. The act of acquiring sexual energy or drive. 3. The act of imputing a sexual meaning or quality to ...
Sexually transmitted disease
Any disease transmitted by sexual contact; caused by microorganisms that survive on the skin or mucus membranes of the genital area; or transmitted via semen, vaginal secretions, ...
Sexually transmitted disease in men
Men can contract all of the venereal diseases, but may have no symptoms, or have different symptoms than women do. For example, most men who have chlamydia have no symptoms at ...
Sexually transmitted diseases in women
Women can contract all of the venereal diseases, but may have no symptoms, or have different symptoms than men do. For example, women infected with gonorrhea may not have any ...
Sézary
Albert, French dermatologist, 1880–1956. See S. cell, S. erythroderma, S. syndrome.
Sf
Symbol for flotation constant.
SFO
Abbreviation for subfornical organ.
SGA
Small for gestational age. SGA infants weigh 2500 g or less at birth and are considered to have intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), given their gestational age. By contrast, ...
SGOT
Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, an enzyme that is normally present in liver and heart cells. SGOT is released into blood when the liver or heart is damaged. The blood ...
SGPT
Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, an enzyme that is normally present in liver and heart cells. SGPT is released into blood when the liver or heart are damaged. The blood SGPT ...
SH
1. Abbreviation for serum hepatitis. 2. Abbreviation for sulfhydryl.
shadow
1. A surface area defined by the interception of light or x-rays by a body. SEE ALSO: density (3). 2. In jungian psychology, the archetype consisting of collective animal ...
shadow-casting
Vacuum evaporation and deposition of a film of carbon or metals such as palladium, platinum, or chromium on a contoured microscopic object in order to allow the object to be ...
Shaffer
A., U.S. biochemist, 1881–1960. See S.-Hartmann method.
shaft
SYN: diaphysis. [A.S. sceaft] - s. of clavicle [TA] the elongated, rodlike body of the clavicle. SYN: corpus claviculae [TA], body of clavicle. - s. of femur [TA] the ...
Shaken baby syndrome
Injuries, particularly to the head, caused by violently shaking an infant. The syndrome is the commonest cause of infant death from head injuries and one of the most serious kinds ...
shakes
The vernacular term for a paroxysm associated with an intermittent fever. - smelter's s. SYN: smelter's fever.
shank
1. The tibia; the shin; the leg. 2. The portion of an instrument that connects the cutting or functional portion to a handle; with rotary tools, such as burrs and drills, the end ...
shaping
In operant conditioning, when the operant response is not in the organism's repertoire, a procedure in which the experimenter breaks down the response into those parts which ...
Shark attack
Attack of a person by a shark. Not all shark attacks are feeding events. Sharks sometimes grab people by mistake. Other times an attack may protect a shark's space, much as a dog ...
shark liver oil
Oil extracted from the livers of sharks, mainly of the species Hypoprion brevirostris; a rich source of vitamins A and D.
Sharp
Medical slang for a needle or similar pointed object.
Sharpey
William, Scottish physiologist and histologist, 1802–1880. See S. fibers, under fiber.
Sharpey-Schäfer
See Schäfer.
Shaver
Cecil Gordon, Canadian physician, *1901. See S. disease.
SHBG
Abbreviation for sex hormone-binding globulin.
shear
The distortion of a body by two oppositely directed parallel forces. The distortion consists of a sliding over one another of imaginary planes (within the body) parallel to the ...
shears
SYN: scissors. - Liston s. strong s. for cutting plaster of Paris bandages.
sheath
1. Any enveloping structure, such as the membranous covering of a muscle, nerve, or blood vessel. Any sheathlike structure. SYN: vagina (1). 2. The prepuce of male animals, ...
Sheehan
Harold L., British pathologist, *1900. See S. syndrome.
