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An inflammation of the vulvar vestibule and the periglandular and subepithelial stroma characterized by a burning sensation and painful coitus.
Vestibule, vestibulum. [L. vestibulum]
Those regions of the cerebellar cortex whose predominant afferent fibers arise from the ganglion vestibulare and the vestibular nuclei; structures included under this term are ...
1. Relating to the vestibulum and cochlea of the ear. 2. SYN: statoacoustic.
Vestibulocochlear nerve
A nerve that is responsible for the sense of hearing and which is also pertinent to balance, to the body position sense. Problems with the vestibulocochlear nerve may result in ...
Any abnormality of the vestibular apparatus, e.g., Ménière disease. - idiopathic bilateral v. slowly progressive disorder affecting young to middle-aged adults, manifested as ...
Any of a series of surgical procedures designed to restore alveolar ridge height by lowering muscles attaching to the buccal, labial, and lingual aspects of the jaws. [ ...
See lateral v. tract.
Operation for an opening into the vestibule of the labyrinth. [ vestibulo- + G. tome, incision]
Relating to the vestibule of the vagina and urethra.
SYN: vestibule. [L. antechamber, entrance court] - v. aortae [TA] SYN: aortic vestibule. - v. bursae omentalis [TA] SYN: vestibule of omental bursa. - v. laryngis [TA] SYN: ...
A trace or a rudimentary structure; the degenerated remains of any structure which occurs as an entity in the embryo or fetus. SYN: vestigium [TA]. [L. vestigium] - v. of ...
Adjective describing something that is a vestige (remnant) or a primitive structure, and no longer believed to be important. For example, the appendix is considered a vestigial ...
SYN: vestige. [L. footprint (trace), fr. vestigo, to track, trace] - v. processus vaginalis [TA] SYN: vestige of processus vaginalis.
SYN: Bismarck brown Y. [Vesuvius, volcano in Italy]
A person who holds an academic degree in veterinary medicine; a licensed practitioner of veterinary medicine. [see veterinary]
Relating to the diseases of animals. [L. veterinarius, fr. veterina, beast of burden]
Veterinary medicine
The medical science concerned with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases in animals. Aside from diagnosing and treating sick and injured animals, veterinarians ...
Any passage in the body, as the intestine, the vagina, etc. [L. way, road]
Capability of living; the state of being viable; usually connotes a fetus that has reached 500 g in weight and 20 gestational weeks. [Fr. viabilité fr. L. vita, life]
Capable of life. For example, a viable premature baby is one who is able to survive outside the womb. * * * Capable of living; denoting a fetus sufficiently developed to live ...
A small bottle or receptacle for holding liquids, including medicines. SYN: phial. [G. phiale, a drinking cup]
A mixture of polvinate and malrosinol in organic solvent and a propellant; a modified polyvinyl plastic used as a topical spray for wounds.
1. A shaking. 2. A to-and-fro movement, as in oscillation. [L. vibratio, fr. vibro, pp. -atus, to quiver, shake]
Vibration white finger
The original name for a painful and potentially disabling condition of the fingers, hans, and arms due to vibration. Known now preferably as the hand-arm vibration syndrome. In ...
SYN: vibratory.
An instrument used for imparting vibrations.
Marked by vibrations. SYN: vibrative.
A group of bacteria that includes Vibrio cholerae, the agent of cholera, (a devastating and sometimes lethal disease with profuse watery diarrhea) and Vibrio comma (which is ...
Vibrio cholerae
One of the Vibrio bacteria, V. cholerae (as the name implies) is the agent of cholera, a devastating and sometimes lethal disease with profuse watery diarrhea. Like other ...
Vibrio cholerae genome
The genome of the bacterium that causes cholera. This genome contains over 4 million bases in its DNA including the sequences for nearly 4,000 genes. The Vibrio cholerae genome ...
Vibrion septique
SYN: Clostridium septicum. [Fr. septic vibrio]
Infection caused by species of bacteria of the genus Vibrio.
SYN: hairs of vestibule of nose, under hair. [L. found only in pl. vibrissae, fr. vibro, to quiver]
Relating to the vibrissae.
A graphic record of chest vibrations produced by hemodynamic events of the cardiac cycle; the record provides an indirect, externally recorded measurement of isovolumic ...
A type of vibrator for giving vibratory massage.
