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xanthylic
Relating to xanthine.
xanthylic acid
SYN: xanthosine 5′-monophosphate.
Xao
Symbol for xanthosine.
Xe
Symbol for xenon.
xemilofiban
A novel antiplatelet agent that blocks the binding of fibrinogen to specific membrane GPIIb/IIIa integrin receptors and thus prevents platelet aggregation induced by any known ...
Xen- (prefix)
Foreign or other. As in: {{}}Xenoantigen — An antigen that is found in more than one species. Xenograft — A surgical graft of tissue from one species to an unlike species, ...
xeno-
Strange; foreign material; parasite. See hetero-, allo-. [G. xenos, guest, host, stranger, foreign]
Xeno- (prefix)
Foreign or other. As in: {{}}Xenoantigen — An antigen that is found in more than one species. Xenograft — A surgical graft of tissue from one species an unlike species, genus ...
Xenoantigen
An antigen that is found in more than one species. An antigen is something that is capable of inducing an immune response. The prefix " xeno-" means foreign or other. It comes ...
Xenobiotic
Natural substances that are foreign to the body. * * * 1. A pharmacologically, endocrinologically, or toxicologically active substance not endogenously produced and therefore ...
xenodiagnosis
1. A method of diagnosing acute or early Trypanosoma cruzi infection ( Chagas disease) in humans. Infection-free (laboratory-reared) triatomine bugs are fed on the tissue of the ...
xenogeneic
Heterologous, with respect to tissue grafts, especially when donor and recipient belong to widely separated species. SYN: xenogenic (2), xenogenous (2). [ xeno- + G. -gen, ...
xenogenic
1. Originating outside of the organism, or from a foreign substance that has been introduced into the organism. SYN: xenogenous (1). 2. SYN: xenogeneic. [ xeno- + G. -gen, ...
xenogenous
1. SYN: xenogenic (1). 2. SYN: xenogeneic.
Xenograft
A surgical graft of tissue from one species to an unlike species (or genus or family). A graft from a baboon to a human is a xenograft. The prefix " xeno-" means foreign. It comes ...
xenon
A gaseous element, atomic no. 54, atomic wt. 131.29; present in minute proportion (0.087 ppm) in the dry atmosphere; produces general anesthesia in concentrations of 70 vol.%. ...
xenon-133
A radioisotope of xenon with a gamma emission at 81 keV and a physical half-life of 5.243 days; used in the study of pulmonary function and organ blood flow.
xenoparasite
An ecoparasite that becomes pathogenic in consequence of weakened resistance on the part of its host.
xenophobia
Morbid fear of strangers. [ xeno- + G. phobos, fear]
xenophonia
A speech defect marked by an alteration in accent and intonation. [ xeno- + G. phone, voice]
Xenopsylla
The rat flea; a genus of fleas parasitic on the rat and involved in the transmission of bubonic plague. The species X. cheopis serves as a potent vector of Yersinia pestis, ...
Xenotransplantation
Transplantation from one species to a foreign one. The rationale for xenotransplantation has been the short supply of human organs for transplantation. Perhaps the most famous ...
Xenotropic virus
A virus that can grow in the cells of a species foreign to the normal host species, a species different from that which normally hosts it. Xeno- means foreign while -tropic ...
xenyl
A radical consisting of biphenyl minus a hydrogen atom.
xeransis
A gradual loss of moisture in the tissues. [G. x., fr. xeros, dry]
xerantic
Denoting xeransis.
xerasia
A condition of the hair characterized by dryness and brittleness. [G. x., fr. xeros, dry]
Xeric
Characterized by a scanty supply of moisture (or tolerating or adapted to dry conditions). The word "xeric" is derived from "xeros," the Greek word for "dry." "Xeric" was coined ...
xero-
Dry. [G. xeros]
Xero- (prefix)
Dry. From the Greek "xeros" meaning "dry." Examples of words containing " xero-" — xeroderma is dry skin; xerophagia is eating a dry diet; xerophthalmia is dry eye; and ...
xerochilia
Dryness of lips. [ xero- + G. cheilos, lip]
Xeroderma
Abnormally dry skin. Xeroderma can be caused by a deficiency of vitamin A, systemic illness, overexposure to sunlight, or medication. It can usually be addressed by the use of ...
