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siguatera
See ciguatera.
SIH
Abbreviation for somatotropin release-inhibiting hormone.
Silber
Robert H., U.S. biochemist, *1915. See Porter-S. chromogens, under chromogen, Porter-S. reaction, Porter-S. chromogens test.
sildenafil
A selective inhibitor of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5); relaxes the muscle in the penis, resulting in greater blood flow and erection; used to treat male ...
Silencing, gene
A mechanism by which cells shut down large sections of chromosomal DNA. Gene silencing is done by incorporating the DNA to be silenced into a form of DNA called heterochromatin ...
silent
Producing no detectable signs or symptoms, said of certain diseases or morbid processes.
Silica
The chief component of sand and a substance responsible for lung disease and cancer. Crystalline silica of respirable size is primarily quartz dust occurring in industrial and ...
silicate
1. A salt of silicic acid. 2. The term sometimes applied to dental restorations of synthetic porcelain.
silicatosis
SYN: silicosis.
siliceous
Containing silica. SYN: silicious.
silicic
Relating to silica or silicon.
silicic acid
Obtained in water as a colloid by treating silicates; precipitated s. is silica gel.
silicic anhydride
SYN: silica.
silicious
SYN: siliceous.
silicoanthracosis
A pneumoconiosis consisting of a combination of silicosis and anthracosis, seen in hard coal miners.
silicofluoride
A compound of silicon and fluorine with another element.
silicon
A very abundant nonmetallic element, atomic no. 14, atomic wt. 28.0855, occurring in nature as silica and silicates; in pure form, used as a semiconductor and in solar ...
silicon dioxide
SYN: silica. - colloidal s. a submicroscopic fumed silica prepared by the vapor-phase hydrolysis of a silicon compound; used as a tablet diluent and as a suspending and ...
silicone
A polymer of organic silicon oxides, which may be a liquid, gel, or solid, depending on the extent of polymerization; formerly widely used in surgical implants, in ...
silicoproteinosis
An acute pulmonary disorder, radiographically and histologically similar to pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, resulting from relatively short exposure to high concentrations of ...
silicosiderosis
SYN: siderosilicosis.
Silicosis
A form of lung disease resulting from occupational exposure to silica dust over a period of years. Silicosis causes slowly progressive fibrosis of the lungs, impairment of lung ...
silicotuberculosis
Silicosis associated with tuberculous pulmonary lesions.
siliqua olivae
The arcuate fibers, which appear to encircle the inferior olive in the medulla oblongata. [L. the husk of the olive]
silk
The fibers or filaments obtained from the cocoon of the silkworm. - floss s. SYN: dental floss. - surgical s. thread prepared from the cocoon filaments of glutinous gum that are ...
Silver
A metal used in some medications and in many “natural” remedies, as well as in silver amalgam for filling cavities in teeth. Silver has antibiotic properties. However, ...
silver impregnation
Silver complexes employed to demonstrate reticulin in normal and diseased tissues, as well as neuroglia, neurofibrillae, argentaffin cells, and Golgi apparatus.
Silver poisoning
Silver poisoning, medically termed argyria, causes ashen gray discoloration of the skin (and other tissues of the body). Due to chronic use of silver salts. For example, a ...
Silverman
Leslie, U.S. engineer, 1914–1966. See S.- Lilly pneumotachograph. William A., 20th century U.S. pediatrician. See Caffey-S. syndrome.
Silverskiöld
Nils G., Swedish orthopedist, 1888–1957. See S. syndrome.
silvol
SYN: mild silver protein.
simethicone
A mixture of dimethyl polysiloxanes and silica gel; an antiflatulent.
similia similibus curantur
The homeopathic concept expressing the law of similars (literally, “likes are cured by likes”), the doctrine that any drug capable of producing morbid symptoms in the ...
similimum, simillimum
In homeopathy, the remedy indicated in a certain case because the same drug, when given to a healthy person, will produce the symptom complex most nearly approaching that of the ...
Simmonds
Morris, German physician, 1855–1925. See S. disease.
Simmons
James S., U.S. bacteriologist, 1890–1954. See S. citrate medium.