Sheldon
J.H., English pediatrician, 1920–1964. See Freeman-S. syndrome.
shelf
In anatomy, a structure resembling a s.. - Blumer s. SYN: rectal s.. - dental s. SYN: dental ledge. - palatal s. a medially directed outgrowth of the embryonic maxilla; when ...
shell
An outer covering. - cytotrophoblastic s. the external layer of fetally derived trophoblastic cells on the maternal surface of the placenta. - diffusion s. a small vessel made ...
Shell shock
The World War I name for what is known today as post-traumatic stress, this is a psychological disorder that develops in some individuals who have had major traumatic experiences ...
shellac
A resinous excretion of an insect, Laccifer (Tachardia) lacca (family Coccidae). The insects suck the juice of various resiniferous Asiatic (chiefly Indian) trees and excrete ...
Shemin
David, U.S. biochemist, *1911. See S. cycle.
Shenton
Edward W.H., English radiologist, 1872–1955. See S. line.
Shepherd
Francis J., Canadian surgeon, 1851–1929. See S. fracture.
Sherman
Henry C., U.S. biochemist, 1875–1955. See S. unit, S.- Bourquin unit of vitamin B2, S.- Munsell unit.
Sherrington
Sir Charles S., English physiologist and Nobel laureate, 1857–1952. See S. phenomenon, S. law, Schiff-S. phenomenon, Liddell-S. reflex.
shield
A protecting screen; lead sheet for protecting the operator and patient from x-rays. [A.S. scild] - embryonic s. a thickened area of the embryonic blastoderm from which the ...
shift
SYN: change. SEE ALSO: deviation. - antigenic s. mutation, i.e., sudden change in molecular structure of RNA/DNA in microorganisms, especially viruses, which produces new ...
Shiga
Kiyoshi, Japanese bacteriologist, 1870–1957. See Shigella, S. bacillus, S.- Kruse bacillus.
Shigella
A group of bacteria that normally inhabit the intestinal tract and cause infantile gastroenteritis, summer diarrhea of childhood and various forms of dysentery including ...
Shigellosis
Epidemic and opportunistic bacillary dysentery due to infection with the Shigella bacteria. A particular hazard in AIDS and other immune deficiency states. Named for the ...
shikimate dehydrogenase
An oxidoreductase reversibly reacting 3-dehydroshikimic acid with NADPH acid to produce shikimic acid and NADP+ in l-phenylalanine and l-tyrosine biosynthesis.
Shiley
D. B., 20th century U.S. engineer. See Björk-S. valve.
shim
In magnetic resonance imaging, fine adjustment of the magnetic field to improve uniformity.
shin
SYN: anterior border of tibia. [A.S. scina] - saber s. the sharp-edged, anteriorly convex tibia in congenital syphilis. - toasted shins SYN: erythema ab igne.
Shin bone fever
Called shin bone fever because it characteristically causes fever and pain in the legs, this disease is also known as trench fever. It is a disease borne by body lice that was ...
Shin splint
An inflammatory condition of the front part of the tibia (the big bone in the lower leg) that results from overuse as, for example, from running too much on hard roads or ...
shin-splints
Tenderness and pain with induration and swelling of pretibial muscles, following athletic overexertion by the untrained; it may be a mild form of anterior tibial compartment ...
Shinbone
The larger of the two bones in the lower leg (the smaller one being the fibula). The shinbone is anatomically known as the tibia. "Tibia" is a Latin word meaning both shinbone ...
Shine
J., contemporary Australian molecular biologist.
Shingles
: An acute infection caused by the virus Herpes zoster, which also causes chickenpox. Shingles usually emerges in adulthood after exposure to chickenpox or reactivation of the ...
Shingles pain
Localized pain in the area of involvement of shingles. When such pain persists beyond one month it is referred to as postherpetic neuralgia.The most common complication of ...
ship
A structure resembling the hull of a s.. - Fabricius s. the outlines of the sphenoid, occipital, and frontal bones, from their fancied resemblance to the hull of a s..
Shipley
Walter C., U.S. psychiatrist, *1903. See S.-Hartford scale.
Shirodkar
N.V., Indian obstetrician and gynecologist, 1900–1971. See S. operation.
shiver
1. To shake or tremble, especially from cold. 2. A tremor; a slight chill.
shivering
Trembling from cold or fear.
