SYN: spasm. [L. fr. G. spasmos, spasm]
- s. coordinatus compulsive movements, such as imitative or mimic tics, festinatio.
- s. glottidis SYN: laryngismus stridulus.
- s. ...
1. SYN: hypertonic (1). 2. Relating to spasm or to spasticity. [L. spasticus, fr. G. spastikos, drawing in]
A common gastrointestinal disorder involving an abnormal condition of gut contractions (motility) characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, mucous in stools, and irregular bowel ...
Spastic paraplegia, autosomal dominant
A degenerative disorder of nerves with progressive spasticity of the legs. Abbreviated as AD-HSP. Spasticity is a state of increased muscle tone. Paraplegia refers to the legs ...
Better known as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). A dementing disease of the brain. CJD is believed to be due to a highly unconventional transmissible agent named a prion. It is ...
A state of increased tone of a muscle (and an increase in the deep tendon reflexes). For example, with spasticity of the legs (spastic paraplegia) there is an increase in tone of ...
Plural of spatium. [L.]
Relating to space or a space.
SYN: space. [L.]
- spatia anguli iridocornealis [TA] SYN: spaces of iridocorneal angle, under space.
- s. endolympha′ticum [TA] SYN: endolymphatic space.
- s. episclerale [TA] ...
A flat blade, like a knife blade but without a sharp edge, used in pharmacy for spreading plasters and ointments and as an aid to mixing ingredients with a mortar and pestle. ...
1. Shaped like a spatula. 2. To manipulate or mix with a spatula. 3. To incise the cut end of a tubular structure longitudinally and splay it open, to allow creation of an ...
Hugo, German neurologist and psychiatrist, 1888–1969. See Hallervorden-S. disease, Hallervorden-S. syndrome.
To remove the ovaries of an animal. [Gael. spoth, castrate, or G. spadon, eunuch]
Abbreviation for serum prothrombin conversion accelerator.
Striopallidodentate (SPD) calcinosis, a condition first described in 1930 by T. Fahr and therefore called Fahr syndrome, is a genetic (inherited) neurological disorder ...
The leaves and flowering tops of Mentha viridis (green garden or lamb mint) or M. cardiaca (family Labiatae); a carminative and flavoring agent.
- s. oil the volatile oil, ...
One who has developed professional expertise in a particular specialty or subject area.
1. Professional attention limited to a particular specialty or subject area for study, research, and/or treatment. 2. SYN: differentiation (1).
The particular subject area or branch of medical science to which one devotes professional attention. [L. specialitas fr. specialis, special]
The evolutionary process by which diverse species of animals or plants are formed from a common ancestral stock.
1. A biologic division between the genus and a variety or the individual; a group of organisms that generally bear a close resemblance to one another in the more essential ...
Characteristic of a given species; serum that is produced by the injection of immunogens into an animal, and that acts only upon the cells, protein, etc., of a member of the same ...
1. Relating to a species. SEE ALSO: s. epithet. 2. Relating to an individual infectious disease, one caused by a special microorganism. 3. A remedy having a definite ...
Specific developmental disorder
A disorder that selectively affects one area of development, sparing essentially all other areas of development. For example, dysgraphia is one type of specific developmental ...
A term applied to animals reared for use in laboratory experiments when the animals are known to be free of germs that can cause disease (pathogenic microorganisms).
1. The condition or state of being specific, of having a fixed relation to a single cause or to a definite result; manifested in the relation of a disease to its pathogenic ...
A probe or small sound. [L. a probe, fr. specio, to look at]
A small part, or sample, of any substance or material obtained for testing. [L. fr. specio, to look at]
- cytologic s. a s. obtainable by a variety of methods from many areas of ...
Due to little white (or lightly colored) spots that are slightly elevated on the surface of the iris. These spots, arranged in a ring concentric with the pupil, occur in normal ...
An acronym that stands for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, a nuclear medicine procedure in which a gamma camera rotates around the patient and takes pictures from ...
Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, a nuclear medicine procedure in which a gamma camera rotates around the patient and takes pictures from many angles, which a computer ...
Lenses set in a frame that holds them in front of the eyes, used to correct errors of refraction or to protect the eyes. The parts of the s. are the lenses; the bridge between ...
A visualization of all of the chromosomes in the genome all together with each chromosome labeled with a different color. The SKY technique is useful for identifying chromosome ...
A filamentous contractile protein that together with actin and other cytoskeleton proteins forms a network that gives the red blood cell membrane its shape and flexibility; a ...
A spectrum. [L. spectrum, an image]
The study of chemical substances and their identification by means of spectroscopy, i.e., by light emitted or absorbed.
A colorimeter using a source of light from a selected portion of the spectrum, i.e., of a selected wavelength.
A graphic representation of a spectrum. [ spectro- + G. gramma, something written]
An instrument used in spectography.
- mass s. an instrument that subjects charged and accelerated ions (atomic or molecular) to a magnetic field that imparts a curved path that ...
The procedure of photographing or tracing a spectrum. [ spectro- + G. grapho, to write]
An instrument for determining the wavelength or energy of light or other electromagnetic emission. [ spectro- + G. metron, measure]
The procedure of observing and measuring the wavelengths of light or other electromagnetic emissions.
- clinical s. SYN: biospectrometry.
An abnormal and persistent fear of ghosts. Sufferers of spectrophobia experience undue anxiety even though they realize their fear is irrational. They may fear going into woods, ...
An instrument for measuring the intensity of light of a definite wavelength transmitted by a substance or a solution, giving a quantitative measure of the amount of material in ...
Analysis by means of a spectrophotometer.
- atomic absorption s. determination of concentration by the ability of atoms to absorb radiant energy of specific wavelengths.
- flame ...
An instrument for measuring the rotation of the plane of polarized light of specific wavelength upon passage through a solution or translucent solid. [ spectro- + polarimeter] ...
An instrument for resolving light from any luminous body into its spectrum, and for the analysis of the spectrum so formed. It consists of a prism that refracts the light or a ...
Relating to or performed by means of a spectroscope.
Observation and study of spectra of absorbed or emitted light by means of a spectroscope.
- clinical s. SYN: biospectroscopy.
- infrared s. the study of the specific ...
1. The range of colors presented when white light is resolved into its constituent colors by being passed through a prism or through a diffraction grating : red, orange, ...
An instrument used to widen an opening to look within a passage or a cavity. For example, a speculum may be used to widen the opening of the vagina so that the cervix is more ...
An instrument inserted into the auditory canal of the ear to increase the circumference of the tunnel-shaped canal walls. (The auditory canal begins at the circular opening of ...
An instrument used to widen the opening of a nostril so the inside can be more easily seen. " Speculum" is the Latin word for mirror.
An instrument used to widen the opening of the vagina so that the cervix is more easily visible. " Speculum" is the Latin word for mirror.
Ferdinand Graf von, German embryologist, 1855–1937. See curve of S..
Talk; the use of the voice in conveying ideas. [A.S. spaec]
- alaryngeal s. a form of s. achieved after laryngectomy by using either an external vibratory source or the ...
Disorders of the ability to produce normal speech. Speech disorders may affect articulation (phonetic or phonological disorders); fluency (stuttering or cluttering); and/or ...
The treatment of speech and communication disorders. The approach used depends on the disorder. It may include physical exercises to strengthen the muscles used in speech ...
: A specialist who evaluates and treats people with communication and swallowing problems. Also called a speech therapist. Speech pathologists have an MA or doctorate in their ...
Gene that when mutated is responsible for motor dyspraxia.
: Common street name for a stimulant drug, especially for an amphetamine. Amphetamines have been used to treat hyperactivity in children, the symptoms of narcolepsy, and as an ...
SYN: porencephaly. [spelaion, cave, + enkephalos, brain]
Thomas, Scottish physician, 1769–1842. See S. syndrome.