Simon
Gustav, German surgeon, 1824–1876. See S. position. Richard, 20th century U.S. oncologist. See Norton-S. hypothesis. Théodore, French physician, 1873–1961. See Binet-S. ...
Simonart
Pierre J.C., Belgian obstetrician, 1816–1846. See S. bands, under band, S. ligaments, under ligament.
Simons
Arthur, German physician, *1877. See S. disease.
Simonsiella
Genus of nonphotosynthetic, nonfruiting, Gram-negative, chemoorganotrophic, gliding bacteria that exist as multicellular filaments with the long axis of individual cells ...
simple
1. Not complex or compound. 2. In anatomy, composed of a minimum number of parts. 3. A medicinal herb. [L. simplex]
Simplexvirus
SYN: herpes simplex.
Simplified Oral Hygiene Index
An index that measures the current oral hygiene status based upon the amount of debris and calculus occurring on six representative tooth surfaces in the mouth; often used in ...
Simpson
Sir James Y., Scottish obstetrician, 1811–1870. See S. uterine sound, S. forceps. William, British civil engineer, †1917.
Sims
James Marion, U.S. gynecologist, 1813–1883. See S. position, S. uterine sound.
simulation
1. Imitation; said of a disease or symptom that resembles another, or of the feigning of illness as in factitious illness or malingering. 2. In radiation therapy, use of a ...
simulator
An apparatus designed to produce effects simulating those of specific environmental conditions; used in experimentation and training.
Simulium
A genus of biting gnats or midges, the black flies, humpbacked flies, or buffalo gnats in the dipteran family Simuliidae. The aquatic larvae require swift-flowing streams or ...
simultagnosia
SYN: simultanagnosia.
simultanagnosia
Inability to recognize multiple elements in a visual presentation, i.e., one object or some elements of a scene can be appreciated but not the display as a whole. SYN: ...
SIMV
Abbreviation for synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation.
simvastatin
A potent HMG-CoA reductase (the rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol biosynthesis) inhibitor. Used for the treatment of hyperlipidemia; similar to lovastatin.
sincalide
The C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin; it causes smooth muscle contraction of the gallbladder and small intestine, relaxation of the choledoduodenal junction, and ...
sincipital
Relating to the sinciput.
sinciput
forehead. [L. half of the head]
SINES
Abbreviation for short interspersed elements, under element.
sinew
SYN: tendon. [A.S. sinu]
Singer
Mark I., U.S. laryngologist, *1945. See Blom-S. valve.
Single base change
A change in which a single base in the DNA differs from the usual base at that position. These single base changes are also called SNPs or "snips." Millions of SNP's have been ...
Single-gene disease
An hereditary disorder caused by a change (mutation) in a single gene. There are thousands of single-gene diseases including achondroplasia, Huntington disease, cystic ...
singleton
1. A fetus that develops alone. 2. SYN: sport. [unknown]
singultation
Hiccupping. See hiccup. [L. singulto, pp. -atus, to hiccup]
singultous
Relating to hiccups.
Singultus
A rarely used medical word for an ordinary hiccup. A hiccough is an extraordinary type of breathing movement involving a sudden intake of air (inspiration) due to an involuntary ...
sinigrase, sinigrinase
SYN: thioglucosidase.
sinister
Left. [L.]
sinistrad
Toward the left side. [L. sinister, left, + ad, to]
sinistral
1. Relating to the left side. SYN: sinistrous. 2. Denoting a left-handed person.
sinistrality
The condition of being left-handed.
sinistro-
Left, toward the left. [L. sinister]
sinistrocardia
Displacement of the heart beyond the normal position on the left side. [ sinistro- + G. kardia, heart]
sinistrocerebral
Relating to the left cerebral hemisphere. [ sinistro- + L. cerebrum, brain]
sinistrocular
Seldom-used term denoting one who prefers the left eye in monocular work, such as in the use of a microscope. Cf.:dominant eye. [ sinistro- + L. oculus, eye]
sinistrogyration
SYN: sinistrotorsion. [ sinistro- + L. gyratio, a turning around (gyration)]
sinistromanual
SYN: left-handed. [ sinistro- + L. manus, hand]
sinistropedal
Denoting one who uses the left leg by preference. SYN: left-footed. [ sinistro- + L. pes (ped-), foot]
sinistrorotation
SYN: sinistrotorsion.
sinistrorse
Turned or twisted to the left. [L. sinistrorsus, on the left side, fr. sinister, left, + verto, pp. versus, to turn]
sinistrotorsion
A turning or twisting to the left. SYN: levocycleduction, levorotation (2), levotorsion (1), sinistrogyration, sinistrorotation. [ sinistro- + L. torsio, a twisting ...
sinistrous
SYN: sinistral (1).
sinoatrial
SYN: sinuatrial.