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP)
"Midnight's children disease" characterized by such extraordinary sensitivity to sunlight that it results in the development of skin cancer at a very early age. Children with XP ...
Xerogram
A picture of the body recorded on paper rather than on film. Also called a xeroradiograph. From the Greek "xeros" meaning "dry." * * * SYN: xeroradiograph.
xerography
SYN: xeroradiography.
xeroma
SYN: xerophthalmia.
Xeromammography
Xeroradiography of the breast. Xeroradiography is a photoelectric method of recording an x-ray image on a coated metal plate, using low-energy photon beams, long exposure time ...
xeromenia
Obsolete term for occurrence of the usual constitutional symptoms at the menstrual period without any show of blood. [ xero- + G. meniaia, menses]
xeromycteria
Extreme dryness of the nasal mucous membrane. [ xero- + G. mykter, the nose]
Xerophagia
Eating a dry diet. From the Greek "xeros" meaning "dry" + "phago" meaning "to eat."
xerophagia, xerophagy
The eating of dry foodstuffs; subsisting on a dry diet. [ xero- + G. phago, to eat]
Xerophthalmia
Dry eyes. Also, called conjunctivitis arida. Xerophthalmia can be associated with systemic diseases (such as Sjögren' s syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid ...
xerophthalmus
SYN: xerophthalmia.
Xeroradiograph
A picture of the body recorded on paper rather than on film. Also called a xerogram. From the Greek "xeros" meaning "dry." * * * The permanent record made by xeroradiography. ...
xeroradiography
Radiography using a specially coated charged plate instead of x-ray film, developing with a dry powder rather than liquid chemicals, and transferring the powder image onto paper ...
xerosis
Pathologic dryness of the skin (xeroderma), the conjunctiva (xerophthalmia), or mucous membranes. [ xero- + G. -osis, condition] - x. parenchymatosus superficial drying of the ...
Xerostomia
Dry mouth. Xerostomia can be associated with systemic diseases (such as Sjogren’s syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, sarcoidosis, ...
xerotic
Dry; affected with xerosis.
xerotripsis
Dry friction. [ xero- + G. tripsis, a rubbing, fr. tribo, to rub]
Xg blood group
See Blood Groups appendix.
xiph-
See xipho-.
xiphisternal
Relating to the xiphoid process.
xiphisternum
SYN: xiphoid process. [ xiphoid + G. sternon, chest]
xipho-, xiph-, xiphi-
Xiphoid, usually the processus xyphoideus. [G. xiphos, sword]
xiphocostal
Relating to the xiphoid process and the ribs. [xipho- + L. costa, rib]
xiphodynia
Pain of a neuralgic character, in the region of the xiphoid cartilage. SEE ALSO: hypersensitive xiphoid syndrome. SYN: xiphoidalgia. [xipho- + G. odyne, pain]
xiphoid
Sword-shaped; applied especially to the x. process. SYN: ensiform, gladiate, mucronate. [xipho- + G. eidos, appearance]
Xiphoid process
A pointed cartilage attached to the lower end of the breastbone or sternum, the smallest and lowest division of the sternum. Cartilaginous early in life, it may become ossified ...
xiphoidalgia
SYN: xiphodynia. [ xiphoid + G. algos, pain]
xiphoiditis
Inflammation of the xiphoid process of the sternum. [ xiphoid + G. -itis, inflammation]
xiphopagus
Conjoined twins united in the region of the xiphoid process of the sternum. See conjoined twins, under twin. [xipho- + G. pagos, something fixed]
XMP
Abbreviation for xanthosine 5′-monophosphate.
XTP
Abbreviation for xanthosine 5′-triphosphate.
XX
The sex chromosome complement of a normal human female. See also X chromosome.
XXX syndrome
A chromosomal disorder that affects females only, caused by the presence of three X chromosomes rather than the normal two. It may be characterized by mild to moderate mental ...
XXXX syndrome
A rare chromosomal disorder that affects females only, caused by the presence of four X chromosomes rather than the normal two. It is characterized by mild to severe mental ...
XXXXX syndrome
A chromosomal disorder that affects females only, caused by the presence of five X chromosomes rather than the normal two. It is characterized by mild to severe mental ...
XY
The sex chromosome complement of a normal human male. See also X chromosome, Y chromosome. * * * Abbreviation for xylose.
