An outer garment designed for protection against specific environmental conditions.
- anti- G s. a garment with bladders that expand to apply external pressure to the abdomen and ...
A β-lactamase inhibitor with weak antibacterial action; when used in conjunction with penicillins ( e.g., ampicillin) with little β-lactamase-inhibiting action, it greatly ...
Grooved; furrowed; marked by a sulcus or sulci.
Having the form of a groove or sulcus.
A small sulcus. [Mod. L. dim. of L. sulcus, furrow]
From the Latin for a groove, furrow, or trench. In medicine, there are many sulci (plural of sulcus) as, for example, the superior pulmonary sulcus.
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1. [TA] One of the ...
1. Prefix denoting that the compound to the name of which it is attached contains a sulfur atom. This spelling (rather than sulph-, sulpho-) is preferred by the American Chemical ...
Denoting the s. drugs, or sulfonamides.
One of the sulfonamides, the sulfa-related antibiotics which are used to treat bacterial and some fungal infections. The first sulfa drug was prontosil. It was discovered by the ...
An antimicrobial of the sulfonamide group. SYN: N-sulfanilylbenzamide.
An antibacterial agent of the sulfonamide group, primarily used topically; s. sodium has the same uses as s. and also is used locally for eye infections and for prevention of ...
A sulfonamide used as an oral antibiotic in the treatment of urinary tract infections.
One of a group of diazine derivatives of sulfanilamide, the pyrimidine analog of sulfapyridine and sulfathiazole; one of the components of the triple sulfonamide mixture. It ...
A long-acting sulfonamide that is rapidly absorbed after oral administration and is slowly excreted by the kidney; it accumulates in the tissue and requires lower doses to attain ...
A long-acting sulfonamide, used with quinine and pyrimethamine to reduce the relapse rate of malaria. SYN: sulformethoxine.
A sulfonamide used in the treatment of systemic and urinary tract infections.
The guanidine derivative of sulfanilamide. It is poorly absorbed from the gastroenteric tract; useful for bacterial infections of the lower intestinal tract and for preoperative ...
A very long-acting sulfonamide that enhances, as do other sulfonamides and sulfones, the effectiveness of antimalarial agents such as pyrimethamine, chloroguanide, or ...
One of the components of the triple sulfonamide mixtures.
A slowly excreted sulfonamide once used in the treatment of acute and chronic urinary tract infections. SYN: sulfamethoxydiazine.
One of the components of the triple sulfonamide mixture. SYN: sulfadimidine.
A sulfonamide useful for the treatment of urinary tract infection, because of its high solubility.
A sulfonamide related chemically to sulfisoxazole, with a similar antibacterial spectrum, but a slower rate of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and urinary excretion.
A long-acting sulfonamide that requires a single daily dose for maintaining effective tissue concentrations. S. acetyl is a preparation well suited for pediatric use because it is ...
An antimicrobial agent of the sulfonamide group.
The first sulfonamide used for its chemotherapeutic effect in infections caused by some β-hemolytic streptococci, meningococci, gonococci, Clostridium welchii, and in certain ...
A long-acting sulfonamide that is rapidly absorbed after oral administration; one dose is sufficient to maintain effective tissue concentration for 24 hours.
A sulfonamide (acid-azosulfa compound) with a marked affinity for connective tissues, especially for those rich in elastin, used in chronic ulcerative colitis; it is broken ...
1. Trivial name for enzymes in EC group 3.1.6, the sulfuric ester hydrolases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfuric esters (sulfates) to the corresponding alcohols plus ...
A salt or ester of sulfuric acid.
- acid s. SYN: bisulfate.
- active s. SYN: adenosine 3′-phosphate 5′-phosphosulfate.
- s. adenylyltransferase an enzyme that catalyzes a ...
Cerebroside sulfuric esters containing one or more sulfate groups in the sugar portion of the molecule. SYN: sulfatidates.
A combination of metachromatic leukodystrophy and mucopolysaccharidosis caused by deficiency of sulfatase enzymes such as arylsulfatases A, B, and C, and steroid sulfatases; ...