Sinoatrial node
The sinoatrial node (the SA node) is one of the major elements in the cardiac conduction system, the system that controls the heart rate. This stunningly designed system ...
sinography
Radiologic use of a contrast medium to opacify a sinus tract. [sinus + G. grapho, to write]
sinopulmonary
Relating to the paranasal sinuses and the pulmonary airway.
sinovaginal
Relating to that part of the vagina derived from the urogenital sinus.
sinter
To heat a powdered substance without thoroughly melting it, causing it to fuse into a solid but porous mass. [Ger. dross, slag]
sinuatrial
Relating to the sinus venosus and the right atrium of the heart. SYN: sinoatrial.
sinus
1. [TA] A channel for the passage of blood or lymph, without the coats of an ordinary vessel; e.g., blood passages in the gravid uterus or those in the cerebral meninges. 2. ...
Sinus arrhythmia
The normal increase in heart rate that occurs during inspiration (when you breathe in). This is a natural response and is more accentuated in children than adults. The "sinus" ...
Sinus barotrauma
Sinus troubles, particularly with pain, due to changing atmospheric pressures, as when going up or down in a plane. Also called aerosinusitis or barosinusitis.
Sinus bradycardia
A regular but unusually slow heart beat (60 beats/minute or less at rest). Sinus bradycardia can be the result of many things including good physical fitness, medications, and ...
Sinus node
The sinus node is one of the major elements in the cardiac conduction system, the system that controls the heart rate. This stunningly designed system generates electrical ...
Sinus rhythm
The normal regular rhythm of the heart set by the natural pacemaker of the heart called the sinoatrial (or sinus) node. It is located in the wall of the right atrium (the right ...
Sinus tachycardia
A fast heartbeat (tachycardia) because of rapid firing of the sinoatrial (sinus) node. The sinoatrial (or sinus) node is the natural pacemaker of the heart. It is located in ...
Sinus, cavernous
A large channel of venous blood creating a "sinus" cavity bordered by the sphenoid bone and the temporal bone of the skull. The cavernous sinus is an important structure because ...
sinusitis
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of any sinus, especially of one of the paranasal sinuses. [sinus + G. -itis, inflammation]
sinusoid
1. Resembling a sinus. 2. Sinusoidal capillary; a thin-walled terminal blood vessel having an irregular and larger caliber than an ordinary capillary; its endothelial cells have ...
sinusoidal
Relating to a sinusoid.
sinusotomy
Incision into a sinus. [sinus + G. tome, incision]
siphon
A tube bent into two unequal lengths, used to remove fluid from a cavity or vessel by atmospheric pressure. [G. s., tube]
Siphona irritans
The horn fly, a bloodsucking muscoid fly that causes great irritation and annoyance to cattle, and transmits Stephanofilaria stilesi. [G. siphon, tube]
siphonage
Emptying of the stomach or other cavity by means of a siphon.
Siphonaptera
The fleas, an order of wingless insect ectoparasites highly adapted for survival in mammalian fur; they are flattened laterally, spined, and equipped with well-developed ...
Siphoviridae
A family of bacterial viruses with long, noncontractile tails and isometric or elongated heads, containing double-stranded DNA (MW 25–79 × 106); includes the λ temperate ...
Sipple
John H., U.S. physician, *1930. See S. syndrome.