A sperm is the male "gamete" or sex cell. It combines with the female "gamete," called an ovum, to form a zygote. The formation process is called ...
Cytocentrum with astral rays in the cytoplasm of an inseminated ovum; it is brought in by the penetrating spermatozoon and evolves into the mitotic spindle of the first ...
A peculiar fatty, waxy substance, chiefly cetin (cetyl palmitate), obtained from the head of the sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus; used to impart firmness to ointment bases. ...
A group of structures which go through the inguinal canal to the testis. The structures include the vas deferens, arteries, veins, lymphatic vessels, and nerves.
A cell in a late stage of the development of the spermatozoon; it is a haploid cell derived from the secondary spermatocyte and evolves by spermiogenesis into a spermatozoon. ...
Name proposed for an albuminoid in the seminal fluid.
SYN: spermatogonium. [ spermato- + G. blastos, germ]
Cyst of the epididymis containing spermatozoa. SYN: spermatocyst. [ spermato- + G. kele, tumor]
Any agent that is destructive to spermatozoa (that is, kills sperm). Nonoxynol-9 is the most commonly encountered spermatocide in the United States. (The nonoxynols, technically ...
Parent cell of a spermatid, derived by mitotic division from a spermatogonium. [ spermato- + G. kytos, cell]
- primary s. the s. derived by a growth phase from a ...
The process of sperm formation. The term was created from the prefix " spermato-" (Greek sperma, the seed or germ) + "genesis" (the coming into being of something) = the coming ...
Relating to spermatogenesis; sperm-producing. SYN: spermatogenetic, spermatogenous, spermatopoietic (1).
The primitive sperm cell derived by mitotic division from the germ cell; increasing several times in size, it becomes a primary spermatocyte. SEE ALSO: spermatid. SYN: ...
1. Resembling a sperm, a sperm tail, or semen. 2. A male or flagellated form of the malarial microparasite. [spermato + G. eidos, form]
The branch of histology, physiology, and embryology concerned with sperm and/or seminal secretion. [ spermato- + G. logos, study]
A specific lysin (antibody) formed in response to the repeated injection of spermatozoa.
Destruction, with dissolution, of the spermatozoa. SYN: spermolysis. [ spermato- + G. lysis, dissolution]
Morbid fear of spermatorrhea or loss of semen. [ spermato- + G. phobos, fear]
A capsule containing spermatozoa; found in a number of invertebrates. [ spermato- + G. phoros, bearing]
1. SYN: spermatogenic. 2. Secreting semen. [ spermato- + G. poieo, to make]
An involuntary discharge of semen, without orgasm. [ spermato- + G. rhoia, a flow]
A cytotoxic antibody specific for spermatozoa. SYN: spermotoxin.
The male gamete or sex cell that contains the genetic information to be transmitted by the male, exhibits autokinesia, and is able to effect zygosis with an ovum. The human s. ...
A vaginal spermicide is a substance that will kill sperm in the vagina. Vaginal spermicides are available in foam, cream, jelly, film, suppository, or tablet forms. All ...
A polyamine found with spermine in a wide variety of organisms and tissues; found in human sperm; important in cell and tissue growth.
1. SYN: ductus deferens. 2. SYN: ejaculatory duct.
A polyamine found in some bacteria; associated with nucleic acid s in some viruses; found in human sperm; important in cell and tissue growth. SYN: gerontine, musculamine, ...
That segment of spermatogenesis during which immature spermatids become spermatozoa. [sperm- + G. genesis, origin]
The belief by preformationists that the male sex cell (sperm) contains a miniature preformed body called the homunculus.
A preformationist who believed in the concept of spermism. Cf.:ovist.
H.W.G. Waldeyer term for the mature male germ cell or spermatozoon.
A concretion in the ductus deferens. [ spermo- + G. lithos, stone]
A genus of ground squirrel. S. beecheyi, S. grammurus, S. pygmaeus, S. townsendi, and several other species act as an important reservoir of Yersinia pestis.
Abbreviation for sun protection factor.
