A single base change, a change in which a single base in the DNA differs from the usual base at that position. "Snips" are also termed SNPs. Millions of SNP's have been cataloged ...
1. A rough, rattling, inspiratory noise produced by vibration of the pendulous palate, or sometimes of the vocal cords, during sleep or coma. SEE ALSO: stertor, rhonchus. 2. ...
A rough rattling noise made on inspiration during sleep by vibration of the soft palate (the back of the roof of the mouth) and the uvula (the prominent structure dangling ...
Take in a drug by inhalation. For example, snorting cocaine is inhaling cocaine powder through the nose where it is absorbed through the nasal tissues into the bloodstream.
See carbon dioxide s..
A burn of the cornea (the clear front surface of the eye) by ultraviolet B rays (UVB). Also called radiation keratitis or photokeratitis. The condition typically occurs at high ...
Snowmobiles pose a significant risk to children, adolescents and young adults. Head injuries are the leading cause of mortality (death) and serious morbidity (disease). They are ...
Abbreviation for small nuclear RNA.
: Tobacco in the form of a powder that is inhaled into the nose, not smoked. Snuff and chewing tobacco are the two main forms of smokeless tobacco in use in the United States. ...
: A hollow seen on the radial aspect (the thumbside) of the dorsum (the back) of the wrist when the thumb is extended fully. The reason that it is called the anatomical snuffbox ...
Obstructed nasal respiration, especially in the newborn infant, sometimes due to congenital syphilis.
Marshall L., U.S. microbiologist, 1907–1969. See S. test.
Acronym for subjective, objective, assessment, and plan; used in problem-oriented records for organizing follow-up data, evaluation, and planning.
The sodium or potassium salts of long-chain fatty acid s ( e.g., sodium stearate); used as an emulsifier for cleansing purposes and as an excipient in the making of pills and ...
F., 20th century Italian pediatric surgeon. See S. operation.
An aloin obtained from aloes of the island of Socotra.
An ectopic, supernumerary, or accessory portion of an organ.
- s. parotidis (so′she-a pa-rot′i-dis) SYN: accessory parotid gland. [L. companion of the parotid]
Excessive fear of embarrassment in social situations that is extremely intrusive and can have debilitating effects on personal and professional relationships. Phobias are ...
The study of the mind and mental processes, particularly as regards social interactions, focusing on the ways our actions influence others, and vice versa. Social psychology is a ...
1. The process of learning attitudes and interpersonal and interactional skills which are in conformity with the values of one's society. 2. In a group therapy setting, a way ...
Social, society. [L. socius, companion]
The hearing loss produced by exposure to nonoccupational noise such as small arms fire in hunting and target practice. [ socio- + G. akousis, hearing]
Outgoing; reactive to the social or cultural milieu. [ socio- + L. centrum, center]
Taking one's own social group as the standard by which others are measured.
The totality that includes human society, human thought, and the relationship of humans to nature. [ socio- + G. kosmos, universe]
The origin of social behavior from past interpersonal experiences. [ socio- + G. genesis, origin]
The identification of the genes that influence social behavior, the understanding of the influence of these genes on underlying neural and endocrine mechanisms, and the ...
A diagrammatic representation of the valences and degrees of attractiveness and acceptance of each individual rated according to the interpersonal interactions between and among ...
Pertaining to the relation of the practice of medicine to society.
The study of interpersonal relationships in a group. [ socio- + G. metron, measure]
A designation for a person with an antisocial personality disorder. SEE ALSO: antisocial personality, psychopath.
A term for the behavioral pattern exhibited by persons with an antisocial personality disorder. SEE ALSO: personality disorder. [ socio- + G. pathos, suffering]
: Fear of social gatherings, fear of socializing, fear of embarrassment in social situations that is extremely intrusive and can have markedly debilitating effects on personal ...
SYN: gomphosis. 1. The hollow part of a joint; the excavation in one bone of a joint which receives the articular end of the other bone. 2. Any hollow or concavity into which ...
Abbreviation for superoxide dismutase.
SYN: sodium carbonate. [It., possibly fr. Mediev. L. barilla plant]
- baking s. SYN: sodium bicarbonate.