Sippy
Bertram W., U.S. physician, 1866–1924. See S. diet.
sireniform
Denoting a malformation with the appearance of sirenomelia.
sirenomelia
Union of the legs with partial or complete union of the feet. SEE ALSO: sympus. SYN: mermaid malformation, symmelia. [L. siren, G. seiren, a siren]
siriasis
SYN: sunstroke. [G. seiriasis, from seiriao, to be hot]
Siris
Evelyn, U.S. radiologist, *1914. See Coffin-S. syndrome.
sirup
SYN: syrup.
sismotherapy
SYN: vibratory massage. [G. seismos, a shaking, fr. seio, fut. seiso, to shake]
sisomicin sulfate
An antibiotic produced by Micromonospora inyoensis that has a spectrum of activity and application similar to that of gentamicin.
sister
In Great Britain and its Commonwealth countries: 1. The title of a head nurse in a public hospital or in a ward or the operating room of a hospital. 2. Any registered nurse in ...
Sistrunk
Walter Ellis, U.S. surgeon, 1880–1933. See S. operation.
site
A place or location or locus. SYN: situs. [L. situs] - acceptor s. the ribosomal binding s. for the aminoacyl-tRNA during protein synthesis. - acceptor splicing s. SYN: right ...
sito-
Food, grain. [G. sitos, sition]
sitostane
SYN: stigmastane.
Sitosterolemia
A genetic disease involving lipids (fats) in which there is excessive intestinal absorption of dietary sterols and impaired clearance of these sterols from the liver into the ...
sitotaxis
SYN: sitotropism. [ sito- + G. taxis, orderly arrangement]
sitotoxin
Any food poison, especially one developing in grain. [ sito- + G. toxikon, poison]
sitotoxism
1. Poisoning by spoiled or fungous grain. 2. Food poisoning in general. [ sito- + G. toxikon, poison]
sitotropism
Turning of living cells to or away from food. SYN: sitotaxis. [ sito- + G. trope, a turning]
situation
The aggregate of biological, psychological, and sociological factors that affect an individual's behavioral pattern. - psychoanalytic s. the relationship, characteristically ...
Situational syncope
The temporary loss of consciousness in a particular kind of situation. The situations that trigger this reaction are diverse, and include having blood drawn, straining while ...
situs
SYN: site. [L.] - s. inversus reversal of position or location. SYN: s. transversus. - s. inversus viscerum a transposition of the viscera, e.g., the liver developing on the ...
Situs inversus totalis
A condition in which there is complete right to left reversal (transposition) of the thoracic and abdominal organs. For example, the heart is not in its usual position in the ...
Siwe
Sture A., Swedish pediatrician, 1897–1966. See Letterer-S. disease.
Six fingers or toes
The presence of an extra sixth finger or toe, a very common congenital malformation (birth defect). This condition is called hexadactyly. The word hexadactyly literally means ...
Sixth cranial nerve
The sixth cranial nerve is the abducent nerve, a small motor nerve that has one task: to supply a muscle called the lateral rectus muscle that moves the eye outward. Paralysis ...
Sixth disease
A viral disease of infants and young children with sudden onset of high fever which lasts several days and then suddenly subsides leaving in its wake a fine red rash. The ...
sizer
A cylinder of variable diameter, with rounded ends, used to measure the internal diameter of the bowel in preparation for stapling.
Sjögren
Henrik C., Swedish ophthalmologist, 1899–1986. See S. disease, S. syndrome, Gougerot-S. disease. Torsten, Swedish physician, 1859–1939. See S.- Larsson syndrome, Torsten S. ...
Sjogren-Larsson syndrome
The Sjogren-Larsson syndrome is a genetic (inherited) disease usually characterized by a triad of clinical findings consisting of ichthyosis (thickened fish-like skin), spastic ...
Sjöqvist
O., Swedish neurosurgeon, 1901–1954. See S. tractotomy.
SK
Abbreviation for streptokinase.
skato-
Obsolete spelling of scato-.
skatole
3-Methyl-1H-indole, formed in the intestine by the bacterial decomposition of l-tryptophan and found in fecal matter, to which it imparts its characteristic odor.
skatoxyl
3-Hydroxymethylindole, formed in the intestine by the oxidation of skatole; some undergoes conjugation in the body with sulfuric or gluronic acids and is excreted in the urine ...
skein
The coiled threads of chromatin seen in the prophase of mitosis. [Gael. sgeinnidh, hempen thread] - choroid s. SYN: choroid enlargement.