Shock
In medicine, shock is a critical condition brought on by a sudden drop in blood flow through the body. There is failure of the circulatory system to maintain adequate blood flow. ...
Shock syndrome, dengue
A syndrome due to the dengue virus that tends to affect children under 10, causing abdominal pain, hemorrhage (bleeding) and circulatory collapse (shock). Known also as dengue ...
Shock, anaphylactic
A life-threatening allergic reaction characterized by a swelling of body tissues including the throat, difficulty in breathing, and a sudden fall in blood pressure.
Shock, cardiogenic
Shock caused by heart failure. The heart fails to pump blood effectively. For example, a heart attack (a myocardial infarction) can cause an abnormal ineffectual heart beat (an ...
Shock, hypovolemic
Shock due to a decrease in blood volume. This is the #1 cause of shock. It can be due to loss of blood from bleeding, loss of blood plasma through severe burns, and dehydration. ...
Shock, primary
Sudden loss of blood pressure due to fear or pain. See also syncope, situational.
Shock, psychologic
Trauma due to psychological events, as in "shell shock" (now known as post-traumatic stress disorder).
Shock, secondary
Shock that occurs as a side effect of another problem, such as a crushing injury or heart attack.
Shock, septic
Shock caused by infection. See also septicemia.
Shock, shell
The World War I name for what is known today as post-traumatic stress, this is a psychological disorder that develops in some individuals who have had major traumatic experiences ...
Shock, spinal
Shock caused by injury to the spinal cord.
Shock, vasogenic
Shock caused by widening of the blood vessels, usually from medication.
Shone
John D., 20th century English cardiologist. See S. anomaly, S. complex, S. syndrome.
shook jong
SYN: koro.
Shope
Richard E., U.S. pathologist, 1902–1966. See S. fibroma, S. fibroma virus, S. papilloma, S. papilloma virus.
Short arm of a chromosome
The short arm of a human chromosome is symbolized by convention as "p". The "p" comes from the French "petit" meaning small. All human chromosomes have 2 arms, the p (short) arm ...
short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
See acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (NADPH).
Short-term memory
A system for temporarily storing and managing information required to carry out complex cognitive tasks such as learning, reasoning, and comprehension. Short-term memory is ...
shortsightedness
SYN: myopia.
Shot, flu
The flu (influenza) vaccine is recommended annually (each year) for persons at high risk for serious complications from influenza virus infection, including: Everyone age 65 or ...
shot-feel
A peculiar sensation as of a nervous discharge or electric shock passing rapidly from the top of the head to the feet, sometimes described as a sensation of the rolling of shot ...
Shotgun sequencing
An approach used to decode a genome by shredding ("shotgunning") it into smaller fragments of DNA which can then be individually sequenced. The sequences of these fragments are ...
Shotty
Resembling shot or pellets of lead, shotgun pellets and, hence, hard and round. The term "shotty" was in use in the 19th century. It is now generally obsolete but it is still in ...
Shoulder
The shoulder has two main bones: the scapula (the shoulder blade) and the humerus (the long bone of the upper arm). The end of the scapula, called the glenoid, is a socket into ...
Shoulder blade
The familiar flat triangular bone at the back of the shoulder. Known familiarly as the wingbone or, medically, as the scapula. The word "scapula" (with the accent on the first ...
Shoulder bursitis
Inflammation of one or both of the two major bursae (fluid-filled sacs) in the shoulder. Treatment typically includes rest, ice, and medications for inflammation and pain. ...
Shoulder joint
The flexible ball-and-socket joint formed by the junction of the humerus and the scapula. This joint is cushioned by cartilage that covers the face of the glenoid socket and ...
Shoulder, frozen
Constant severe limitation of the range of motion of the shoulder due to scarring around the shoulder joint (adhesive capsulitis). Frozen shoulder is an unwanted consequence of ...