- caustic s. SYN: sodium hydroxide.
- s. lime a mixture of calcium ...
Relating to or containing soda or sodium.
A compound containing sodium; as sodiocitrate, sodiotartrate, a citrate or tartrate of some element containing sodium in addition.
A metallic element, atomic no. 11, atomic wt. 22.989768; an alkali metal oxidizing readily in air or water; its salts are found in natural biologic systems and are extensively ...
The alkali metals: cesium, lithium, potassium, rubidium, and sodium.
The isotope of sodium with an atomic weight of 24, and a half-life of 14.96 hr; it emits beta and gamma rays, and is more easily prepared than the longer-lived, positron-emitting ...
SYN: rat-bite fever. [Jap. rat poison]
One who practices sodomy. [G. sodomites, an inhabitant city of Sodom, said in the Bible to have been destroyed by fire because of the wickedness of its people]
A term denoting a number of sexual practices variously proscribed by law, especially bestiality, oral-genital contact, and anal intercourse. SYN: buggery. [see sodomist]
Samuel Thomas von, German anatomist, 1755–1830. See S. ganglion, S. ligament, S. muscle, S. spot, ring of S..
Louis J., U.S. internist, *1904. See Sohval-S. syndrome.
The muscular part of the roof of the mouth. The soft palate is directly behind the hard palate. It lacks bone and so is soft.
Soft tissue, sarcoma
: A sarcoma that begins in the muscle, fat, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, or other supporting tissue of the body. Not a type of bone cancer.
The program or instructions for a computer.
Arthur R., U.S. internist, *1904. See S.- Soffer syndrome.
- night s. human feces used for fertilizer.
SYN: rat-bite fever. [Jap. so, rat, + ko, bite, + sho, malady]
1. A colloidal dispersion of a solid in a liquid. Cf.:gel. 2. Abbreviation for solution.
A family of plants that includes the genus Solanum ( nightshade) and some 84 other genera comprising 1,800 species, including belladonna, the tomato, and potato plants.
Pertaining to plants of the family Solanaceae, or to drugs derived from them.
In colloidal chemistry, the transformation of a gel into a sol, as by melting gelatin.
1. A fusible alloy used to unite edges or surfaces of two pieces of metal of higher melting point; hard solders, usually containing gold or silver as their main constituent, ...
A laser technique to make one tissue adhere to another.
The plantar surface or under part of the foot. SYN: planta [TA], pelma. [A.S.]
- s. of foot [TA] the inferior aspect or bottom of the foot, much of which is in contact with the ...
A major category of snakes that includes the viper and rattlesnake families. [L., fr. G. solen, pipe channel, + glypho, to carve]
A helical coil of wire energized electrically to produce a magnetic field, which induces a current in any conductor placed within or near the coil.
A sucking louse of cattle, called the little blue cattle louse in the U.S. and the tubercle-bearing louse in Australia. [G. solen, pipe, + potos, a drinking]
One of several, probably five, alkaloidal constituents present in the venom of the imported fire ant, Solenopsis saevissima; the venom has necrotoxic, hemolytic, insecticidal, ...
A genus of ants known as fire ants, which can inflict painful burning stings that cause local and occasionally systemic reactions.
- S. invicta the red imported fire ant, a ...
See s. (muscle). [Mod. L. fr. L. solea, a sandal, sole of the foot (of animals), fr. solum, bottom, floor, ground]
1. Firm; compact; not fluid; without interstices or cavities; not cancellous. 2. A body that retains its form when not confined; one that is not fluid, neither liquid nor ...
The theory propounded by Asclepiades and his followers that disease was due to an imbalance between solid particles (atoms) of the body and the spaces (pores) between them, a ...
An adherent of the doctrine of solidism.
That line on a constitution diagram indicating the temperature below which all metal is solid.
A solid-hoofed animal such as the horse. [L. solidus, solid, + pes, foot]
The doctrine that I alone exist. The self can know only its feelings and changes. There is only subjective reality. Solipsism is of importance to philosophy and psychology. ...
Solitude, fear of
An abnormal and persistent fear of solitude, of being alone. Sufferers of this fear experience undue anxiety even though they realize that being alone does not threaten their ...