Vibrotactile aid
A mechanical instrument that helps individuals who are deaf to detect and interpret sounds through their sense of touch. It is called a vibrotactile aid because it serves as an ...
SYN: vibratory massage.
Viburnum prunifolium
A medication derived from the root bark of V. (family Caprifoliaceae); contains viburnin; bitter resin; tannin; sugar; citric, malic, oxalic and valeric acid s. Formerly used ...
Acting as a substitute; occurring in an abnormal situation. [L. vicarius, from vicis, supplying place of]
A glucoside occurring in akta, a weed that contaminates Lathyrus sativus, and in the common vetch (Vicia sativa), a plant whose fruit is substituted for red lentils; thought by ...
Vicq d'Azyr
Félix, French anatomist, 1748–1794. See V. bundle, V. centrum semiovale, V. foramen.
Victoria blue
Any of several blue diphenylnaphthylmethane derivatives; used as a stain in histology. [Queen Victoria]
Victoria orange
An alkaline salt of dinitrocresol; a reddish yellow stain formerly used in histology.
A purine nucleoside obtained from fermentation cultures of Streptomyces antibioticus and used to treat herpes simplex infections.
Video-assisted surgery
Surgery that is aided by the use of a video camera that projects and enlarges the image on a television screen. Also called video-assisted resection.
An endoscope fitted with a video camera.
Endoscopy performed with an endoscope fitted with a video camera.
A keratoscope fitted with a video camera.
Named after or described by Vidius.
Vidian neuralgia
A distinctive syndrome of headaches, better known today as cluster headache. There are two main clinical patterns of cluster headache — the episodic and the chronic: ...
Vidius, Vidus
Guidi (Guido), Italian anatomist and physician, 1500–1569. See vidian artery, vidian canal, vidian nerve, vidian vein.
J.P., 20th century Brazilian dermatologist. See V. sign.
Raymond de, French anatomist, 1641–1715. See V. anulus, V. ansa, V. centrum, V. foramina, under foramen, V. ganglia, under ganglion, V. isthmus, V. limbus, V. loop, V. ...
SYN: projection. - axial v. SYN: axial projection. - base v. SYN: submentovertex radiograph. - Caldwell v. SYN: Caldwell projection. - half axial v. SYN: Towne projection. - ...
An irreversible inhibitor of γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase, a degradative enzyme for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the inhibitory neurotransmitter. The drug intensifies ...
A state of wakefulness or sleeplessness. [L. vigilia, wakefulness, alertness, fr. vigeo, to be active, to rouse] - coma v. SYN: akinetic mutism.
An older term for a condition of unconsciously regarding one's surroundings, with automatism; resembling somnambulism but occurring in the waking state. [L. vigil, awake, ...
An attentiveness, alertness, or watchfulness for whatever may occur. [L. vigilantia, wakefulness]
Plural of villus.
An actin-binding protein that, at low calcium ion concentrations, nucleates polymerization of actin filaments; micromolar Ca2+ causes v. to sever actin filaments into short ...
SYN: villositis.
SYN: villous (2).
Inflammation of the chorionic villi surface of the placenta. SYN: villitis. [ villous + G. -itis inflammation]
Shagginess; an aggregation of villi.
1. Relating to villi. 2. Shaggy; covered with villi. SYN: villose.
1. A projection from the surface, especially of a mucous membrane. If the projection is minute, as from a cell surface, it is termed a microvillus. 2. An elongated dermal ...
The major polypeptide that copolymerizes with other subunits to form the intermediate filament cytoskeleton of mesenchymal cells; they may have a role in maintaining the ...
vinblastine sulfate
A dimeric alkaloid obtained from Vinca rosea. It arrests mitosis in metaphase (although vincristine is more active in this respect) and exhibits greater antimetabolic activity ...
Vinca rosea
A species of myrtle (family Myrtaceae) used in various parts of the world as a home remedy; two active dimeric alkaloids obtained from this plant are vinblastine and ...
SYN: vinblastine sulfate.
Henri, French physician, 1862–1950. See V. angina, V. bacillus, V. disease, V. infection, V. spirillum, V. tonsillitis.
Vincent angina
This is trench mouth, a progressive painful infection with ulceration, swelling and sloughing off of dead tissue from the mouth and throat due to the spread of infection from the ...
Vincent gingivitis
This is trench mouth, a progressive painful infection with ulceration, swelling and sloughing off of dead tissue from the mouth and throat due to the spread of infection from the ...