Addition of sulfate groups as esters to preexisting molecules.
A morbid condition due to the presence of sulfhemoglobin in the blood; it is marked by a persistent cyanosis, but the blood count does not reveal any special abnormality in ...
A compound (hydrosulfide) containing the ion HS−. SYN: sulfohydrate.
The radical –SH; contained in glutathione, cysteine, coenzyme A, lipoamide (all in the reduced state), and in mercaptans (R–SH). SYN: thiel.
A compound of sulfur in which the sulfur has a valence of −2; e.g., Na2S, HgS; also, a thioether ( i.e., R—S—R′, such as lanthionine). SYN: sulfuret.
Formed by the action of sulfuric acid on indigo, a reaction that also yields indigo carmine.
An analgesic and uricosuric agent, useful in gout, that promotes the excretion of uric acid, probably by interfering with the tubular reabsorption of uric acid.
The structural isomer of sulfamethazine, used in the treatment of systemic and urinary tract infections.
A sulfonamide used chiefly in bacterial infections of the urinary tract. SYN: sulfafurazole.
- s. diolamine the 2,2′-iminodiethanol salt of s.; used for intravenous, ...
A salt of sulfurous acid; elevated in cases of molybdenum cofactor deficiency.
- s. dehydrogenase an oxidoreductase catalyzing the reaction of s. with 2ferricytochrome c and ...
Elevated levels of sulfites in the urine.
The complex formed by H2S (or sulfides) and ferric ion in methemoglobin. SYN: sulfhemoglobin.
1. SYN: thioacid. 2. SYN: sulfonic acid.
A triphenylmethane derivative excreted by the liver, used in testing hepatic function, particularly of the reticuloendothelial cells. SYN: bromosulfophthalein, ...
A hydrogel with sulfuric acid instead of water as the dispersion means.
Lysis brought on or accelerated by sulfuric acid.
A mucin containing sulfuric esters in its mucopolysaccharides or glycoproteins.
A mixture of sulfomethylated polymyxin B and sodium bisulfite; an antibacterial agent.
The sulfa-related group of antibiotics, which are used to treat bacterial infection and some fungal infections. The sulfonamide family includes sulfadiazine, sulfamethizole ...
A compound of the general structure R′–SO2–R″.
Any of the compounds in which a hydrogen atom of a CH group is replaced by the s. group, –SO3H; general formula : R–SO3H. SYN: sulfoacid (2).
Compounds containing sulfur covalently linked to three moieties; E.G., RS+(R′)R′′′, such as S-adenosyl-l-methionine.
A class of oral hypoglycemic agents (pills and capsules taken to lower the level of blood glucose) by people with type 2 diabetes. The sulfonylureas increase the secretion of ...
Derivatives of isopropylthiodiazylsulfanilamide, chemically related to the sulfonamides, which possess hypoglycemic action. Belonging to this series are acetohexamide, ...
A xanthene dye derivative, a fluorochrome used for tagging proteins by a sulfamido condensation; employed in immunofluorescence alone or in combination with fluorescein ...
A hydrosol with sulfuric acid instead of water as the dispersion means.
Generic term for enzymes in EC sub-subclass 2.8.2 catalyzing the transfer of a sulfate group from 3′-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (active sulfate) to the hydroxyl group of an ...
The sulfur analog of a ketone, R′–SO–R″.
An element, atomic no. 16, atomic wt. 32.066, that combines with oxygen to form s. dioxide (SO2) and s. trioxide (SO3), and these with water to make strong acids, and with many ...
The elements sulfur, selenium, and tellurium; they form dibasic acids with hydrogen, and their oxyacids are also dibasic.
A radioactive sulfur isotope; a beta emitter with a half-life of 87.2 days; used as a tracer in the study of metabolism of cysteine, cystine, methionine, etc.; also used to ...
H2SO4; a colorless, nearly odorless, heavy, oily, corrosive liquid containing 96% of the absolute acid; used occasionally as a caustic. SYN: oil of vitriol.