Show
An appearance. Show, bloody: Literally, the appearance of blood. The bloody show consists of blood-tinged mucus created by extrusion and passage of the mucous plug that filled ...
Shprintzen
R.J. See S. syndrome.
Shprintzen syndrome
Congenital malformation (birth defect) syndrome with cleft palate, heart defect, abnormal face, and learning problems. The condition is also called the velo-cardio-facial (VCF) ...
Shrapnell
Henry J., English anatomist, 1761–1841. See S. membrane.
shudder
A convulsive or involuntary tremor. [M.E. shodderen] - carotid s. vibrations at the crest of the carotid pulse tracing, seen in aortic stenosis.
Shulman
Lawrence E., U.S. rheumatologist, *1919. See S. syndrome.
Shulman’s syndrome (Eosinophilic fasciitis)
A disease which leads to inflammation and thickening of the skin and fascia. (The fascia is a lining tissue under the skin that covers a surface of underlying tissues. When the ...
Shumway
Norman, U.S. surgeon, *1923, developed method for dealing with tissue rejection related to heart transplants.
Shunt
: 1) To move a body fluid, such as cerebrospinal fluid, from one place to another. 2) A catheter (tube) that carries cerebrospinal fluid from a ventricle in the brain to another ...
Shunt ventriculopleural
A shunt that drains fluid from the cerebral ventricle into the chest cavity.
Shunt, Blalock-Taussig
A pioneering heart operation named after the American surgeon Alfred Blalock (1899-1964) and the pediatric cardiologist Helen B. Taussig (1898-1986). Dr. Taussig designed and ...
Shunt, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic
A shunt that allows blood from the portal circulation (that supplies the liver) to flow into the systemic (general) circulation. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt ...
Shunt, transjugular, intrahepatic, portosystemic (TIPS)
A shunt (tube) placed between the portal vein which carries blood from the intestines to the liver and the hepatic vein which carries blood from the liver back to the heart. It ...
Shunt, triculoperitoneal
A shunt that drains fluid from the cerebral ventricle into the abdomen.
Shunt, ventriculoatrial
A shunt that drains fluid from the cerebral ventricle into the right atrium of the heart.
shuttle
A going back and forth regularly; used in respect to certain transport processes across a biomembrane. - glycerophosphate s. a mechanism for the transfer of reducing equivalents ...
Shwachman
Harry, U.S. pediatrician, 1910–1986. See S. syndrome, S.-Diamond syndrome.
Shwartzman
Gregory, Russian bacteriologist in U.S., 1896–1965. See S. phenomenon, S. reaction, generalized S. phenomenon, Sanarelli-S. phenomenon.
Shy
George Milton, U.S. neurologist, 1919–1967. See S.- Drager syndrome. Abbreviation for 6-mercaptopurine.
SI
Abbreviation for International System of Units (Système International d'Unités).
Si
Symbol for silicon.
sI
Abbreviation for 6-mercaptopurine ribonucleoside (or 6-thioinosine).
si op. sit
Abbreviation for L. si opus sit, if needed.
Sia
Abbreviation for sialic acids.
SIADH
Abbreviation for syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone.
sial-
See sialo-.
sialaden
A salivary gland. [ sial- + G. aden, gland]
sialadenitis
Inflammation of a salivary gland. SYN: sialoadenitis. [ sial- + G. aden, gland, + -itis, inflammation]
sialadenotropic
Having an influence on the salivary glands. [ sial- + G. aden, gland, + trope, a turning]
sialagogue
1. Promoting the flow of saliva. 2. An agent having this action ( e.g., anticholinesterase agents). SYN: ptyalagogue, sialogogue. [ sial- + G. agogos, drawing forth]
sialectasis
Dilation of a salivary duct. SYN: ptyalectasis. [ sial- + G. ektasis, a stretching]
sialemesis, sialemesia
Vomiting of saliva, or vomiting caused by or accompanying an excessive secretion of saliva. [ sial- + G. emesis, vomiting]
sialic
SYN: salivary.
sialic acids
Esters and other N- and O-acyl derivatives of neuraminic acid; radicals of s. are sialoyl, if the OH of the COOH is removed, and sialosyl, if the OH comes from the anomeric ...
sialidase
An enzyme that cleaves terminal acetylneuraminic residues from oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, or glycolipids; present on the surface antigen in myxoviruses; used in ...