Vincent infection
This is trench mouth, a progressive painful infection with ulceration, swelling and sloughing off of dead tissue from the mouth and throat due to the spread of infection from the ...
Vincent stomatitis
This is trench mouth, a progressive painful infection with ulceration, swelling and sloughing off of dead tissue from the mouth and throat due to the spread of infection from the ...
vincristine sulfate
A dimeric alkaloid obtained from Vinca rosea; its antineoplastic activity is similar to that of vinblastine, but no cross-resistance develops between these two agents, and it ...
A protein associated with actin microfilaments; found in intercalated discs of cardiac muscle and focal adhesion plaques; may have a role in how a tumor virus causes pleiotropic ...
A frenum, frenulum, or ligament. [L. a fetter, fr. vincio, to bind] - v. breve digitorum manus [TA] SYN: v. breve of fingers. SEE ALSO: vincula tendinea of digits of hand and ...
Synthetic derivative of vinblastine which shares antineoplastic properties with the latter agent. Used in the treatment of childhood lymphocytic leukemia.
Arthur M., Canadian thoracic surgeon, 1903–1988. See V. procedure.
Impure dilute acetic acid, made from wine, cider, malt, etc. SYN: acetum. [Fr. vinaigre, fr. vin, wine, + aigre, sour] - mother of v. in v., the fungus of acetous ...
Relating to or derived from wine. [L. vinum, wine]
Relating to, containing, or of the nature of wine.
Porter P., U.S. surgeon, 1890–1959. See Plummer-V. syndrome.
The hydrocarbon radical, CH2=CH–. SYN: ethenyl. - v. carbinol SYN: allyl alcohol. - v. chloride a substance used in the plastics industry and suspected of being a potent ...
Vinyl chloride
A substance used in manufacturing plastics that is known to be toxic and carcinogenic (cancer-causing). Dangerous exposure to vinyl chloride occurs mainly in the workplace. ...
SYN: styrene.
The bivalent radical, –CH=CH–. SYN: ethenylene.
The bivalent radical, H2C=C=.
Denoting a purple discoloration, usually of the skin. [L. viola, violet]
The color evoked by wavelengths of the visible spectrum shorter than 450 nm. For individual v. dyes, see the specific name. [L. viola] - Hoffman v. dahlia. - visual v. SYN: ...
An antibiotic agent obtained from Streptomyces puniceus var. floridae; active against acid-fast bacteria, including strains of tubercle bacilli resistant to streptomycin; may ...
SYN: ergocalciferol.
Abbreviation for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide.
A member of the snake family Viperidae. [L. vipera, serpent, snake] - Russell's v. characteristically marked, highly venomous snake (Vipera russellii) of southeastern Asia. ...
A family of poisonous Old World snakes, the true vipers, composed of about 50 species and characterized by two relatively long caniculated fangs at the front of the upper jaw ...
An endocrine tumor, usually originating in the pancreas, which produces a vasoactive intestinal polypeptide believed to cause profound cardiovascular and electrolyte changes ...
French physician. See V. sign.
viprynium embonate
SYN: pyrvinium pamoate.
A rarely used term for the presence of pronounced masculine psychologic qualities in a woman. [L. virago (viragin-), a female warrior]
Of, pertaining to, or caused by a virus.
Viral hepatitis
Liver inflammation caused by viruses. Specific hepatitis viruses have been labeled A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. While other viruses
Viral infection
Infection caused by the presence of a virus in the body. Depending on the virus and the person’s state of health, various viruses can infect almost any type of body tissue, from ...
Rudolf L.K., German pathologist and politician, 1821–1902. See V. angle, V. cells, under cell, V. corpuscles, under corpuscle, V. crystals, under crystal, V. disease, V. node, ...
The presence of a virus in the blood. Viremia is analogous to bacteremia (the presence of bacteria in the blood) and parasitemia (the presence of a parasite in the blood). ...
Plural of vis.
SYN: penis. [L. a rod]
1. A person who has never had sexual intercourse. 2. Unused; uncontaminated. SYN: virginal (2). [L. virgo (v.-), maiden]
1. Relating to a virgin. 2. SYN: virgin (2). [L. virginalis]
Virginal membrane
A thin membrane which completely or partially occludes the vaginal opening. This fold of mucous membrane is usually present at birth at the orifice of the vagina. In medicine, it ...