SPF (sun protection factor)
A number on a scale for rating sunscreens. SPF stands for Sun Protection Factor. SPF numbers on a package can range from as low as 2 to as high as 60. These numbers refer to the ...
Abbreviation for spherical, or spherical lens.
To become gangrenous or necrotic. [G. sphakelos, gangrene]
1. The process of becoming gangrenous or necrotic. 2. Gangrene or necrosis. [G. sphakelos, gangrene]
The condition manifested by a sphacelus.
A mass of sloughing, gangrenous, or necrotic matter. [G. sphakelos, gangrene]
A genus of bacteria closely related to Leptothrix found in fresh water; S. natans grows a thick biofilm mat in sulfite-containing water, especially as drained from paper mills.
The tip of the sphenoidal angle of the parietal bone; a craniometric point. [Mod. L. fr. G. sphen, wedge, + dim. -ion]
Wedge, wedge-shaped; the sphenoid bone. [G. sphen, wedge]
Relating to the sphenoid bone and the basilar process of the occipital bone. SYN: sphenoccipital, sphenooccipital.
Condition characterized by a deformation of the skull giving it a wedge-shaped appearance. [ spheno- + G. kephale, head]
Relating to the sphenoid and ethmoid bones. SYN: sphenethmoid.
An operation to remove diseased tissue from the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses.
A bone at the base of the skull that is of a most irregular shape. The sphenoid bone consists of a central portion, (the body of the sphenoid) and six processes: two greater ...
1. Relating to the sphenoid bone. 2. Wedge-shaped. SYN: sphenoid (1) [TA].
The point of greatest convexity between the anterior contour of the sella turcica and the jugum s..
1. Inflammation of the sphenoid sinus. 2. Necrosis of the sphenoid bone. [sphenoid + G. -itis, inflammation]
An operative opening made in the anterior wall of the sphenoid sinus. [sphenoid + G. stoma, mouth]
Any operation on the sphenoid bone or sinus. [sphenoid + G. tome, a cutting]
A distinctive syndrome of headaches, better known today as cluster headache. There are two main clinical patterns of cluster headache — the episodic and the chronic: ...
Relating to the sphenoid bone and the petrous portion of the temporal bone.
Denoting the portions of the sphenoid bone contributing to the orbits.
Relating to the sphenoid bone and the bony case of the ear. [ spheno- + G. ous, ear]
Relating to the sphenoid and the zygomatic bones. SYN: sphenomalar.
A ball or globular body. [G. sphaira]
- attraction s. SYN: astrosphere.
- Morgagni spheres SYN: Morgagni globules, under globule.
Pertaining to, or shaped like, a sphere.
Spherical, a sphere. [G. sphaira, globe]
A small, spherical red blood cell. [ sphero- + G. kytos, cell]
Presence of sphere-shaped red blood cells in the blood. SYN: microspherocytosis. [ spherocyte + G. -osis, condition]
- hereditary s. [MIM*182900] a congenital defect of spectrin ...
Spherocytosis, hereditary (HS)
A genetic disorder of the red blood cell membrane clinically characterized by anemia, jaundice (yellowing) and splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen). In HS the red cells are ...
An instrument to determine the curvature of a sphere or a spherical lens. See Geneva lens measure. [ sphero- + G. metron, measure]
A congenital bilateral aberration in which the lenses are small, spherical, and subject to subluxation; may occur as an independent anomaly or may be associated with the ...
A bacterial cell from which the rigid cell wall has been incompletely removed. The bacterium loses its characteristic shape and becomes round. [ sphero- + G. plastos, formed]
A spherical lens decentered to produce a prismatic effect, or a combined spherical lens and prism.
Spheroid spermatozoa lacking an elongated tail, in contrast to the threadlike, tailed sperm of humans and other mammals (nematospermia). [ sphero- + G. sperma, seed]
1. A small spherical structure. 2. A sporangiallike structure filled with endospores at maturity, produced within tissue and in vitro by Coccidioides immitis. [LL. sphaerula, ...