Xyl
Abbreviation for xylose.
xyl-, xylo-
Wood, woody; xylose, xylene. [G. xylon]
xylazine
A sedative/hypnotic/anesthetic widely used in veterinary medicine and in laboratory animals.
xylene
SYN: xylol. - x. cyanol FF [C.I. 43535] an acidic triphenylmethane dye used for histochemical staining of hemoglobin peroxidase and as a tracking dye for DNA sequencing in ...
xylenol
Occurring in six isomeric forms; used in the manufacture of coal tar disinfectants and synthetic resins. SYN: dimethylphenol.
xylidine
Aminodimethylbenzene; used as a reagent and in the manufacture of dyes.
Xylitol
A sweetener found in plants that is used as a substitute for sugar. Xylitol is considered a nutritive sweetener because it provides calories, just like sugar. (Saccharin is an ...
xylitol dehydrogenase
SYN: xylulose reductase.
xylo-
See xyl-.
xylobiose
A disaccharide of two xylose residues linked β1→4, both in pyranose rings.
xyloidin
SYN: pyroxylin.
xyloketose
SYN: xylulose.
xylol
A volatile liquid obtained from coal tar, having physical and chemical properties similar to those of benzene; it occurs as three isomers; m-, o-, and p-x.; used as a solvent, ...
xylometazoline hydrochloride
A sympathomimetic drug used as a nasal decongestant.
xylonic acid
A mild oxidation product of xylose.
xylopyranose
Xylose in pyranose form.
xylose
An aldopentose, isomeric with ribose, obtained by fermentation or hydrolysis of naturally occurring carbohydrate substances, e.g., in wood fiber. An important dietary ...
xylulose
threo-Pentulose; a 2-ketopentose. l-X. appears in the urine in cases of essential pentosuria; it is also an intermediate in the glucuronate pathway. SYN: xyloketose. - x. ...
xylyl
The radical consisting of xylene ( xylol) minus a hydrogen atom. - x. bromide the o-, m-, and p-forms are powerful lacrimators.
xylylene
The radical consisting of xylene ( xylol) minus two hydrogen atoms.
xysma
Membranous shreds in the feces. [G. filings, shavings, fr. xyo, to scrape]
XYY syndrome
A chromosomal disorder that affects males only, caused by the presence of an extra Y chromosome. Symptoms may include increased height, speech delays, learning disabilities, ...
Y
Symbol for yttrium; tyrosine; pyrimidine nucleoside.
Y (in chemistry)
The symbol for the element yttrium, an ultrarare metal named after Ytterby in southern Sweden. Yttrium has been used in certain nuclear medicine scans.
Y (in genetics)
The Y chromosome, the sex chromosome found in normal males, together with an X chromosome.
Y chromatin
Brilliantly fluorescent body seen in cells stained with the dye quinacrine which lights up the Y chromosomes most brightly.
Y chromosome
The sex chromosome found together with an X chromosome in most normal males. Once thought to be a genetic wasteland, the Y now is known to contain at least 20 genes, some of them ...
Y chromosome sex-determining region
A region on the Y chromosome that determines the sex of the individual. This region goes by the symbol SRY (sex region Y). SRY is necessary and sufficient for male sex ...
Y map
The array of genes on the Y chromosome. Once thought to be a genetic wasteland, the Y now is known to contain at least 20 genes. Some of these genes are unique to the Y including ...
y+
See system (5).
Y-linkage
The presence of a gene on the Y chromosome. Y-linkage is analogous to X-linkage (the presence of a gene on the X chromosome) in that it says a gene is on one of the sex ...
Y-linked
A gene on the Y chromosome. A Y-linked gene is by necessity passed from father to son, since the Y chromosome can only be transmitted by a man to his male progeny. It has ...
Y-linked gene
A gene on the Y chromosome. (Y-linkage is analogous to X-linkage (the presence of a gene on the X chromosome) in that it says a gene is on one of the sex chromosomes.) It has ...
Y-linked inheritance
Inheritance of genes on the Y chromosome. Since only males normally have a Y chromosome, Y-linked genes can only be transmitted from father to son. Y-linked inheritance is ...
Y. pestis
Yersinia pestis, the bacteria that causes the bubonic plague which in the year 541 (as the Black Death) and later in the Middle Ages decimated Europe. The effects of the plague ...
YAC
YAC stands for yeast artificial chromosome, a vector (carrier) created and used in the laboratory to clone pieces of DNA. A YAC is constructed from the telomeric, centromeric, ...