The virgin state. [L. virginitas]
A rarely used term for the receptive, capacious, and retentive mind of youth. [L. virgo, maiden, + G. phren, mind]
SYN: virucidal.
SYN: virucide.
1. Relating to the male sex. 2. Manly, strong, masculine. 3. Possessing masculine traits. [L. virilis, masculine, fr. vir, a man]
A rarely used term for the assumption of male characteristics by the female.
The male sexual organs. [L. ntr. pl. of virilis, virile]
Possession of mature masculine somatic characteristics by a girl, woman, or prepubescent male; may be present at birth or may appear later, depending on its cause; may be ...
The condition or quality of being virile. [L. virilitas, manhood, fr. vir, man]
Production or acquisition of virilism.
To cause a female to develop male characteristics such as a deepened voice, an increase in body and facial hair, a decrease in breast size, an enlargement of the clitoris, and ...
Causing virilism.
The complete virus particle that is structurally intact and infectious.
Obsolete term denoting a sexually mature male. [L. viripotens, fr. vir, man, + potens, having power]
An infectious pathogen of plants that is smaller than a virus (MW 75,000–100,000) and differs from one in that it consists only of single-stranded closed circular RNA, lacking a ...
A specialist in virology.
The study of viruses and of viral disease. [virus + G. logos, study]
Binding of virus to a cell and subsequent absorption (engulfment) of virus particles by that cell. [viro- + G. pexis, fixation]
Virtual colonoscopy
A method for examining the colon by taking a series of x-rays (a CT scan) and then using a computer to reconstruct 2-D and 3-D pictures of the interior surfaces of the colon from ...
Destructive to a virus. SYN: viricidal.
An agent active against virus infections. SYN: viricide. [virus + L. caedo, to kill]
Presence of virus in feces. [virus + G. kopros, feces]
The ability of any agent of infection to produce disease. The virulence of a microorganism (such as a bacterium or virus) is a measure of the severity of the disease it is capable ...
Extremely noxious, damaging, deleterious, disease-causing (pathogenic). Marked by a rapid, severe, and malignant course. Poisonous, venomous. The virulence of a microorganism is ...
Conveying virus.
Presence of viruses in the urine. [virus + G. ouron, urine]
: A microorganism smaller than a bacteria, which cannot grow or reproduce apart from a living cell. A virus invades living cells and uses their chemical machinery to keep itself ...
virus shedding
Excretion of virus by any route from the infected host; route and duration of excretion vary according to the pathogenesis of the infection or disease.
Virus, attenuated
To attenuate is to weaken or to make (or become) thin. The word derives from a combination of the Latin prefix "ad-," meaning "to" or "toward," and "tenuis," meaning "thin." The ...
Virus, Ebola
A notoriously deadly virus that causes fearsome symptoms, the most prominent being high fever and massive internal bleeding. Ebola virus kills as many as 90% of the people it ...
Virus, human lymphotropic, type III
Another name for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the cause of AIDS. Please see: Virus, human immunodeficiency.
Virus, human papilloma (HPV)
A family of over 60 viruses responsible for causing warts. The majority of types of human papilloma viruses produce warts on the hands, fingers, and even the face. Most of these ...
Virus, lymphadenopathy
Another name for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the cause of AIDS. Please see: Virus, human immunodeficiency.
Virus, lymphadenopathy-associated
Another name for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the cause of AIDS. Please see: Virus, human immunodeficiency.
Virus, Marburg
The virus that causes Marburg hemorrhagic fever, a disease which affects both humans and non-human primates. Caused by a genetically unique zoonotic (that is, animal-borne) RNA ...
Virus, Nipah
A virus that infects pigs and people in whom it causes a sometimes fatal form of viral encephalitis (brain inflammation). Nipah is the name of the first village the virus struck ...
Virus, respiratory syncytial (RSV)
A virus that causes mild respiratory infections (colds and coughs) in adults but in young children can produce severe respiratory problems (bronchitis and pneumonia). Effective ...
Virus, xenotropic
A virus that can grow in the cells of a species foreign to the normal host species, a species different from that which normally hosts it. Xeno- means foreign while -tropic ...
: Small living particles that can infect cells and change how the cells function. Infection with a virus can cause a person to develop symptoms. The disease and symptoms that are ...
A plant pathogen resembling a viroid but having a much larger circular or linear RNA segment and a capsid; it is a satellite agent requiring an associated virus (helper virus) ...