Skeletal
Pertaining to the skeleton, the bones of the body which collectively provide the framework for the body. * * * Relating to the skeleton.
Skeletal dysplasia
One of a large contingent of genetic diseases in which the bony skeleton is abnormally formed during development. For example, achondroplasia (achondroplastic dwarfism).
Skeletal muscle
One of three types of muscle tissue in the body (skeletal, smooth, cardiac) which represents the majority of the muscular tissue in the body. Skeletal muscle is the type of muscle ...
skeletology
The branch of anatomy and of mechanics dealing with the skeleton.
Skeleton
The skeleton is composed of bones and is the framework of the body. * * * 1. The bony framework of the body in vertebrates ( endoskeleton) or the hard outer envelope of ...
Skene
Alexander J.C., U.S. gynecologist, 1837–1900. See S. glands, under gland, S. tubules, under tubule, ducts of S. glands, under duct.
skeneitis, skenitis
Inflammation of Skene glands.
skeneoscope
A form of endoscope for inspecting Skene glands.
skew
In statistics, departure from symmetry of a frequency distribution.
skia-
Shadow; superseded by radio-. [G. skia]
skiascopy
SYN: retinoscopy.
Skillern
Penn Gaskell Jr., U.S. surgeon, *1882. See S. fracture.
Skin
The skin is the body's outer covering. It protects us against heat and light, injury, and infection. It regulates body temperature and stores water, fat, and vitamin D. Weighing ...
Skin Diseases, National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and (NIAMS)
One of the National Institutes of Health in the U.S. As its somewhat cumbersome name indicates, NIAMS’s mission is a broad and important one, namely to “conduct and support a ...
Skin erosion
Skin erosion is a loss of some or all of the epidermis (the outer layer) leaving a denuded surface. Erosion is an eating away of a surface. The word " erosion" comes from the ...
Skin graft
: Skin that is used to cover an area where the patient’s skin has been lost due to a burn, injury, or surgery. The most effective skin grafts involve moving the patient’s own ...
Skin graft, allogeneic
A skin graft transplanted between people who are not genetically identical. Also called an allograft. An allogeneic skin graft can also be between two mice, between two ...
Skin graft, autogenic
A graft using the patient’s own skin. Also known as an autologous graft.
Skin graft, composite
A graft technique in which both the patient’s own skin and donor skin are used together.
Skin graft, full-thickness
A graft technique in which sheets of skin containing both the epidermis and the dermis are used.
Skin graft, mesh
A graft technique in which multiple pieces of skin are carefully arranged to cover an area. This technique is used most frequently when a large area needs protection.
Skin graft, pedicle
A graft technique in which a piece of skin from a nearby area remains attached at one of its corners, while the main part of the piece is reattached over the area in need of ...
Skin graft, pinch
A graft technique in which very small squares of skin are attached to the area needing coverage, in hopes that they will start to grow and cover it.
Skin graft, porcine
A skin graft in which pig skin is used. Like grafts from human donors, porcine grafts are usually just a short-term protective measure.
Skin graft, split-thickness
A graft technique in which sheets of skin containing the epidermis and part of the dermis are used.
Skin plaque
A plaque is a broad, raised area on the skin. Because it is raised, it can be felt (palpated). By definition, a skin plaque has a greater surface than its elevation above the skin ...
Skin tag
A small tag of skin that may have a stalk (a peduncle). Skin tags may appear on the skin almost anywhere although the favorite locales are the eyelids, neck, armpits (axillae), ...
Skin test for immunity
A method of evaluating whether a person has developed an immune response to certain infections. A substance is injected into the deep layer of the skin (dermis), which will cause ...
skin writing
SYN: dermatographism.
Skin, tattooing of the
The permanent insertion of ink or other pigments below the skin using a sharp instrument. Humans have done tattooing for cosmetic and ritual purposes since at least the ...
Skinner
Burrhus F., U.S. psychologist, 1904–1990. See skinnerian conditioning, S. box.
Sklowsky
E.L., 20th century German physician. See S. symptom.
Skoda
Joseph, Bohemian clinician in Vienna, 1805–1881. See skodaic resonance, S. rale, S. sign, S. tympany.
skodaic
Relating to Skoda.