YAG
Abbreviation for yttrium-aluminum-garnet.
YAG laser surgery
The use of a YAG (yttrium-aluminum-garnet) laser to do surgery. One use for a YAG laser in surgery is to punch a hole in the iris to relieve increased pressure within the eye ...
yang
See yin-y..
yanggona
SYN: yaqona.
yaqona
A Fijian drink made from the powdered root of Piper methysticum (family Piperaceae); excessive drinking of it causes a state of hyperexcitability and a loss of power in the ...
Yard
In length, 3 feet or 36 inches or, metrically, 86.44 centimeters. The yard, along with the foot and inch, are English creations to which the USA has stubbornly clung. The yard was ...
yaw
An individual lesion of the eruption of yaws. - mother y. a large granulomatous lesion, considered to be the primary inoculation lesion in yaws, most commonly present on the ...
Yawn
Involuntary opening of the mouth, often caused by suggestion. Yawning is characterized by breathing first inward, then outward. Repeated yawning is often a sign of drowsiness. ...
Yawning
The involuntary opening of the mouth with respiration, breathing first inward, then outward. Yawning is often caused by suggestion. Repeated yawning is commonly a sign of ...
Yaws
A common chronic infectious disease that occurs mainly in the warm humid regions of the tropics with characteristic bumps on the skin of the face, hands, feet and genital area. ...
Yb
Symbol for ytterbium.
yd.
Abbreviation for a yard as a measure of length. A yard equals 3 feet or 36 inches. The metric equivalents for these measures of length are: {{}}A yard = 0.9144 meter. A foot = ...
year
- disability-adjusted life years ( DALYs) a measure of the burden of disease on a defined population, based on adjustment of life expectancy to allow for long-term disability as ...
Yeast
A group of single-celled fungi that reproduce by budding. Most yeast are harmless (some are used in baking and brewing). Yeast is commonly present on normal human skin and in ...
Yeast artificial chromosome (YAC)
A vector (carrier) created and used in the laboratory to clone pieces of DNA. A YAC is constructed from the telomeric, centromeric, and replication origin sequences needed for ...
Yeast diaper rash
Infection in the diaper area caused by a yeast formerly called Monilia and now called Candida. These organisms are part of the germs normally found in various parts of the body ...
Yeast genome
All of the genetic information contained in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The genomes of particular nonhuman organisms such as yeast have been studied for a number of reasons ...
Yeast infection
Overgrowth of yeast can affect the skin (yeast rash), mouth (thrush), digestive tract, esophagus, vagina (vaginitis), and other parts of the body. Yeast infections occur most ...
Yeast rash
A slightly raised pink-to-red rash caused by proliferation of yeast, usually in a moist area such as the groin. It is most common in infants, but can also occur on the skin of ...
Yeast syndrome
The yeast Candida has been thought to cause a syndrome with a number of nonspecific problems including fatigue, loss of appetite, headache, short-attention span, depression and ...
Yeast vulvitis
A yeast infection of the external genital organs of the female (the vulva). The vulva includes the labia, clitoris, and the entrance (the " vestibule") to the vagina. Yeast ...
yellow
A color occupying a position in the spectrum between green and orange. For individual y. dyes see specific name. [A.S. geolu] - corralin y. the sodium salt of rosolic acid. - ...
Yellow enzyme, Warburg's
A key respiratory enzyme discovered by the German biochemist Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883-1970), a pioneer in research on the respiration of cells and the metabolism of tumors. ...
Yellow enzymes
A group of respiratory enzymes that catalyze reactions in the body permitting cells to respire, to breath. These biochemical reactions are termed oxidation-reduction reactions. ...
Yellow fever
An acute systemic (bodywide) illness caused by a virus called a Flavivirus. In severe cases, the viral infection causes a high fever, bleeding into the skin, and necrosis ...
Yellow fever vaccination
A live attenuated (weakened) viral vaccine that is recommended for people traveling to or living in tropical areas in the Americas and Africa where yellow fever occurs. Because ...
Yellow jack
1) The flag displayed from lazarettos, naval hospitals, and vessels in quarantine. 2) Synonym for yellow fever as, for example, in "...Fernando passed a few weeks recovering ...
yellow root
SYN: hydrastis.