Force, energy, or power. [L. force] - v. conservatrix the inherent power in the organism resisting the effects of injury. - v. a fronte a force acting from in front; an ...
A measure of the energy dissipation due to a flow in a viscous system. In medicine and physiology, usually a measure of the energy dissipation in the flow of liquids, sols, or ...
Plural of viscus. SYN: vitals.
In a direction toward the viscera. [viscera + L. ad, to]
Relating to the viscera. SYN: splanchnic.
Visceral leishmaniasis
A chronic and potentially fatal parasitic disease of the viscera (particularly the liver, spleen, bone marrow and lymph nodes) due to infection by Leishmania donovani. Also known ...
Visceral pericardium
The inner layer of the pericardium, a conical sac of fibrous tissue that surrounds the heart and the roots of the great blood vessels. The pericardium has outer and inner coats. ...
Pain in any viscera. [viscera + G. algos, pain]
SYN: visceromotor.
The viscera. SEE ALSO: splanchno-. [L. viscus, pl. viscera, the internal organs]
That part of the skull derived from the embryonic pharyngeal arches; it comprises the facial bones of the facial skeleton (under bone) and is distinct from that part of the skull ...
Of visceral origin; denoting a number of sensory and other reflexes. [ viscero- + G. -gen, producing]
An instrument for recording the mechanical activity of the viscera. [ viscero- + G. grapho, to write]
Restricting or arresting the functional activity of the viscera.
Abnormal enlargement of the viscera, such as may be seen in acromegaly and other disorders. SYN: organomegaly, splanchnomegaly. [ viscero- + G. megas, large]
1. Relating to or controlling movement in the viscera; denoting the autonomic nerves innervating the viscera, especially the intestines. 2. Denoting a movement having a relation ...
Relating to the viscera and the wall of the abdomen. [ viscero- + L. paries, wall]
Relating to the peritoneum and the abdominal viscera.
Relating to the pleural and the thoracic viscera. SYN: pleurovisceral.
visceroptosis, visceroptosia
Descent of the viscera from their normal positions. SYN: splanchnoptosis, splanchnoptosia. [ viscero- + G. ptosis, a falling]
Relating to the sensory innervation of internal organs.
Relating to the visceroskeleton. SYN: splanchnoskeletal.
1. Any bony formation in an organ, as in the heart, tongue, or penis of certain animals; the term also includes, according to some anatomists, the cartilaginous rings of the ...
Relating to the viscera and the body. SYN: splanchnosomatic. [ viscero- + G. soma, body]
An instrument by means of which a section of an organ, e.g., the liver, can be removed from a cadaver for examination without performing a general autopsy. [ viscero- + G. tomos, ...
Dissection of the viscera by incision, especially postmortem. [ viscero- + G. tome, incision]
Personality traits of love of food, sociability, general relaxation, friendliness, and affection. [ viscero- + G. tonos, tone]
Relating to any trophic change determined by visceral conditions. [ viscero- + G. trophe, nourishment]
Affecting the viscera. [L. viscero, internal organs, + G. trope, a turning]
Sticky; glutinous. [L. viscidus, stick, fr. viscum, birdlime]
Stickiness; adhesiveness.
SYN: cystic fibrosis.
The property of a viscous material that also shows elasticity.
SYN: viscosimeter.
An apparatus for determining the viscosity of a fluid; in medicine, usually of the blood. SYN: viscometer.
Determination of the viscosity of a fluid, such as the blood. [ viscosity + G. metron, measure]
In general, the resistance to flow or alteration of shape by any substance as a result of molecular cohesion; most frequently applied to liquids as the resistance of a fluid to ...
A class of phytotoxins that have a hypotensive activity and slow the heart beat.
Sticky; marked by high viscosity. [see viscid, viscosity]
1. The berries of V. album (family Loranthaceae), a parasitic plant growing on apple, pear, and other trees; has been used as an oxytocic. SYN: mistletoe. 2. Herbage of ...
An organ of the digestive, respiratory, urogenital, and endocrine systems as well as the spleen, the heart, and great vessels; hollow and multilayered walled organs studied in ...
The act of seeing. SEE ALSO: sight. [L. visio, fr. video, pp. visus, to see] - achromatic v. SYN: achromatopsia. - binocular v. v. with a single image, by both eyes ...
Vision therapy
The use of special eye exercises to address eye defects, such as strabismus. Some vision therapists also claim that eye exercises can help people with neurological or learning ...