- fuming s. SYN: ...
Designating a sulfur compound in which sulfur has a valence of +4 as contrasted to sulfuric compounds in which sulfur has a valence of +6, or sulfides (−2).
A solution of about 6% sulfur dioxide in water; used chiefly as a disinfectant and bleaching agent; it has been used externally for its parasiticidal effect in various skin ...
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic actions. S. is a prodrug which is reduced to an active drug.
Hirsh W., U.S. physician, *1906. See S. reagent.
Inhibits carbonic anhydrase; an anticonvulsant used in the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy and grand mal with psychomotor seizures; may cause ataxia, paresthesias, and ...
Marion B., U.S. dermatologist, 1895–1983. See Bloch-S. disease, syndrome, S.- Garbe disease, S.- Garbe syndrome.
The aggregation of a number of similar neural impulses or stimuli. [Mediev. L. summatio, fr. summo, pp. -atus, to sum up, fr. L. summa, sum]
- s. of stimuli cumulative muscular ...
A popular term for hay fever. Although the symptoms of a "summer cold" may be similar to those of a real cold, the term "summer cold" is a misnomer. Unlike a real cold, it is not ...
F.W., 20th century British surgeon. See S. sign.
Sun protection factor (SPF)
A number on a scale for rating sunscreens. SPF stands for Sun Protection Factor. SPF numbers on a package can range from as low as 2 to as high as 60. These numbers refer to the ...
Erythema with or without blistering caused by exposure to critical amounts of ultraviolet light, usually within the range of 260–320 nm in sunlight (UVB). SYN: erythema solare.
The onset or exacerbation of delirium during the evening or night with improvement or disappearance during the day; most often seen in mid and later stages of dementing ...
sunflower seed oil
Oil from the seeds of Helianthus annuus (family Compositae); the glycerides consist mainly of the mixed triglycerides, each containing one or two linoleic acid radicals; used as ...
: A substance that blocks the effect of the sun's harmful rays. Using lotions that contain sunscreens can reduce the risk of skin cancer, including melanoma.
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A topical ...
A form of heatstroke resulting from undue exposure to the sun's rays, probably caused by the action of actinic rays combined with high temperature; symptoms are those of ...
In excess, above, superior, or in the upper part of; often the same usage as L. supra-. Cf.:hyper-. [L. super, above, beyond]
Abduction of a limb beyond the normal limit. SYN: hyperabduction.
Extremely acute; marked by extreme severity of symptoms and rapid progress, as of the course of a disease.
An antigen that interacts with the T-cell receptor in a domain outside the antigen recognition site. This interaction induces the activation of larger numbers of T cells than are ...
A class of drugs that act in certain but not all ways like aspirin. Also known as Cox-2 inhibitors, these drugs selectively block a specific enzyme called Cox-2. Inhibiting this ...
Relating to or in the region of the eyebrow. SYN: supraciliary.
SYN: eyebrow. [L. fr. super, above, + cilium, eyelid]
To elevate or draw upward. [L. super-duco, pp. -ductus, to lead over]
In psychoanalysis, one of the three components of the psychic apparatus in the freudian structural framework, the other two being the ego and the id. It is an outgrowth of the ...
Movement of a tooth beyond the normal plane of occlusion due to the loss of its antagonist(s).
1. The act of exciting or stimulating unduly. 2. A condition of extreme excitement or stimulation.
With additional fat added, as in the case of soap.
The presence of two fetuses of different ages, not twins, in the uterus, due to the impregnation of two ova liberated at successive periods of ovulation; an obsolete concept. ...
1. Cursory; not thorough. 2. Pertaining to or situated near the surface. 3. SYN: superficialis. [L. superficialis, fr. superficies, surface]
Superficial (anatomic orientation)
On the surface or shallow, as opposed to deep. The skin is superficial to the muscles. The cornea is on the superficial surface of the eye. For a more complete listing of terms ...
Situated nearer the surface of the body in relation to a specific reference point. Cf.:profundus. SYN: superficial (3) [TA], sublimis (2). [L.]