Yerba maté
A stimulant beverage similar to tea, very popular in South America, brewed from the dried leaves and stemlets of a member of the holly family known botanically as Ilex ...
yerba santa
SYN: eriodictyon. [Sp. sacred herb]
Yersinia
A group of bacteria that appear rod-like under the microscope and include Yersinia pestis (the cause of the bubonic and pneumonic plague), Yersinia entercolitica (the cause of ...
Yersinia enterocolitica
A bacterium that causes an infectious disease called yersiniosis. Yersinia enterocolitica is a member of the Yersinia family of bacteria. Common symptoms of yersiniosis in ...
Yersinia pestis
The bacteria that causes the bubonic plague which in the year 541 (as the Black Death) and later in the Middle Ages decimated Europe. The effects of the plague are described in ...
Yersinia pestis genome
All of the DNA (the genome) of the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes the plague, consisting of four rings of DNA — a large circular chromosome made up of 4,653,728 bases ...
Yersiniosis
An infectious disease caused by a bacterium called Yersinia enterocolitica (and, less often, other forms of Yersinia). The infection can cause a variety of symptoms depending on ...
yield
The amount or quantity produced or returned, often measured as a percentage of the starting material; e.g., a y. in an enzyme preparation is equal to the units of enzyme activity ...
yin-yang
In ancient Chinese thought, the concept of two complementary and opposing influences, Yin and Yang, underlying and controlling all nature, the aim of Chinese medicine being to ...
ylides
A class of compounds in which a positively charged negative element from group V or VI of the periodic table ( E.G., N, O, S, P) is bonded to a carbon atom having an unshared pair ...
Yoga
: A way of life that includes ethical precepts, dietary prescriptions, and physical exercise. Its practitioners believe that their discipline has the capacity to alter mental and ...
Yogurt
A common dish made of milk curdled and fermented with a culture of Lactobacillus (the milk bacillus). The word was acquired in the 1620s from Turkey. It can be spelled myriad ...
yogurt, yoghurt
Fermented, partially evaporated, whole milk prepared by maintaining it at 50°C for 12 hours after the addition of a mixed culture of Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, ...
yohimbine
An alkaloid, the active principle of yohimbé, the bark of Corynanthe yohimbi (family Rubiaceae); it produces a competitive blockade, of limited duration, of adrenergic ...
yoke
SYN: jugum (1). [A.S. geoc] - alveolar yokes [TA] one of the eminences on the outer surface of the alveolar process of the maxilla or mandible, formed by the roots of the ...
yolk
1. One of the types of nutritive material stored in the ovum for the nutrition of the embryo; y. is particularly abundant and conspicuous in the eggs of birds. SYN: vitellus. 2. ...
Yolk sac
Not all yolk has to do with birds’ eggs. Human embryos have a yolk sac, a membrane outside the embryo but connected by a tube (the yolk stalk) though the umbilical ...
Yolk stalk
A narrow tube present in the early embryo that connects the midgut of the embryo to the yolk sac outside the embryo through the umbilical opening. Later in development, the ...
Yorke autolytic reaction
See under reaction.
Young
William John, 20th century Australian biochemist. See Harden-Y. ester. Thomas, English physician and physicist, 1773–1829. See Y. modulus, Y. rule, Y.-Helmholtz theory of color ...
Youth
The time between childhood and maturity. (Unfortunately, as the songwriter Sammy Cahn noted, "youth is wasted on the young.")
YPLL
Abbreviation for years of potential life lost, under year.
ypsiliform
SYN: hypsiloid. [G. ypsilon, upsilon, the letter u or y, + L. forma, form]
ytterbium
A metallic element of the lanthanide group; atomic no. 70, atomic wt. 173.04. 169Yb, with a half-life of 32.03 days, has been used in cisternography and in brain scans. [Ytterby, ...
Yttrium
A rare elemental metal. A radioactive form of yttrium is used in radiation therapy and some types of immunotherapy. * * * A metallic element, atomic no. 39, atomic wt. 88.90585. ...
yttrium-90
An artificial radioactive isotope with a physical half-life of 2.67 days, which decays with the emission of a 2.282 MeV β particle; used as an implant in pituitary ablation.
Yvon
Paul, French physician and chemist, 1848–1913. See Y. test.