Abbreviation for solution.
Capable of being dissolved. [L. solubilis, fr. solvo, to dissolve]
Soluble and insoluble fiber
Fiber (the portion of plants that cannot be digested by the human digestive tract) is classified as soluble and insoluble. Oats, beans, dried peas, and legumes are major sources ...
Bottom; the lowest part. [L.]
The dissolved substance in a solution. [L. solutus, dissolved, pp. of solvo, to dissolve]
1. The incorporation of a solid, a liquid, or a gas in a liquid or noncrystalline solid resulting in a homogeneous single phase. See dispersion, suspension. 2. Generally, an ...
A nonaqueous solution or dispersoid in which there is a noncovalent or easily reversible combination between solvent and solute, or dispersion means and disperse phase; when ...
Noncovalent or easily reversible combination of a solvent with solute, or of a dispersion means with the disperse phase; if the solvent is water, s. is called hydration. S. ...
A liquid that holds another substance in solution, i.e., dissolves it. [L. solvens, pres. p. of solvo, to dissolve]
- amphiprotic s. a s. capable of acting as an acid or a base; ...
The reaction of a dissolved salt with the solvent to form an acid and a base; the (partial) reverse of neutralization. If the solvent is water, an amphiprotic solvent, s. is ...
1. The axial part of the body, i.e., head, neck, trunk, and tail, excluding the limbs. 2. All of an organism with the exception of the germ cells. SEE ALSO: body. 3. The body of ...
An extremely potent cholinesterase inhibitor. SEE ALSO: sarin, tabun.
SYN: somatotopagnosis. [ somat- + G. a- priv. + gnosis, recognition]
1. Pain in the body. 2. Pain due to organic causes, as opposed to psychogenic pain. [ somat- + G. algos, pain]
A condition of chronic physical weakness and fatigability. SYN: somasthenia. [ somat- + G. astheneia, weakness]
Bodily sensation, the conscious awareness of the body. SYN: somesthesia. [ somat- + G. aisthesis, sensation]
1. Relating to the soma or trunk, the wall of the body cavity, or the body in general. SYN: parietal (2). 2. Relating to or involving the skeleton or skeletal (voluntary) muscle ...
A change in a gene or chromosome that occurs in a general body cell, as opposed to a germ cell, and so cannot be transmitted to children. A somatic mutation occurs in a single ...
Relating to the body and the viscera. SYN: somaticovisceral. [G. somatikos, relating to the body, + splanchnikos, relating to the viscera]
An older term for one who considers that neuroses and psychoses are manifestations of organic disease.
The process by which psychologic distress is expressed as physical symptoms. Somatization is an unconscious process. In somatization, mental experiences or states are ...
Denoting the group of neurons or nerve cells in which there is an abundance of cytoplasm completely surrounding the nucleus. [somato- + G. chroma, color]
Hypothalamic growth releasing hormone, GHRH. [somato- + G. krino, to secrete, + -in]
1. Originating in the soma or body under the influence of external forces. 2. Having origin in body cells. [somato- + G. genesis, origin]
A decapeptide released by the hypothalamus, which induces the release of human growth hormone (somatotropin). SYN: growth hormone-releasing factor, growth hormone-releasing ...
The science concerned with the study of the body; includes both anatomy and physiology. [somato- + G. logos, study]
A peptide hormone, closely related to somatotropin in its biologic properties, produced by the normal placenta and by certain neoplasms. [somato- + L. mamma, breast, + G. trope, ...
S. A is a peptide (MW about 4,000), synthesized in the liver and probably in the kidney, that is capable of stimulating certain anabolic processes in bone and cartilage, such as ...
Classification of persons according to body form, and relation of the types to physiologic and psychologic characteristics. [somato- + G. metron, measure]
Conjoined twins united in their body regions. See conjoined twins, under twin. [somato- + G. pagos, something fixed]
Relating to bodily or organic illness, as distinguished from mental (psychologic) disorder. [somato- + G. pathos, suffering]
Obsolete term for any disease of the body. [somato- + G. pathos, suffering]
Decrease in growth hormone–insulinlike growth factor axis activities associated with aging.