- s. volae SYN: superficial ...
Outer surface; facies. [L. the top surface, fr. super, above, + facies, figure, form]
To flush a fluid over the top of a tissue. Cf.:perfuse, perifuse.
Referring to native duplex DNA structure in which there is further twisting or coiling of the double helix. SYN: supercoiling.
To induce or bring on in addition to something already existing.
An extreme reduction in size of the uterus, after childbirth, below the normal size of the nongravid organ. SYN: hyperinvolution.
1. Situated above or directed upward. 2. [NA] In human anatomy, situated nearer the vertex of the head in relation to a specific reference point; opposite of inferior. SYN: ...
Superior (anatomic orientation)
Above, as opposed to inferior. The heart is superior to the stomach. The superior surface of the tongue rests against the palate. For a more complete listing of terms used in ...
Superior vena cava syndrome
The symptoms that result from compression of the large vein that carries blood down to the heart. The superior vena cava is a large vein that transmits blood from the upper body ...
The continuance of lactation beyond the normal period. SYN: hyperlactation.
A retentive dressing; a bandage retaining a surgical dressing in place. [L. ligamen, bandage]
See s. fluid. [ super- + L. natare, to swim]
Beyond the normal number. Anything supernumerary is extra. A supernumerary chromosome is an extra one beyond the usual number of 46. A supernumerary digit is an extra finger or ...
An extra nipple. Supernumerary nipples are usually smaller than normal and vestigial (nonfunctional, without accompanying mammary glands). They tend to occur on along a ...
Ovulation of a greater than normal number of ova; usually the result of the administration of exogenous gonadotropins.
An oxygen free radical, O2−, which is toxic to cells.
- s. dismutase (SOD) an enzyme that catalyzes the dismutation reaction, 2O2 − + 2H+ → H2O2 + O2; there are three ...
A member of a large population of parasites living on a host, usually a parasitic hymenopteran larva in its insect host. SEE ALSO: parasitoid.
1. Association between parasitic Hymenoptera and their insect hosts. 2. An excess of parasites of the same species in a host, overtaxing the defense mechanism to the degree ...
Above or at the upper part of the petrous portion of the temporal bone.
To make a solution hold more of a salt or other substance in solution than it will dissolve when in equilibrium with that salt in the solid phase; such solutions are usually ...
The beginning of a prescription, consisting of the injunction, recipe, take, usually denoted by the sign ℞. [L. super-scribo, pp. -scriptus, to write upon or over]
1. Pertaining to or characterized by a speed greater than the speed of sound. SEE ALSO: hypersonic. 2. Pertaining to sound vibrations of high frequency, above the level of human ...
A structure above the surface.
- implant denture s. the denture which is retained and stabilized by the implant denture substructure.
Extreme tension; incorrectly used as a synonym of high blood pressure, or hyperpiesis.
In radiation therapy, a descriptor for high-energy radiation above 1000 V.
1. To assume, or to be placed in, a supine (face upward) position. 2. To perform supination of the forearm or of the foot. [L. supino, pp. -atus, to bend backwards, place on ...
Rotation of the arm or leg outward. In the case of the arm, the palm of the hand will face forward.
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The condition of being supine; the act of assuming or of being placed in ...
SYN: s. (muscle). See s. (muscle), biceps brachii (muscle).
1. Denoting the body when lying face upward. 2. Supination of the forearm or of the foot. [L. supinus]
Supine (anatomic orientation)
With the back or dorsal surface downward (lying face up), as opposed to prone. For a more complete listing of terms used in medicine for spatial orientation, please see the ...
Supplies kit, disaster
You and your family can cope best by preparing for disaster before it strikes. One way to prepare is by assembling a Disaster Supplies Kit. Once disaster hits, you won't have time ...
Supplies kit, emergency
You and your family can cope best by preparing for disaster before it strikes. One way to prepare is by assembling a Disaster Supplies Kit. Once disaster hits, you won't have time ...