Z
Abbreviation for benzyloxycarbonyl (carbobenzoxy-); symbol for an amino acid that is either glutamic acid, glutamine, or a substance that yields glutamic acid on acid hydrolysis ...
z
Abbreviation for zepto-.
Z chromosome
A sex chromosome in certain animals, such as chickens, turkeys, and moths. In humans, males are XY and females XX, but in animals with a Z chromosome, males are ZZ and females are ...
Z-plasty
Technique to elongate a contracted scar or to rotate tension 90°; the middle line of a Z-shaped incision is made along the line of greatest tension or contraction, and triangular ...
Zaffaroni
Alejandro, Uruguayan-U.S. chemist and biochemist, *1923. See Z. system.
zafirlukast
A blocker of leukotriene D4 and E4 (LTD4 and LTE4) components of a slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRSA); used for the prophylaxis of asthma attacks.
Zaglas
John, 19th century anatomist's assistant in Edinburgh. See Z. ligament.
Zahn
Friedrich W., German pathologist, 1845–1904. See Z. infarct, lines of Z., under line, striae of Z., under stria.
Zambusch
Leo von, 20th century German physician. See generalized pustular psoriasis of Z..
zanamivir
An agent that inhibits neuraminidase of influenza virus.
Zappert
Julius, Austrian physician, 1867–1942. See Z. counting chamber.
Zavanelli
William, 20th century U.S. obstetrician. See Z. maneuver.
zea
The styles and stigmas of Z. mays (family Gramineae), Indian corn; formerly used as a diuretic and antispasmodic. SYN: cornsilk. [Mod. L. maize]
zearalenone
One of the resorcylic acid lactones; used in veterinary medicine as an anabolic.
zeatin
A cytokinin first isolated from kernels of sweet corn. SYN: maize factor.
zeaxanthin
A carotene found in corn, fruits, seeds, and egg yolk; isomeric with xanthophyll. SYN: zeaxanthol. [Mod. L. Zea, Indian corn, fr. L. zea, grain + G. xanthos, yellow, + -in] ...
zeaxanthol
SYN: zeaxanthin.
Zebra
The term "zebra" in medicine does not refer to the striped African animal but to an unlikely diagnostic possibility. It comes from an old saying in teaching medical students about ...
Zeeman
Pieter, Dutch physicist and Nobel laureate, 1865–1943. See Z. effect.
ZEEP
Abbreviation for zero end- expiratory pressure.
zein
A prolamine present in maize; it lacks chiefly the amino acid s l-tryptophan and l-lysine and is also low in cysteine content. It is the main storage protein in maize.
Zeis
Eduard, Dresden ophthalmologist, 1807–1868. See Z. glands, under gland, zeisian sty.
zeisian
Relating to or described by Eduard Zeis.
Zeitgeber
German for "time-giver", Zeitgeber refers to an environmental agent or event such as the occurrence of light or dark that provides the stimulus setting or resetting a biological ...
Zeitgeist
In psychology, the climate of opinion, conventions of thought, covert influences, and unquestioned assumptions that are implicit in a given culture, the arts, or science at any ...
Zellweger
Hans U., U.S. pediatrician, 1909–1990. See Z. syndrome.
Zellweger syndrome
A genetic disorder, also called the cerebrohepatorenal syndrome, characterized by the reduction or absence of peroxisomes (cell structures that rid the body of toxic substances) ...
zelophobia
Morbid fear of jealousy. [G. zelos, zeal, + phobos, fear]
zelotypia
Excessive zeal, carried to the point of morbidity, in the advocacy of any cause. [G. z.; rivalry, envy, fr. zelos, zeal, + typto, to strike]
Zenker
Friedrich A., German pathologist, 1825–1898. See Z. degeneration, Z. diverticulum, Z. fixative, Z. paralysis, formol-Z. fixative.
zeolite
A naturally occurring hydrated sodium aluminum silicate, Na2O Al2O3 (SiO2)x (H2O)x, used for softening of hard water by exchanging its Na+ for the Ca2+ of the water; thus z. is ...
zeoscope
A device for determining the alcoholic content of a liquid by ascertaining its exact boiling point. [G. zeo, to boil, + skopeo, to examine]
zepto-
Prefix used in the SI and metric systems to signify submultiples of 10−21.
zero
1. The figure 0, indicating the absence of magnitude, or nothing. 2. In thermometry, the point from which the figures on the scale start in one or the other direction; in the ...