Sialidosis
A form of mucolipidosis characterized by deficiency of acid alpha-N-acetyl- neuraminidase (sialidase). See also mucolipidosis, mucopolysaccharidosis. * * * SYN: cherry-red ...
sialine
SYN: salivary.
sialism, sialismus
SYN: sialorrhea. [G. sialismos]
sialo-, sial-
Saliva, salivary glands. SEE ALSO: ptyal-. Cf.:ptyal-. [G. sialon]
sialoadenectomy
Excision of a salivary gland. [sialo- + G. aden, gland, + ektome, excision]
sialoadenitis
SYN: sialadenitis.
sialoadenotomy
Incision of a salivary gland. [sialo- + G. aden, gland, + tome, incision]
sialoaerophagy
A habit of frequent swallowing whereby quantities of saliva and air are taken into the stomach. SYN: aerosialophagy. [sialo- + G. aer, air, + phago, to eat]
sialoangiectasis
Dilation of salivary ducts. [sialo- + G. angeion, vessel, + ektasis, a stretching]
sialoangiitis
Inflammation of a salivary duct. [sialo- + G. angeion, vessel, + -itis, inflammation]
sialocele
SYN: ranula (2). [sialo- + G. kele, tumor]
sialodochitis
Inflammation of the duct of a salivary gland. [sialo- + G. doche, receptacle, + -itis, inflammation]
sialodochoplasty
Repair of a salivary duct. [sialo- + G. doche, receptacle, + plasso, to fashion]
sialogenous
Producing saliva. SEE ALSO: sialagogue. [sialo- + G. -gen, producing]
sialoglycosphingolipid
SYN: ganglioside.
sialogogue
SYN: sialagogue.
sialogram
A radiograph of sialography. [sialo- + G. gramma, a writing]
sialography
Radiography of the salivary glands and ducts after the introduction of contrast medium into the ducts. SYN: ptyalography. [sialo- + G. grapho, to write]
sialolith
A salivary calculus. SYN: ptyalolith. [sialo- + G. lithos, stone]
sialolithiasis
The formation or presence of a salivary calculus. SYN: ptyalolithiasis, salivolithiasis. [ sialolith + G. -iasis, condition]
sialolithotomy
Incision of a salivary duct or gland to remove a calculus. SYN: ptyalolithotomy. [ sialolith + G. tome, incision]
sialometaplasia
Squamous cell metaplasia in the salivary ducts. [sialo- + metaplasia] - necrotizing s. squamous cell metaplasia of the salivary gland ducts and lobules, with necrosis of the ...
sialometry
A measurement of salivary secretion, generally for a comparison of a denervated or diseased gland with its healthy counterpart. [sialo- + G. metron, measure]
sialorrhea
Excessive flow of saliva. SYN: hygrostomia, ptyalism, salivation, sialism, sialismus, sialosis. [sialo- + G. rhoia, a flow]
sialoschesis
Suppression of the secretion of saliva. [sialo- + G. schesis, retention]
sialosemiology, sialosemeiology
The study and analysis of saliva as an aid to diagnosis. [sialo- + G. semeion, sign, + logos, study]
sialosis
SYN: sialorrhea.
sialostenosis
Stricture of a salivary duct. [sialo- + G. stenosis, a narrowing]
Siamese twin
Identical (monozygotic) twins that did not separate fully from one another but are still partially united. Due to the incomplete division of one fertilized ovum. Such twins are ...