Skull
The skull is a collection of bones which encase the brain and give form to the head and face. The bones of the skull include the following: the frontal, parietal, occipital, ...
Skull, hair-on-end
Thin fine linear extensions radiating out from the skull that look on an X-ray like hair standing "on-end" from the skull, an appearance associated with hemolytic anemias such as ...
skullcap
SYN: calvaria.
SKY (spectral karyotype
A visualization of all of the chromosomes in the genome all together with each chromosome labeled with a different color. The SKY technique is useful for identifying chromosome ...
sky blue
A pigment mixture of cobaltous stannate and calcium sulfate; used biologically as an injection mass.
SL
Abbreviation for spinal length.
sl
Symbol for slyke.
slab-off
A process by which prism base-up is produced in the reading field of a spectacle lens through bicentric grinding.
Slanted ear
An ear that is slanted more than usual. Technically, an ear is slanted when the angle of the slope of the auricle is more than 15 degrees from the perpendicular. Considered a ...
SLE
Abbreviation for systemic lupus erythematosus.
SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus)
A chronic inflammatory condition caused by an autoimmune disease. An autoimmune disease occurs when the body's tissues are attacked by its own immune system. Patients with lupus ...
Sleep
The body’s rest cycle. Sleep is triggered by a complex group of hormones that are active in the main, and that respond to cues from the body itself and the environment. About 80 ...
Sleep apnea, central
A breathing disorder characterized by brief interruptions of breathing during sleep. Central sleep apnea occurs when the brain fails to send the appropriate signals to the ...
Sleep apnea, obstructive
Sleep apnea is a breathing disorder characterized by brief interruptions of breathing during sleep. It owes its name to a Greek word, apnea, meaning "want of breath." There are ...
Sleep disorders
Any disorder that affects, disrupts, or involves sleep. The most common sleep disorder is probably snoring, although it is usually not medically significant. Insomnia, sleep ...
Sleep paralysis
A frightening form of paralysis that occurs when a person suddenly finds himself or herself unable to move for a few minutes, most often upon falling asleep or waking up. Sleep ...
Sleep restriction therapy
A type of therapy in which the number of hours of sleep are restricted. Sleep restriction therapy is used in insomnia. Some people with insomnia spend too much time in bed ...
Sleep, non-rapid eye movement
NREM (non-rapid eye movement) sleep is dreamless sleep. During NREM, the brain waves on the electroencephalographic (EEG) recording are typically slow and of high voltage, the ...
Sleep, NREM
NREM (non-rapid eye movement) sleep is dreamless sleep. During NREM, the brain waves on the electroencephalographic (EEG) recording are typically slow and of high voltage, the ...
Sleep, paroxysmal
A neurological disorder marked by a sudden recurrent uncontrollable compulsion to sleep. Also known as narcolepsy. The disorder is often associated with cataplexy (a sudden ...
Sleep, rapid eye movement
REM sleep is the portion of sleep when there are rapid eye movements (REMs). Dreams occur during REM sleep. We typically have 3 to 5 periods of REM sleep per night. They occur ...
Sleep, REM
REM sleep is the portion of sleep when there are rapid eye movements (REMs). Dreams occur during REM sleep. We typically have 3 to 5 periods of REM sleep per night. They occur ...
Sleep, twilight
A term applied to the combination of analgesia (pain relief) and amnesia (loss of memory) produced by a mixture of morphine and scopolamine ("scope") given by a hypodermic ...
Sleep-disordered breathing
A condition characterized by repeated episodes of hypopnea (underbreathing) and apnea (not breathing) during sleep. A significant proportion of adults are thought to experience ...
sleepiness
SYN: somnolence (1).
Sleepiness, excessive daytime (EDS)
A neurological disorder marked by a sudden recurrent uncontrollable compulsion to sleep. Also known as narcolepsy. It is often associated with cataplexy (a sudden loss of ...
Sleeping disease
A neurological disorder marked by a sudden recurrent uncontrollable compulsion to sleep. Also known as narcolepsy. The disorder is often associated with cataplexy (a sudden ...
sleeplessness
SYN: insomnia.
sleeptalking
1. SYN: somniloquence (1). 2. SYN: somniloquy.
sleepwalker
SYN: somnambulist.