A muscle that encircles a duct, tube, or orifice in such a way that its contraction constricts the lumen or orifice. SYN: musculus s. [TA], s. muscle [TA]. [G. sphinkter, a band ...
Relating to a sphincter. SYN: sphincterial, sphincteric.
Pain in the sphincter ani muscles. [sphincter + G. algos, pain]
1. Excision of a portion of the pupillary border of the iris. 2. Dissecting away any sphincter muscle. [sphincter + G. ektome, excision]
Denoting similarity to a musculus sphincter. [sphincter + G. eidos, resemblance]
An operation for freeing the iris from the cornea in anterior synechia involving only the pupillary border. [sphincter, + G. lysis, loosening]
Operation on any sphincteric muscle. [sphincter + G. plastos, formed]
A speculum to facilitate inspection of the internal sphincter ani muscle. [sphincter + G. skopeo, to view]
Incision or division of a sphincter muscle. [sphincter + G. tome, incision]
- external s. transurethral incision of external urethral sphincter.
- transduodenal s. division of ...
Dihydrosphingosine; a constituent of the sphingolipids.
Any lipid containing a long-chain base like that of sphingosine ( e.g., ceramides, cerebrosides, gangliosides, sphingomyelins); a constituent of nerve tissue.
Collective designation for a variety of diseases characterized by abnormal sphingolipid metabolism, e.g., gangliosidosis, Gaucher disease, Niemann-Pick disease. SYN: ...
Also called Niemann-Pick disease, this is a disorder of the metabolism of a lipid (fat) called sphingomyelin that usually causes the progressive development of enlargement of the ...
An enzyme catalyzing hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to N-acylsphingosine (a ceramide) and phosphocholine; a deficiency of this enzyme is associated with type I Niemann-Pick ...
Also called Niemann-Pick disease, this is a disorder of the metabolism of a lipid (fat) called sphingomyelin that usually causes the progressive development of enlargement of the ...
A group of phospholipids, found in brain, spinal cord, kidney, and egg yolk, containing 1-phosphocholine (choline O-phosphate) combined with a ceramide (a long-chain fatty acid ...
The principal long-chain base found in sphingolipids. SYN: (4E)-sphingenine, sphingol.
An instrument resembling an aneroid sphygmomanometer used in the measurement of the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. [sphygmo- + L. oscillo, to swing, + G. metron, ...
A polygraph recording both the heartbeat and the radial pulse. SYN: sphygmocardioscope. [sphygmo- + G. kardia, heart, + grapho, to write]
A modified sphygmograph that represents graphically the time relations between the beat of the heart and the pulse; one recording the character of the pulse as well as its ...
The graphic curve made by a sphygmograph. SYN: pulse curve. [sphygmo- + G. gramma, something written]
An instrument consisting of a lever, the short end of which rests on the radial artery at the wrist, its long end being provided with a stylet which records on a moving ribbon ...
Relating to or made by a sphygmograph; denoting the s. tracing, or sphygmogram.
Use of the sphygmograph in recording the character of the pulse.
Pulselike; resembling the pulse. [sphygmo- + G. eidos, resemblance]
An instrument for measuring blood pressure, particularly in arteries. The two types of sphygmomanometers are a mercury column and a gauge with a dial face. The sphygmomanometer ...
Determination of the blood pressure by means of a sphygmomanometer.
An instrument for auscultating the pulse, used especially in the auscultatory method of reading the blood pressure, particularly the diastolic pressure. [sphygmo- + G. metron, ...
An instrument by which a sound is produced with each beat of the pulse. [sphygmo- + G. phone, sound]
An instrument by which the pulse beats are made visible by causing fluid to rise in a glass tube, by means of a mirror projecting a beam of light, or simply by a moving lever as ...