Sib
Sibling. * * * A member of a sibship. SYN: sibling.
sibilant
Hissing or whistling in character; denoting a form of rhonchus. [L. sibilans (-ant-), pres. p. of sibilo, to hiss]
sibilus
A sibilant rale. [L. a hissing]
sibling
SYN: sib. [A. S. sib, relation, + -ling, diminutive]
Sibship
The total number of children born to a set of parents. Siblings belong to a sibship. * * * 1. The reciprocal state between individuals who have the same pair of parents. 2. All ...
Sibson
Francis, English anatomist, 1814–1876. See S. aponeurosis, S. fascia, S. groove, S. muscle, S. aortic vestibule.
Sicard
Jean A., French physician, 1872-1929. See Collet-S. syndrome.
Sicca syndrome
An autoimmune disease, also known as Sjogren syndrome, that classically combines dry eyes, dry mouth, and another disease of connective tissue such as rheumatoid arthritis (most ...
siccant
1. Drying; removing moisture from surrounding substances. 2. A substance with such properties. SYN: siccative. [L. siccans (-ant-), pres. p. of sicco, pp. -atus, to dry]
siccative
SYN: siccant.
sicchasia
1. SYN: nausea. 2. Loathing for food. [G. sikchasia, loathing, fr. sikchos, squeamish]
siccolabile
Subject to alteration or destruction on drying. [L. siccus, dry, + labilis, perishable]
siccostabile, siccostable
Not subject to alteration or destruction on drying. [L. siccus, dry, + stabilis, stable]
sick
1. Unwell; suffering from disease. 2. SYN: nauseated. [A.S. seóc]
Sick building syndrome
A condition caused by exposure to various noxious agents that affect persons employed in a "sick building," usually an office or other building that houses many people working in ...
Sick sinus syndrome
Symptoms of dizziness, confusion, fainting, and heart failure due to a problem with the sinus node of the heart, which acts as the body’s natural pacemaker. If the sinus ...
Sickle cell anemia
A genetic blood disease due to the presence of an abnormal form of hemoglobin, namely hemoglobin S. Hemoglobin is the molecule in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the ...
Sickle cell disease
A genetic blood disease due to the presence of an abnormal form of hemoglobin, namely hemoglobin S. Hemoglobin is the molecule in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the ...
Sickle cell trait
The condition in which a person has one copy of the gene for sickle cell (and is called a sickle heterozygote) but does not have sickle cell disease (which requires two copies of ...
Sickle hemoglobin
Hemoglobin S, the most common type of abnormal hemoglobin and the basis of both sickle cell trait and sickle cell anemia. Hemoglobin S differs from normal adult hemoglobin ...
sicklemia
Presence of sickle- or crescent-shaped erythrocytes in peripheral blood; seen in sickle cell anemia and sickle cell trait.
sickling
Production of sickle-shaped erythrocytes in the circulation, as in sickle cell anemia.
sickness
SYN: disease (1). - acute African sleeping s. SYN: Rhodesian trypanosomiasis. - aerial s. SYN: altitude s.. - African sleeping s. Gambian trypanosomiasis, Rhodesian ...
Sickness, acute mountain (AMS)
Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is the illness that results from being at high altitude. AMS is common at very high altitudes, that is above 8,000 feet (2,440 meters). ...
Sickness, altitude
Altitude sickness (or altitude illness) is a disorder caused by being at high altitude. It more commonly occurs above 8,000 feet (2,440 meters). The cause of altitude illness ...
Sickness, morning
: Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Morning sickness is a misnomer, because it can occur at any time of the day (though not at night during sleep) and it is not a sickness. It ...
Sickness, motion
Motion sickness is a very common disturbance of the inner ear that is caused by repeated motion such as from the swell of the sea, the movement of a car, the motion of a plane ...
Sickness, mountain
Also known as altitude sickness or altitude illness, this is a disorder caused by being at high altitude, commonly above 8,000 feet (2,440 meters). The cause of altitude ...
side
One of the two lateral margins or surfaces of a body, midway between the front and back. [A.S. s.] - balancing s. in dentistry, the nonfunctioning s. from which the mandible moves ...
side effect
A result of drug or other therapy in addition to or in extension of the desired therapeutic effect; usually but not necessarily, connoting an undesirable effect. Although ...