An older term for a tendency to imagine or exaggerate body ills. [somato- + G. phren, mind]
Aggregate of all the forms of specialized protoplasm entering into the composition of the body, other than germ plasm. [somato- + G. plasma, something formed]
Embryonic layer formed by association of the parietal layer of the lateral plate mesoderm with the ectoderm. [somato- + G. pleura, side]
The art and science of prosthetically replacing external parts of the body that are missing or deformed. [somato- + G. prosthesis, an addition]
Relating to the body-mind relationship; the study of the effects of the body upon the mind, as opposed to psychosomatic, which is mind on body. [somato- + G. psyche, soul]
An emotional disorder associated with an organic disease. [somato- + G. psychosis, an animating]
Examination of the body. [somato- + G. skopeo, to view]
Sensation relating to the body's superficial and deep parts as contrasted to specialized senses such as sight.
Denoting the somatic aspects of sexuality as distinguished from its psychosexual aspects.
A hormone widely distributed throughout the body, especially in the hypothalamus and pancreas, that acts as an important regulator of endocrine and nervous system function by ...
1. Therapy directed at physical disorders. 2. In psychiatry, a variety of therapeutic interventions employing chemical or physical, as opposed to psychological, methods.
The inability to identify any part of the body, either one's own or another's body. Cf.:autotopagnosia. SYN: somatagnosia. [somato- + top- + G. a- priv. + G. gnosis, knowledge]
The topographic association of positional relationships of receptors in the body via respective nerve fibers to their terminal distribution in specific functional areas of the ...
A subclass of pituitary acidophilic cells; site of synthesis of growth hormone.
A cell of the adenohypophysis that produces somatotropin.
SYN: somatotropic. [somato- + G. trophe, nourishment]
Having a stimulating effect on body growth. SYN: somatotrophic. [somato- + G. trope, a turning]
Growth hormone, a polypeptide containing 191 amino acids, produced by the anterior pituitary, the front section of the pituitary gland. It acts by stimulating the release of ...
1. The constitutional or body type of an individual. 2. The particular constitutional or body type associated with a particular personality type.
The study of somatotypes. [somato- + G. typos, form, + logos, study]
N-l-Methionyl growth hormone (human); a purified polypeptide hormone, made by recombinant DNA techniques, that contains the identical sequence of 191 amino acid s constituting ...
Growth hormone made by the pituitary gland or a synthetic version of that hormone. Naturally occurring somatropin is a polypeptide containing 191 amino acids. It is produced ...
One of the paired, metamerically arranged cell masses formed in the early embryonic paraxial mesoderm; commencing in the third or early fourth week in the region of the ...
Sleepwalking. Purposeful moving, usually but not always including walking, while in a deep stage of sleep. Sleepwalking occurs most frequently in children, particularly boys. ...
One who is subject to somnambulism (1). SYN: sleepwalker.
SYN: soporific (1). [L. somnus, sleep, + facio, to make]
SYN: soporific (1). [L. somnus, sleep, + fero, to bring]
1. Talking or muttering in one's sleep. SYN: sleeptalking (1). 2. SYN: somniloquy. [L. somnus, sleep, + loquor, to talk]
Talking under the influence of hypnotic suggestion. SYN: sleeptalking (2), somniloquence (2), somniloquism. [L. somnus, sleep, + loquor, to speak]
Sleepiness, the state of feeling drowsy, ready to fall asleep. A person experiencing somnolence is somnolent and is acting somnolently. Somnolence, somnolent, and somnolently go ...
1. An inclination to sleep. SYN: sleepiness. 2. A condition of obtusion. SYN: somnolentia (1). [L. somnolentia]
Sleepy or tending to cause sleep. "Somnolent" came from French. It descends from the Latin "somnus" meaning "sleep." Also descended from "somnus" are " somnambulism" ...
1. SYN: somnolence. 2. SYN: sleep drunkenness. [L.]
A surgical treatment to stop snoring. Somnoplasty uses heat energy to remove tissues of the soft palate and the uvula (the flap at the back of the palate). Somnoplasty is ...