zero gravity
A physical state existing in space or at a time in flight when the centrifugal thrust of a parabolic glide or turn exactly counteracts the force of gravity.
zeta
1. The sixth letter of the Greek alphabet, ζ. 2. In chemistry, denotes the sixth in a series, e.g., the sixth carbon from a functional group. 3. Symbol for electrokinetic ...
zetacrit
The packed cell volume produced by vertical centrifugation of blood in capillary tubes, allowing controlled compaction and dispersion of red blood cells; read with a hematocrit ...
zetaprotein
SYN: fibronectins.
zeugmatography
Term coined by Lauterbur in 1972 for the joining of a magnetic field and spatially defined radiofrequency field gradients to generate a two-dimensional display of proton ...
zidovudine
A thymidine analog that is an inhibitor of in vitro replication of HIV virus, the causative agent of AIDS and ARC, and is used in the management of these diseases. SYN: ...
Ziegler
Samuel L., U.S. ophthalmologist, 1861–1926.
Ziehen
Georg T., German psychiatrist, 1862–1950. See Z.- Oppenheim disease.
Ziehl
Franz, German bacteriologist, 1857–1926. See Z. stain, Z.- Neelsen stain.
Ziemann
Hans R.P., German pathologist, 1865–1939. See Z. dots, under dot, Z. stippling.
Zieve
Leslie, U.S. physician, *1915. See Z. syndrome.
ZIFT
Stands for zygote intrafallopian transfer, a method used to treat infertility in which an egg fertilized in vitro (outside the body) is placed into a woman's fallopian tube. ...
Zimmerlin
Franz, Swiss physician, 1858–1932. See Z. atrophy.
Zimmermann
Karl W., German histologist, 1861–1935. See Z. corpuscle, Z. granule, Z. elementary particle, polkissen of Z.. Wilhelm, German physician, *1910. See Z. reaction, Z. test.
Zinc
A mineral essential to the body, zinc is a constituent of many enzymes that permit chemical reactions to proceed at normal rates. It is involved in the manufacture of protein ...
Zinc acetate
A form of zinc that has been used as an emetic.
Zinc deficiency
: Lack of zinc in the body. According to the National Academy of Sciences, the Recommended Dietary Allowances of zinc are 12 milligrams per day for women and 10 milligrams per ...
Zinc deficiency dermatitis and diarrhea
Among the consequences of zinc deficiency, dermatitis (skin inflammation) and diarrhea are particularly prominent features. A genetic disease called acrodermatitis ...
Zinc excess
Too much zinc can cause gastrointestinal irritation (upset stomach), interfere with copper absorption and cause copper deficiency, and (like too little zinc) cause immune ...
Zinc ointment
A topical preparation containing zinc that is applied to protect the skin from irritation or sunburn. Zinc ointment is often the basis for commercial preparations for ...
Zinc oxide
A form of zinc that has antispasmodic qualities.
Zinc sulfate
A form of zinc that can be administered in eye drops. It is used in some types of eye tests.
zinc-65
A radioactive zinc isotope that decays mainly by K-capture with a half-life of 243.8 days; used as a tracer in studies of zinc metabolism.
zinciferous
Containing zinc.
zincoid
Relating to or resembling zinc. [G. eidos, resemblance]
zingiber
SYN: ginger.
Zinn
Johann G., German anatomist, 1727–1759. See Z. artery, Z. vascular circle, Z. corona, Z. ligament, Z. membrane, Z. ring, Z. tendon, Z. zonule.
Zinsser
Hans, U.S. bacteriologist and immunologist, 1878–1940. See Brill-Z. disease.
Zinsser disease
Also called Brill-Zinsser disease, recrudescence of epidemic typhus years after the initial attack. The agent that causes epidemic typhus (Rickettsia prowazekii) remains ...
ZIP code, protein
An informal name for a molecular cell biology system of signals or "address tags" that guide the movement of a protein within a cell. In more technical terms, protein ZIP codes* ...
zirconium
A metallic element, atomic no. 40, atomic wt. 91.224; widely distributed in nature, but never found in quantity in any one place. [zircon, a mineral, fr. Ar. zarkun, cinnabar, ...
zirconium oxide
Used as a coating for the skin in dermatologic pharmaceuticals and as a pigment in paints.
zm
Abbreviation for zeptometer.
Zn
Symbol for zinc.
zo-
See zoo-.