1. To add to in an attempt to give greater strength. 2. SYN: supporter. 3. In dentistry, a term used to denote resistance to vertical components of masticatory force. [L. ...
An apparatus intended to hold in place a dependent or pendulous part, prolapsed organ, or joint. SYN: support (2). [see support]
: Treatment given to prevent, control, or relieve complications and side effects and to improve the patient's comfort and quality of life.
A small solid body shaped for ready introduction into one of the orifices of the body other than the oral cavity ( e.g., rectum, urethra, vagina), made of a substance, usually ...
A drug used to control coughing, particularly with a dry, nagging, unproductive cough.
1. Deliberately excluding from conscious thought. Cf.:repression. 2. Arrest of the secretion of a fluid, such as urine or bile. Cf.:retention (2). 3. Checking of an abnormal flow ...
A compound that suppresses the effects of mutation or suppresses what would be a normal course of events.
- amber s. a mutant gene that codes for a tRNA whose anticodon has ...
1. Causing or inducing suppuration. 2. An agent with this action. [L. suppurans, causing suppuration]
To form or discharge pus. The adjective is suppurative, as in suppurative arthritis. The noun, rarely used today, is suppuration. From the Latin puris = pus.
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To form pus. ...
The formation of pus. SYN: pyesis, pyogenesis, pyopoiesis, pyosis. [L. suppuratio (see suppurate)]
A position above the part indicated by the word to which it is joined; in this sense, the same as super-; opposite of infra-. [L. supra, on the upper side]
The portion of the crown of a tooth that converges toward the occlusal surface of the tooth.
Lying dorsal to the anterior or posterior cardinal veins in the embryo.
Above a crest or ridge; specifically used to denote a line or plane across the summits of the iliac crests.
The upward rotation of one eye. SYN: sursumduction.
: The upper part of the larynx, including the epiglottis; the area above the vocal cords.
An infectious inflammation and swelling of the laryngeal tissue above the glottis, especially of the epiglottis, which becomes red and spherical leading to upper airway ...
Above the hyoid bone, denoting, among other things, a group of muscles.
More than just perceptible; above the threshhold for conscious awareness. Cf.:subliminal. [ supra- + L. limen, threshold]
Above any margin; denoting especially the s. gyrus.
Above the mastoid process of the temporal bone.
In cephalometrics, the most posterior midline point, above the chin, on the mandibula between the infradentate and the pogonion. SYN: point B. [ supra- + L. mentum, chin]
Above (cranial to) the level of the motor neurons of the spinal or cranial nerves; the pathways the suprasegmental nerve fibers follow to reach the motor cell bodies in the ...
An occlusal relationship in which a tooth extends beyond the occlusal plane.
Above the orbit, either on the face or within the cranium; denoting numerous structures. See canal, foramen, notch, nerve.
Above or at the top of both the orbit and the external acoustic meatus; denotes a line or plane.
Denoting any dose (of a chemical agent that either is or mimics a hormone, neurotransmitter, or other naturally occurring agent) that is larger or more potent than would occur ...
1. Above the kidney. SYN: surrenal. 2. Pertaining to the s. glands. [ supra- + L. ren, kidney]
Above the scapula, denoting especially an artery, vein, and nerve.
On the outer side of the sclera, denoting the s. or perisclerotic space between the sclera and the fascia bulbi.
A muscle that is responsible for elevating the arm and moving it away from the body. The tendon of the supraspinatus muscle is one of four tendons that stabilize the shoulder ...
Above any spine; especially above one or more of the vertebral spines ( e.g., s. ligament) or the spine of the scapula.
Above the fissure of Sylvius or lateral sulcus.
Denoting cranial contents located above the tentorium cerebelli; often used to describe functional symptoms.
Above the tonsil; denoting a recess above and slightly back of the tonsil.
Above the valves, either pulmonary or aortic. SYN: supravalvular.
Above the ventricles; especially applied to rhythms originating from centers proximal to the ventricles, namely in the atrium, AV node, or AV junction, in contrast to rhythms ...