Examination of the pulse. [sphygmo- + G. skopeo, to view]
Obsolete term for that segment of the pulse wave corresponding to the cardiac systole. [sphygmo- + G. systole, a contracting]
An instrument for recording graphically both the pulse and the blood pressure. [sphygmo- + G. tonos, tension, + grapho, to write]
An instrument, like the sphygmotonograph, for determining the degree of blood pressure. [sphygmo- + G. tonos, tension, + metron, measure]
See bandage. [L. a point, an ear of grain]
Relating to or having spicules.
1. A small needle-shaped body. 2. Accessory reproductive structure in male nematodes; useful in identification of species. [L. spiculum, dim. of spica, or spicum, a point]
1. An arthropod of the order Araneida ( subclass Arachnida) characterized by four pairs of legs; a cephalothorax; a globose, smooth abdomen; and a complex of web-spinning ...
Bites from most spiders are irritating, but not poisonous. Localized reddening and swelling are not unusual, and should pass within a few days. A few spiders are poisonous, ...
A group of widened veins that can bee seen through the surface of the skin. Their wheel-and- spoke shape resembles a spider. Also known as spider telangiectasia.
Radiating dull red capillary lines on the skin of the leg, usually without any visible or palpable varicose veins, but nevertheless due to deep-seated venous dilation. ...
Otto, German gynecologist, 1830–1881. See S. criteria, under criterion.
Eduard, Austrian dermatologist, 1860–1908. See cutaneous pseudolymphoma, S.- Fendt sarcoid.
Walter, Munich neurologist, 1879–1935. See S. acute swelling, S.- Stock disease, S.- Vogt disease.
Relating to or described by Spigelius.
Adrian (van der Spieghel), Flemish anatomist in Padua, 1578–1625. See spigelian hernia, S. line, S. lobe.
1. A brief electrical event of 3–25 ms that gives the appearance in the electroencephalogram of a rising and falling vertical line. 2. In electrophoresis, a sharply angled ...
An overflow; a scattering of fluid or finely divided matter.
- cellular s. a dissemination of cells through the lymph or blood, thereby resulting in metastases or implantation of ...
William G., U. S. neurologist, 1863–1940. See Frazier-S. operation.
A groove or channel through which food may pass from the occlusal surfaces of teeth during the masticatory process. SYN: sluiceway.
SYN: nevus s.. [Mod. L. fr. G. spilos, a spot]
SYN: spine (1). [L. a thorn, the backbone, spine]
- s. angularis SYN: spine of sphenoid bone.
- s. bifida embryologic failure of fusion of one or more vertebral arches; subtypes ...
A birth defect (a congenital malformation) in which there is a bony defect in the vertebral column so that part of the spinal cord, which is normally protected within the ...
Spina bifida cystica
A bony defect in the vertebral column that causes a cleft in that column. The meningeal membranes that cover the spinal cord and part of the spinal cord protrude through this ...
Spina bifida occulta
A bony defect in the vertebral column that causes a cleft in that column. The cleft remains covered by skin. Treatment is usually not required.
1. Relating to any spine or spinous process. 2. Relating to the vertebral column. SYN: rachial, rachidial, rachidian, spinalis. [L. spinalis]
The major column of nerve tissue that is connected to the brain, lies within the vertebral canal, and from which the spinal nerves emerge. The spinal cord and the brain constitute ...
One of the nerves that originates in the spinal cord. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves. They consist of the 8 cervical nerves, 12 thoracic nerves, 5 lumbar nerves, 5 sacral ...
Narrowing of the spinal canal. Spinal stenosis is most commonly caused by degeneration of the discs between the bony building blocks of the spine (vertebrae). The result is ...
Also known as a lumbar puncture or "LP", a spinal tap is a procedure whereby spinal fluid is removed from the spinal canal for the purpose of diagnostic testing. It is ...
In anatomy and pathology, any fusiform cell or structure. [A.S.]
- aortic s. a fusiform dilation of the aorta immediately beyond the isthmus. SYN: His s..
- central s. a ...
1) The column of bone known as the vertebral column, which surrounds and protects the spinal cord. The spine can be categorized according to level of the body: i.e., cervical ...