Side effects
: Problems that occur when treatment goes beyond the desired effect. Or problems that occur in addition to the desired therapeutic effect. Example — A hemorrhage from the use of ...
sideration
Any sudden attack, as of apoplexy. [L. sideror, pp. sideratus, to be blasted or palsied by a constellation, fr. sidus (sider-), a constellation, the heavens]
sidero-
Iron. [G. sideros]
sideroblast
An erythroblast containing granules of ferritin stained by the Prussian blue reaction. [ sidero- + G. blastos, germ]
siderocyte
An erythrocyte containing granules of free iron, as detected by the Prussian blue reaction, in the blood of normal fetuses, where they constitute from 0.10–4.5% of the ...
siderofibrosis
Fibrosis associated with small foci in which iron is deposited.
siderogenous
Iron forming. [ sidero- + G. -gen, producing]
sideropenia
An abnormally low level of serum iron. [ sidero- + G. penia, poverty]
sideropenic
Characterized by sideropenia.
siderophage
SYN: siderophore. [ sidero- + G. phago, to eat]
siderophil, siderophile
1. Absorbing iron. SYN: siderophilous. 2. A cell or tissue that contains iron. [ sidero- + G. philos, fond]
siderophilins
Nonheme, iron-binding proteins; there are three central classes of s.: transferrin (1) (in vertebrate blood), lactoferrin (in mammalian milk and other secretions), and ...
siderophilous
SYN: siderophil (1).
siderophore
A large extravasated mononuclear phagocyte containing granules of hemosiderin, found in the sputum or in the lungs of individuals with longstanding pulmonary congestion from ...
siderosilicosis
Silicosis due to inhalation of dust containing iron and silica. SYN: silicosiderosis. [ sidero- + silicosis]
siderosis
1. A form of pneumoconiosis due to the presence of iron dust. 2. Discoloration of any part by disposition of a pigment containing iron; usually called hemosiderosis. 3. An ...
siderotic
Related to siderosis; pigmented by iron or containing an excess of iron.
SIDS
Acronym for sudden infant death syndrome.
SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)
The sudden and unexpected death of a baby with no known illness, typically affecting sleeping infants between the ages of two weeks to six months. Infants with a brother or ...
Siegert
Ferdinand, German pediatrician, 1865–1946. See S. sign.
Siegle
Emil, German otologist, 1833–1900. See S. otoscope.
siemens
The SI unit of electrical conductance; the conductance of a body with an electrical resistance of 1 ohm, allowing 1 ampere of current to flow per volt applied; equal to 1 ...
Siemerling
Ernst, German physician, 1857–1931.
sieve
A meshed or perforated device for separating fine particles from coarser ones. [O.E. sive] - molecular s. a gel-like material with pore sizes of such ranges as to exclude ...
sievert
The SI unit of ionizing radiation effective dose, equal to the absorbed dose in gray, weighted for both the quality of radiation in question and the tissue response to that ...
SIF
Abbreviation for somatotropin release-inhibiting factor.
Sig.
Abbreviation for L. signa, label, write, or signetur, let it be labeled.
Siggaard-Andersen
Ole, Danish clinical biochemist, *1932. See Siggaard- Andersen nomogram.
sigh
1. An audible inspiration and expiration under the influence of some emotion. 2. To perform such an act. [A.S. sican]
sight
The ability or faculty of seeing. SEE ALSO: vision. [A.S. gesihth] - day s. SYN: nyctalopia. - far s. SYN: hyperopia. - long s. SYN: hyperopia. - near s. SYN: myopia. - night ...
Sight, day
Night blindness. Listed in medical dictionaries under “Nyctalopia” from the Greek “nyct’ (night) + “aloas” (obscure or blind) + “opsis” (vision), the condition ...
sigma
The 18th letter of the Greek alphabet, σ.