Zo2
Symbol for microliters of oxygen taken up per hour by 108 spermatozoa; can vary as a function of temperature.
zoanthropic
Relating to or marked by zoanthropy.
zoanthropy
A delusion that one is an animal, such as a dog. [G. zoon, animal, + anthropos, man]
zoetic
Relating to life. [G. zoe, life]
zoic
Relating to living things; having life. [G. zoikos, relating to an animal]
zoite
SYN: sporozoite. [G. zoon, animal]
Zollinger
Robert M., U.S. surgeon, *1903. See Z.- Ellison syndrome, Z.- Ellison tumor.
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
A rare disorder caused by a tumor called a gastrinoma, most often occurring in the pancreas. The tumor secretes the hormone gastrin, which causes increased production of gastric ...
Zöllner
Johann F., German physicist, 1834–1882. See Z. lines, under line.
zolpidem
A sedative/hypnotic drug useful for treating anxiety and resembling benzodiazepines in its pharmacology but differing somewhat in chemical structure. Unlike benzodiazepines, z. ...
zomepirac sodium
An analgesic anti-inflammatory agent, no longer marketed.
zona
1. SYN: zone. 2. SYN: herpes zoster. [L. fr. G. zone, a girdle, one of the zones of the sphere] - z. arcuata SYN: arcuate zone. - z. ciliaris SYN: ciliary zone. - z. corona ...
Zona pellucida
The strong membrane that forms around an ovum as it develops in the ovary. The membrane remains in place during the egg’s travels through the fallopian tube. To fertilize the ...
zonal
Relating to a zone.
zonary
Relating to or having the form of a zone or belt.
zonate
Zoned; ringed; having concentric layers of differing texture or pigmentation.
zone
A segment; any encircling or beltlike structure, either external or internal, longitudinal or transverse. SEE ALSO: area, band, region, space, spot. SYN: zona (1) [TA]. [L. ...
zonesthesia
A sensation as if a cord were drawn around the body, constricting it. SYN: girdle sensation, strangalesthesia. [G. zone, girdle, + aisthesis, sensation]
zoning
The occurrence of a stronger reaction in a lesser amount of suspected serum, observed sometimes in serologic tests used in the diagnosis of syphilis, and probably the result of ...
zonography
A form of tomography with a relatively thick plane of focus; especially used in renal radiography. [zone + G. grapho, to write]
zonoskeleton
The proximal skeletal segments of the limbs, i.e., scapula, clavicle, hip bone. [L. zona, zone, + skeleton]
zonula
SYN: zonule. [L. dim. of zona, zone] - z. adherens a beltlike desmosomal attachment between columnar epithelial cells, upon which filaments attach. SYN: intermediate junction. - ...
zonular
Relating to a zonula.
zonule
A small zone. SYN: zonula. - ciliary z. [TA] a series of delicate meridional fibers arising from the inner surface of the orbiculus ciliaris that run in bundles between, and ...
zonulitis
Assumed inflammation of the zonule of Zinn, or suspensory ligament of the lens of the eye. [ zonule + G. -itis, inflammation]
zonulolysis, zonulysis
Dissolution of the zonula ciliaris by enzymes (α-chymotrypsin) to facilitate surgical removal of a cataract. SYN: Barraquer method. [ zonule + G. lysis, dissolution]
zoo-, zo-
Animal, animal life. [G. zoon]
zooanthroponosis
A zoonosis normally maintained by humans but that can be transmitted to other vertebrates ( e.g., amebiasis to dogs, tuberculosis). Cf.:anthropozoonosis, amphixenosis. [zoo- + ...
zooblast
An animal cell. [zoo- + G. blastos, germ]
zoochrome
A naturally occurring animal pigment; includes human pigments.
zoodermic
Relating to the skin of an animal. [zoo- + G. derma, skin]
zooerastia
SYN: zoophilia. [zoo- + G. erastes, lover]
zoofulvin
A yellow pigment obtained from the feathers of certain birds.
zoogenesis
The doctrine of animal production or generation. [zoo- + G. genesis, origin]
zoogeography
The geography of animals; the study of the distribution of animals on the earth's surface.
zooglea
In bacteriology, an old term for a mass of bacteria held together by a clear gelatinous substance. [zoo- + G. glia, glue]
zoogonous
SYN: viviparous.

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