Michael, U.S. biochemist, 1883–1971. See S. effect, S. method, S. unit.
R., 20th century German ophthalmologist. See S. canal.
A unit of loudness; a pure tone of 1000 Hz at 40 dB above the normal threshold of audibility has a loudness of 1 s.. [L. sonus, sound]
Of, pertaining to, or determined by sound; e.g., s. vibration. [L. sonus, sound]
To expose a suspension of cells or microbes to the disruptive effect of the energy of high frequency sound waves.
The process of disrupting biologic materials by use of sound wave energy.
An instrument which produces sound waves, especially those of the frequencies used in sonification procedures.
Carl, Danish bacteriologist, 1882–1948.
The branch of chemistry concerned with chemical changes caused by, or involving, sound, particularly ultrasound.
SYN: ultrasonogram. [L. sonus, sound, + G. gramma, a drawing]
SYN: ultrasonograph. [L. sonus, sound, + G. grapho, to write]
SYN: ultrasonography. [L. sonus, sound. + G. grapho, to write]
In ultrasonography, containing few or no echoes; a misnomer for transonic or anechoic. See anechoic. [L. sonus, sound + L. luceo, to shine]
An operatively implanted ultrasonic dimension gauge to measure the wall thickening and motion of the heart.
Related to movements caused by sound. See s. response.
Bringing comfort, solace, reassurance, peace, composure, quietude. To soothe is to allay, balm, becalm, calm, compose, lull, quiet, settle, still, or tranquilize. In medicine, an ...
To adulterate. [Mod. L. sophisticare, pp. sophisticatus, to alter deceptively, fr. G. sophistikos, deceitful]
Abnormally deep sleep, an unusually profound sleep, a stupor from which it is difficult to rouse a person. Sopor may be due to a drug. "Sopor" is Latin for "deep sleep." The root ...
SYN: soporific (1). [L. soporifer, fr. sopor, deep sleep, + fero, to bring]
Something such as a drug that causes or induces profound sleep. Tending to cause sleep or to dull the sense of awareness or alertness. The word "soporific" is derived from " ...
Relating to or causing an unnaturally deep sleep. [L. sopor, deep sleep]
1. Causing absorption. 2. An agent that causes or facilitates absorption. [L. sorbeo, to suck up, + facio, to make]
Obtained from berries of the mountain ash, Sorbus aucuparia (family Rosaceae), or prepared synthetically; it inhibits growth of yeast and mold and is nearly nontoxic to humans; ...
Sorbitol or sorbose and related compounds in ester combination with fatty acid s and with short oligo (ethylene oxide) side chains and an oleate terminus to form detergents ...
A reduction product of glucose and sorbose found in the berries of the mountain ash, Sorbus aucuparia (family Rosaceae), and in many fruits and seaweeds. It has many industrial ...
A dark brown or blackish crustlike collection on the lips, teeth, and gums of a person with dehydration associated with a chronic debilitating disease. [L. filth, fr. sordeo, to ...
1. A wound, ulcer, or any open skin lesion. 2. Painful; aching; tender. [A.S. sar]
- bed s. bedsore.
- canker sores SYN: aphtha (2).
- cold s. colloquialism for herpes ...
A small ulcer crater in the lining of the mouth that is often painful and very sensitive. Also known as an aphthous ulcer. Canker sores are one of the most common problems that ...
A small sore situated on the face or in the mouth that causes pain, burning, or itching before bursting and crusting over. The favorite locations are on the lips, chin or cheeks ...
Sören P.L., Danish chemist, 1868–1939. See S. scale.
C., French radiologist, †1931. See S. band, S. phenomenon.
SYN: altitude sickness. [Sp. (orig. ore, formerly attributed to toxic emanations of ores in mountains)]
- chronic s. SYN: chronic mountain sickness.
Arnold, British ophthalmologist, 1900–1980. See S. macular degeneration, S. syndrome.
A β-receptor blocking agent with uses similar to those of propranolol; also possesses potassium channel blocking properties.
J.F., U.S. pediatrician, *1927. See S. syndrome.
Jules, French neurologist, 1866–1943. See Dejerine-S. disease.