Vision, binocular
The blending of the separate images seen by each eye into a single image. Binocular vision allows images to be seen with depth.
Vision, central
: Central vision involves the macula in the center of the retina, the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eye. As we read, light is focused onto our macula. There, ...
Vision, low
Visual loss that cannot be corrected with eyeglasses or contact lenses and that interferes with daily living activities.
Vision, macular
: The macula is a special area in the center of the retina, the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eye. As we read, light is focused onto our macula. There, ...
Vision, peripheral
Side vision; the ability to see objects and movement outside of the direct line of vision. In contrast to peripheral vision, central vision permits us to read, drive, and perform ...
1. Relating to vision. 2. Denoting a person who learns and remembers more readily through sight than through hearing. SEE ALSO: internal representation. [Late L. visualis, fr. ...
Visual acuity
The clarity or clearness of the vision, a measure of how well a person sees. The ability to distinguish details and shapes of objects; also called central vision. The word " ...
Visual acuity test
This test measures how well you see at various distances. It is the familiar eye chart test. The eye chart itself — the usual one is called Snellen's chart — is imprinted ...
Visual contrast sensitivity
The ability to perceive differences between an object and its background.
Visual field
The entire area that can be seen when the eye is directed forward, including that which is seen with peripheral vision. The visual field can be tested to measure the extent and ...
Visual field test
A test which measures the extent and distribution of the field of vision. The visual field test may be done by a number of methods including what are termed confrontation, ...
Visual nerve pathways
The optic nerves serving the eyes join behind the eyes just in front of the pituitary gland to form a cross-shaped structure called the optic chiasma. Within the optic chiasma ...
Visual receptor
The layer of rods and cones that are the visual cells of the retina.
To picture in the mind or to perceive; commonly misused by ascribing to the technique the act of making visible.
Relating to both vision and hearing; denoting nerves connecting the centers for these senses.
Recognition and understanding of visual impressions. [L. visus, vision, + G. gnosis, knowledge]
Denoting the ability to synchronize visual information with physical movement, e.g., driving a car or playing a video game of skill.
Pertaining to the portion of the cerebral cortex concerned with the integration of visual impressions. [L. visus, vision, + G. psyche, mind]
Pertaining to the perception of visual stimuli.
Denoting the ability to comprehend and conceptualize visual representations and spatial relationships in learning and performing a task.
A modified ophthalmoscope that projects a black star on the patient's fundus.
Relating to life. [L. vitalis, fr. vita, life]
vital red
Trisodium salt of a sulfonated diazo dye (a ditolyl group diazotized to sulfonated aminonaphthalene residues), used as a vital stain. SYN: brilliant v..
The theory that animal functions are dependent upon a special form of energy or force, the vital force, distinct from the physical forces. SYN: vis vitae, vis vitalis. [L. ...
Pertaining to vitalism.
Vital force or energy.
To endow with vital force.
An electrical device for determining the vitality of the tooth pulp.
SYN: viscera.
One of two or more similar compounds capable of fulfilling a specific vitamin function in the body; e.g., niacin, niacinamide.
One of a group of organic substances, present in minute amounts in natural foodstuffs, that are essential to normal metabolism; insufficient amounts in the diet may cause ...
Vitamin A
Vitamin A is retinol. Carotene compounds (found, for example, in egg yolk, butter and cream) are gradually converted by the body to vitamin A (retinol). A form of vitamin A ...
Vitamin A deficiency
A lack of vitamin A. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) occurs where diets contain insufficient vitamin A for meeting the needs associated with growth and development, physiological ...
Vitamin B — niacin
Deficiency of niacin, one of the B-complex vitamins, causes pellagra. Pellagra was known as the "disease of the four D's" — dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia and death. The ...
Vitamin B — nicotinic acid
Deficiency of nicotinic acid (also known as niacin), one of the B-complex vitamins, causes pellagra. Pellagra was known as the "disease of the four D's" — dermatitis, ...
Vitamin B — pantothenic acid
This is one of the less well known B vitamins, perhaps because it is widely distributed in nature. Pantothenic acid is virtually ubiquitous. It is present in foods as diverse as ...
Vitamin B1
Vitamin B1 is thiamine. Vitamin B1 acts as a coenzyme in the metabolism of the body. Deficiency of thiamine leads to beriberi, a disease of the heart and nervous system. The ...