Sleepwalking
Purposeful moving, usually but not always including walking, while in a deep stage of sleep. Sleepwalking occurs most frequently in children, particularly boys. Sedatives tend to ...
slide
A rectangular glass plate on which is placed an object to be examined under the microscope.
Sliding hiatal hernia
Hiatal hernias are categorized as being either sliding or para-esophageal. Sliding hiatal hernias are those in which the junction of the esophagus and stomach, referred to as the ...
sling
A supporting bandage or suspensory device; especially a loop suspended from the neck and supporting the flexed forearm.
Slipped disc
Rupturing of the tissue that separates the vertebral bones of the spinal column. The center of the disc, which is called the nucleus, is soft, springy and receives the shock of ...
slit
A long, narrow opening, incision, or aperture. - Cheatle s. a longitudinal incision into the antimesenteric border of the small intestine, which when closed transversely ...
slitlamp
In ophthalmology, an instrument consisting of a microscope combined with a rectangular light source that can be narrowed into a slit. SYN: biomicroscope, Gullstrand s.. - ...
slope
An inclination or slant. - lower ridge s. the s. of the mandibular residual ridge in the second and third molar as seen from the buccal side.
slough
1. Necrosed tissue separated from the living structure. 2. To separate from the living tissue, said of a dead or necrosed part. [M.E. slughe]
SLS (Sjogren-Larsson syndrome)
The Sjogren-Larsson syndrome is a genetic (inherited) disease usually characterized by a triad of clinical findings consisting of ichthyosis (thickened fish-like skin), spastic ...
Sluder
Greenfield, U.S. laryngologist, 1865–1928.
Sluder neuralgia
See under neuralgia.
sludge
A muddy sediment. SEE ALSO: sludged blood. - activated s. activated s. method.
Sludge, biliary
A mixture of microscopic particulate matter in bile that occurs when particles of material precipitate from bile. (Bile is the fluid that is made by the liver. It is stored in ...
sluice
SYN: waterfall.
sluiceway
SYN: spillway.
slurry
A thin semifluid suspension of a solid in a liquid.
slyke
A unit of buffer value, the slope of the acid-base titration curve of a solution; the millimoles of strong acid or base that must be added per unit of change in pH. [D.D. Van ...
Sm
Symbol for samarium.
SMA
Abbreviation for sequential multichannel autoanalyzer; spinal muscular atrophy.
Small bowel
Another name for the small intestine. The word "bowel" originated from the Latin "botulus" meaning "sausage."
Small eye
Also called microphthalmia, an abnormally small eye, a congenital malformation (birth defect) of the globe. The related term " anophthalmia" means no eye and refers to absence ...
Small for gestational age (SGA)
SGA infants weigh 2500 g or less at birth and are considered to have intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), given their gestational age. By contrast, an infant may weighs 2500 g ...
Small intestine
: The part of the digestive tract that extends from the stomach to the large intestine.
Small saphenous vein
The smaller of the two saphenous veins, the principal veins that run up the leg superficially (near the surface). The small saphenous vein, runs behind the outer malleolus (the ...
smallpox
An acute eruptive contagious disease caused by a poxvirus ( Orthopoxvirus, a member of the family Poxviridae) and marked at the onset by chills, high fever, backache, and ...
Smallpox (variola)
A highly contagious and frequently fatal viral disease characterized by a biphasic (double-humped) fever and a distinctive skin rash that (if the patient survived) left pock ...
Smallpox bioterrorism
The misuse of smallpox as an agent of bioterrorism. Smallpox was eradicated in 1977. Routine vaccinations stopped in the US in 1972. More than 40% of Americans and many others ...
smear
A thin specimen for examination; it is usually prepared by spreading material uniformly onto a glass slide, fixing it, and staining it before examination. - alimentary tract ...