A soft blowing sound heard on auscultation. [Fr. souffler, to blow]
- cardiac s. a soft puffing heart murmur.
- fetal s. a blowing murmur, synchronous with the fetal heart ...
Jean Pierre, French hematologist, 1915–1985. See Bernard-S. disease, Bernard-S. syndrome.
1. The vibrations produced by a sounding body, transmitted by the air or other medium, and perceived by the internal ear. 2. An elongated cylindrical, usually curved, instrument ...
Southeast Asian hemorrhagic fever
A syndrome due to the dengue virus that tends to affect children under 10, causing abdominal pain, hemorrhage (bleeding) and circulatory collapse (shock). Known also as dengue ...
M.E., 20th century British biologist. See S. blot analysis.
A test commonly used in molecular biology and genetics, the purpose of the test being to check for a match between DNA molecules. In the Southern blot technique, DNA fragments ...
Reginald, English physician, 1835–1899. See S. tubes, under tube.
SYN: soybean. [Hind. s., fennel]
The bean of the climbing herb Glycine soja or G. hispida (family Leguminosae); a bean rich in protein and containing little starch; it is the source of s. oil; s. flour is ...
Abbreviation for sacroposterior position.
Abbreviation for species; pl. form is s.. [L. spiritus, spirit.]
Abbreviation for specific gravity.
Abbreviation for stimulatory protein 1.
A health resort, especially one where there are one or more mineral springs whose waters possess therapeutic properties. [S., a mineral spring health resort in Belgium]
Any demarcated portion of the body, either an area of the surface, a segment of the tissues, or a cavity. SEE ALSO: area, region, zone. SYN: spatium [TA]. [L. spatium, room, ...
Making or arranging spaces, especially at intervals.
- third s. loss of extracellular fluid from the vascular to other body compartments.
Relating to the paracelsian or alchemical system of medicine, which stressed the treatment of disease by various types of chemical substances. [G. spao, to tear open, + ageiro, to ...
A physician of the 16th century, a follower of the teachings of Paracelsus who believed in the essential importance of chemical or alchemical knowledge in the understanding and ...
1. A fragment. 2. To break up into fragments.
Lazaro, Italian priest and scientist, 1729–1799. See S. law.
1. SYN: fragmentation. 2. Nuclear reaction in which nuclei, on being bombarded by high energy particles, liberate a number of protons and alpha particles. [M.E. spalle, ...
The amount, distance, or length between two points; the full extent or reach of anything.
- attention s. the length of time a person can concentrate on a subject.
- memory s. the ...
A localized mass resulting from sparganosis.
Infection with the plerocercoid or sparganum of a pseudophyllidean tapeworm, usually in a dermal sore resulting from application of infected flesh as a poultice; infection may ...
Originally described as a genus, but now restricted to the plerocercoid stage of certain tapeworms. [G. sparganon, a swathing band, fr. spargo, to swathe]
An alkaloid obtained from scoparius, Cytisus scoparius and Lupinus luteus; s. sulfate was used as an oxytocic drug. SYN: lupinidine.
A brief, automatic jerking movement. A muscle spasm can be quite painful, with the muscle clenching tightly. A spasm of the coronary artery can cause angina. Spasms in various ...
Spasm, coronary artery
A spasm (a sudden constriction) of one of the coronary arteries depriving the (myocardium (the heart muscle) of blood and oxygen. This can cause chest pain referred to as ...
Spasm of the eyelid with continuous winking. To nictitiate is to wink. " Nictitate" and the older verb "nictate" both come from the Latin word for winking, "nictare."
Relating to or marked by spasm. [G. spasmodes, convulsive, fr. spasmos, + eidos, form]
A voice disorder, also called laryngeal dystonia, caused by involuntary movements of one or more muscles of the larynx or voice box. People who have spasmodic dysphonia may ...
A substance causing contraction of smooth muscle; e.g., histamine.
Causing spasms. [ spasmo- + G. -gen, producing]
The arrest of a spasm or convulsion. [ spasmo- + G. lysis, dissolution]
1. Relating to spasmolysis. 2. Denoting a chemical agent that relieves smooth muscle spasms.