Vitamin B1 — thiamine
Vitamin B1 is thiamine. It acts as a coenzyme in the metabolism of the body. Deficiency of thiamine leads to beriberi, a disease of the heart and nervous system. The word ...
Vitamin B12
A vitamin important for the normal formation of red blood cells and the health of the nerve tissues. Undetected and untreated vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to anemia and ...
Vitamin B12-responsive methylmalonicaciduria
An inherited metabolic (biochemical) disease that, unless effectively treated, causes young children to become mentally retarded. The defect in some (but not all) of these ...
Vitamin B15
An old name for dimethylglycine (DMG, pangamic acid), which is no longer considered to be a vitamin by the strict definition of that word.
Vitamin B2
An essential nutrient found in meat, dairy foods, plant foods and grain products. The body requires vitamin B2 to break down food components, maintain tissue, and absorb other ...
Vitamin B3
Vitamin B3 is niacin. Deficiency of niacin causes pellagra. Pellagra was known as the "disease of the four D's" — dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia and death. The disease is ...
Vitamin B5
Vitamin B5 is pantothenic acid, one of the less well known B vitamins, perhaps because it is widely distributed in nature. Pantothenic acid is virtually ubiquitous. It is ...
Vitamin B6
A group of closely related chemical compounds with related names — pyridoxine, pyridoxal and pyridoxamine — that are transformed within the body to yet another form of ...
Vitamin C
An essential nutrient found mainly in fruits and vegetables. The body requires vitamin C to form and maintain bones, blood vessels, and skin. Like other vitamins, vitamin C is an ...
Vitamin D
A steroid vitamin which promotes the intestinal absorption and metabolism of calcium and phosphorus. Under normal conditions of sunlight exposure, no dietary supplementation is ...
Vitamin E
Alpha-tocopherol, an antioxidant vitamin which binds oxygen free radicals that can cause tissue damage. Deficiency of vitamin E can lead to anemia. Vitamin E may play a possible ...
Vitamin K
One of two naturally occurring fat-soluble vitamins (vitamin K1 and vitamin K2) needed for the clotting of blood because of an essential role in the production of prothrombin (a ...
Vitamin O
Not a true vitamin but rather a pricey health supplement that is composed largely of salt water (plus some germanium, a trace element dangerous to health). The US Federal Trade ...
Vitamin P
An old name for substances now known as bioflavinoids. They are no longer considered to be vitamins by the strict definition of that word.
Vitamin requirements, infant
Vitamins are organic substances that are essential in minute quantities for the proper growth, maintenance, and functioning of the baby. Vitamins must be obtained from food ...
Vitamin therapy
The use of vitamins to prevent or cure disease. Many physicians are now recognizing the beneficial uses of anti-oxidant and other vitamins for a wide variety of conditions, often ...
The word "vitamin" was coined in 1911 by the Warsaw-born biochemist Casimir Funk (1884-1967). At the Lister Institute in London, Funk isolated a substance that prevented nerve ...
In cestodes and trematodes, a common chamber receiving vitelline ( yolk) material from the two vitelline ducts; the yolk material then passes into the ootype to surround the ...
Relating to or resembling the yolk of an egg.
A lipophosphoprotein combined with lecithin in the yolk of egg. SYN: lipovitellin, ovovitellin.
Relating to the vitellus. See yolk sac.
Formation of the yolk and its accumulation in the yolk sac. [L. vitellus, yolk, + G. genesis, production]
An egg yolk precursor protein; production is stimulated by estrogens. [L. vitellus, egg yolk, + -gen + -in]
Lutein from the yolk of egg.
A reddish pigment from the yolk of egg.
A protein fragment from vitellin.
SYN: yolk (1). [L.] - v. ovi yolk of egg; used in pharmacy for emulsifying oils and camphors.
A change that impairs utility or reduces efficiency. [L. vitiatio fr. vitio, pp. vitiatus, to corrupt, fr. vitium, vice]
Plural of vitiligo.
Relating to or characterized by vitiligo.
Pronounced vit-uh-LIE- go. A condition in which the skin turns white due to the loss of melanocytes. These cells produce melanin, the pigment that gives the skin its ...
Removal of the gel from the center of the eyeball. This may be done because it has blood and scar tissue in it that blocks sight. An eye surgeon replaces the clouded gel with a ...
A collagen-like protein that, with hyaluronic acid, accounts for the gel state of the vitreous humor. SYN: vitrosin.

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