Smear, Pap
A screening test for cervical cancer based on the examination under the microscope of cells collected from the cervix, smeared on a slide and specially stained to reveal ...
smegma
A foul-smelling, pasty accumulation of desquamated epidermal cells and sebum that has collected in moist areas of the genitalia. [G. unguent] - s. clitoridis the secretion of ...
smegmalith
A calcareous concretion in the smegma. [ smegma + G. lithos, stone]
smell
1. To scent; to perceive an odor by means of the olfactory apparatus. 2. SYN: olfaction (1). 3. SYN: odor.
Smell, inability to
No sense of smell is called anosmia. It can be due to loss of the sense of smell or failure for it to develop. Loss of the sense of smell can be due to a number of things ...
smell-brain
SYN: rhinencephalon.
Smellie
William, English obstetrician, 1698–1763. See S. scissors.
Smith
David W., U.S. pediatrician, 1926–1981. See S.-Lemli- Opitz syndrome. Henry, Irish-born British military surgeon in India, 1862–1948. See S. operation, S.-Indian ...
Smith-Petersen
Marius N., U.S. surgeon, 1886–1953. See Smith- Petersen nail.
smog
Air pollution characterized by a hazy and often highly irritating atmosphere resulting from a mixture of fog with smoke and other air pollutants. [smoke + fog]
Smoke, environmental tobacco
: Tobacco smoke that is generated from the sidestream (the burning end) of a cigarette, pipe or cigar and the exhaled mainstream smoke (the smoke that is puffed out by smokers) ...
Smoke, second-hand
: Environmental tobacco smoke that is inhaled involuntarily or passively by someone who is not smoking. Environmental tobacco smoke is generated from the sidestream (the burning ...
Smokeless tobacco
: Tobacco that is not smoked but used in another form. Chewing tobacco and snuff are the two main forms of smokeless tobacco in use in the United States. Cancers of the oral ...
Smoking, involuntary
: The inhaling of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) involuntarily by someone who is not smoking. Environmental tobacco smoke is generated from the sidestream (the burning end) ...
Smoking, passive
: The inhaling of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) involuntarily by someone who is not smoking. Environmental tobacco smoke is generated from the sidestream (the burning end) ...
Smooth muscle
One of the three types of muscle tissue in the body (skeletal, smooth, cardiac). Generally forms the supporting tissue of blood vessels and hollow internal organs such as the ...
smut
A fungal disease of cereal grains caused by species of Ustilago and characterized by dark brown or black masses of spores on the plants; e.g., corn s. (U. maydis); loose s. of ...
Sn
Symbol for tin.
sn-
Prefix meaning stereospecifically numbered; a system of numbering the glycerol carbon atoms in lipids, so that the locant numbers remain constant regardless of chemical ...
snail
Common name for members of the class Gastropoda (phylum Mollusca). The freshwater pulmonate (nonoperculated, air-breathing) snails ( subclass Pulmonata, order Basommatophora) ...
snake
An elongated, limbless, scaly reptile of the suborder Ophidia.
Snake stick
A stick or rod with a snake curled around it is the staff (the rod) of Aesculapius (also called Asklepios), the ancient mythical god of medicine. His Greek name was Asklepios ...
snakeroot
SYN: serpentaria. - Canada s. SYN: Asarum canadense. - European s. SYN: Asarum europaeum. - Seneca s. SYN: senega. - Texas s. botanical source of serpentaria. - Virginia s. ...
snap
A click; a short sharp sound; said especially of cardiac sounds. - closing s. the accentuated first heart sound of mitral stenosis, related to closure of the abnormal valve. - ...
snare
An instrument for removing polyps and other projections from a surface, especially within a cavity; it consists of a wire loop passed around the base of the tumor and gradually ...
SNE
Abbreviation for subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy.
Sneddon
Ian B., 20th century English dermatologist. See S. syndrome, S.- Wilkinson disease.
sneeze
1. To expel air from the nose and mouth by an involuntary spasmodic contraction of the muscles of expiration. 2. An act of sneezing; a reflex excited by an irritation of the ...
Snell
Simeon, English ophthalmologist, 1851–1909. See S. law.
Snellen
Hermann, Dutch ophthalmologist, 1834–1908. See S. sign, S. test types.
Snellen's chart
The familiar eye chart used to measure how well you see at various distances. Snellen's chart is imprinted with block letters that line-by-line decrease in size, corresponding ...
Snellen's test type
The letters on the familiar eye chart used to measure how well you see at various distances. The eye chart, known as Snellen's chart, is imprinted with block letters that ...

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