Sigma Theta Tau
The international honor society for nursing. Membership is by invitation to baccalaureate and graduate nursing students, who demonstrate excellence in scholarship, and to ...
sigmatism
SYN: lisping. [G. sigma, the letter S]
Sigmoid
In human anatomy, the lower colon (the lower portion of the large bowel). "Sigmoid" is short for "sigmoid colon." The word "sigmoid" came from the Greek letter " sigma" which is ...
sigmoid-
See sigmoido-.
sigmoidectomy
Excision of the sigmoid colon. [ sigmoid- + G. ektome, excision]
sigmoidicity
Describing an S-shaped curve; E.G., shape of enzyme-kinetic curves for enzymes displaying positive homotropic cooperativity.
sigmoiditis
Inflammation of the sigmoid colon. [ sigmoid- + G. -itis, inflammation]
sigmoido-, sigmoid-
Sigmoid, usually the sigmoid colon. [G. sigma, the letter σ, + eidos, resemblance]
sigmoidopexy
Operative attachment of the sigmoid colon to a firm structure to correct rectal prolapse. [sigmoido- + G. pexis, fixation]
sigmoidoproctostomy
Anastomosis between the sigmoid colon and the rectum. SYN: sigmoidorectostomy. [sigmoido- + G. proktos, anus, + stoma, mouth]
sigmoidorectostomy
SYN: sigmoidoproctostomy.
Sigmoidoscope
: A lighted instrument used to view the inside of the lower colon. * * * An endoscope for viewing the lumen of the sigmoid colon. SYN: sigmoscope. [sigmoido- + G. skopeo, to ...
Sigmoidoscopy
A procedure in which a doctor inserts a viewing tube (sigmoidoscope) into the rectum for the purpose of inspecting the lower colon and rectum. If an abnormal area is detected, a ...
sigmoidostomy
Establishment of an artificial anus by opening into the sigmoid colon. [sigmoido- + G. stoma, mouth]
sigmoidotomy
Surgical opening of the sigmoid. [sigmoido- + G. tome, incision]
sigmoscope
SYN: sigmoidoscope.
Sign
Any abnormality that indicates a disease process, such as a change in appearance, sensation, or function, that is observed by a physician when evaluating a patient. * * * 1. Any ...
Sign, Babinski
A neurologic reflex that constitutes an important medical examination based upon what the big toe does when the sole of the foot is stroked. If the big toe goes up, that may well ...
Sign, Gottron
A scaly, patchy redness over the knuckles seen in patients with dermatomyositis, an inflammatory muscle disorder. (See polymyositis).
Sign, Kernig
A clinical hallmark of meningitis, inflammation of the meninges, the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. The test for Kernig sign is done by having the person lie ...
Sign, Lhermitte
Sudden transient electric-like shocks extending down the spine triggered by flexing the head forward. Due to a disorder such as compression of the cervical spine (the portion of ...
Sign, Macewen
A sign to detect hydrocephalus and brain abscess. Percussion (tapping) on the skull at a particular spot (near the junction of the frontal, temporal and parietal bones) yields ...
Sign, Tinel's
An examination test that is used by doctors to detect an irritated nerve. Tinel's sign is performed by lightly banging (percussing) over the nerve to elicit a sensation of ...
Sign, toe
An important neurologic test based upon what the toes do when the sole of the foot is stimulated. If the big toe goes up, that may mean trouble. The toe sign, also called the ...
signal
1. Something that causes an action. 2. A DNA template sequence that alters RNA polymerase transcription. 3. The end product observed when a specific sequence of DNA or RNA is ...
Signal transduction
A basic process in molecular cell biology involving the conversion of a signal from outside the cell to a functional change within the cell. A signal (such as a hormone or ...
Signature
1) That part of the prescription that contains the doctor's directions to the patient. For example, the signature might say “take twice daily with food”. Also known as the ...
Signed English
A system of communication that is a semantic representation of English in which American Sign Language signs are used in English word order and additional signs are used for ...
significant
In statistics, denoting the reliability of a finding or, conversely, the probability of the finding being the result of chance (generally less than 5%). [L. significo, to make ...

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