A graft of tissue from an animal to a human. SYN: animal graft, zooplastic graft.
1. Resembling an animal; an organism or object with an animal-like appearance. 2. An animal cell capable of independent existence or movement, as the ovum or a spermatozoon, or ...
An older term for sexual attraction toward animals. [zoo- + G. lagneia, lust]
The branch of biology that deals with animals. [zoo- + G. logos, study]
The action of a varifocal lens system in a camera or microscope that maintains an object in focus while approaching it or receding from it; this effect may be obtained by moving ...
An excessive, abnormal love of animals. [zoo- + G. mania, frenzy]
SYN: Zoomastigophorea. [zoo- + G. mastix, whip]
A class of flagellates (superclass Mastigophora) within the phylum Sarcomastigophora ( flagellate and ameboid protozoans), of animal-like as opposed to plantlike ...
An infectious disease in animals that can be transmitted to people. The natural reservoir for the infectious agent is a animal. Examples of zoonoses include rabies (a viral ...
Diseases spread from animals to people. Examples of zoonotic diseases include rabies (a viral disease that can be transmitted to humans through an infected animal's bite) and ...
A living parasite, such as a worm or protozoa.
* * *
An animal parasite; an animal existing as a parasite.
The study or science of diseases of the lower animals.
SYN: carnivorous. [G. zoophagos, fr. zoon, animal, + phagein, to eat]
1. A lover of animals; especially one more fond of animals than of humans. 2. One opposed to any animal experimentation; an antivivisectionist. [zoo- + G. philos, fond]
A sexual disorder involving an erotic attraction to animals or an abnormal desire to have sexual contact with animals. Zoophilia is one form of paraphilia (deviant sexual ...
1. Relating to or displaying zoophilism. 2. Animal-seeking or animal-preferring; denoting preference of a parasite for an animal host over a human. [zoo- + G. philos, fond, ...
Fondness for animals, especially an extravagant fondness for them.
- erotic z. the deriving of sexual pleasure by patting or stroking animals. SEE ALSO: zoophilia, bestiality. ...
An abnormal and persistent fear of animals. A phobia is an unreasonable fear that can cause avoidance and panic. Phobias are a relatively common type of anxiety disorder. Phobias ...
An animal that resembles a plant, such as the sponges or sea anenomes. [zoo- + G. phyton, plant]
Grafting of tissue from an animal to a human. SYN: zoografting.
Sexual pleasure from cruelty to animals.
The process of osmosis in living tissues. [G. zoos, living, + osmosis]
The presence of live spermatozoa in the ejaculated semen. [G. zoon, living, + sperma, seed, + -ia]
The art of managing domestic or captive animals, including handling, breeding, and keeping. [zoo- + G. techne, art]
Pertaining to animals other than humans.
A substance, resembling the bacterial toxins in its antigenic properties, found in the fluids of certain animals; e.g., in snake venom, the secretions of poisonous insects, eel ...
Relating to or serving for the nutrition of the lower animals. [zoo- + Gr. trophe, nourishment]
Semisynthetic derivative of daunorubicin; also similar to doxorubicin. Like those agents, z. exerts significant myocardial toxicity. Used as an antineoplastic in breast ...
SYN: herpes z.. [G. z., a girdle]
- geniculate z. (jen-i′kyu-lat zos′ter) SYN: herpes z. oticus.
Resembling herpes zoster. SYN: zosteriform. [ zoster + G. eidos, resemblance]
A centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant that is no longer used because of its hepatic toxicity.
Richard A., Austro-German chemist and Nobel laureate, 1865–1929. See Z. test, brownian-Z. movement.
Abbreviation for zeta sedimentation ratio.
Emil, Austrian anatomist, 1849–1910. See Z. bodies, under body, Z. convolution, Z. fascia, organs of Z., under organ.
1. SYN: cis- (4). 2. A form of geometric isomerism with regard to carbon-carbon double bonds in which all four moieties attached to the carbons are different. If the ...
Sweetened bread that has been baked twice, preferred for infant feeding during teething. [Ger. twice-baked]
SYN: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. [Ger. zwischen, between, + Ferment, fermentation]
Detergents that are zwitterionic; often used as surfactants and in the release of proteins from biomembranes. SYN: zwitterionic detergent. [zwitterion + detergent]
Denoting a substance with the properties of a zwitterion; e.g., at pH value of 6.11, alanine is z..
SYN: dipolar ions, under ion. SEE ALSO: zwitter hypothesis. [Ger. Zwitter, hermaphrodite, mongrel + ion]
Relating to or shaped like a zygon or yoke; H-shaped.
SYN: articular process, articular process. [G. zygon, yoke, + apophysis, offshoot]
- z. inferior [TA] SYN: inferior articular process.
- z. superior [TA] SYN: superior ...
In cephalometrics and craniometrics, the most lateral point of the zygomatic arch. [G. a later form of zygon, yoke]
A yoke, a joining. [G. zygon, yoke, zygosis, a joining]
The part of the temporal bone of the skull that forms the prominence of the cheek. The zygoma is also known as the zygomatic bone or arch, the malar bone, the cheek bone and the ...
The part of the temporal bone of the skull that forms the prominence of the cheek. The zygomatic arch is also known as the zygomatic bone, the zygoma, the malar bone, the cheek ...
The part of the temporal bone of the skull that forms the prominence of the cheek. The zygomatic bone is also known as the zygomatic arch, the zygoma, the malar bone, the cheek ...
Zygomatic; relating usually to the zygomatic bone. See zygo-. [G. zygoma]
A craniometric point located externally at the lowest extent of the zygomaticomaxillary suture. SYN: key ridge, zygomaxillary point.
A class of fungi characterized by sexual reproduction resulting in the formation of a zygospore, and asexual reproduction by means of nonmotile spores called sporangiospores or ...
A dangerous infection caused by a water-borne fungus. Zygomycosis is seen most often in patients who are already ill with diseases that cause wasting, such as AIDS or poorly ...
The short crossbar connecting the branches of a zygal fissure. [G. crossbar, yoke]
SYN: zygotene. [zygo- + G. nema, thread]
The distal intermediate segment of the limb skeleton, i.e., radius and ulna, tibia and fibula. [zygo- + G. podion, small foot]
True conjugation or sexual union of two unicellular organisms, consisting essentially in the fusion of the nuclei of the two cells. [G. a joining]
The nature of the zygotes from which individuals are derived; e.g., whether by separation of the division of one zygote (monozygotic), in which case they will be genetically ...
SYN: zygospore. [zygo- + G. sperma, seed]
Among the Phycomycetes, a thick-walled sexual spore arising from fusion of two morphologically identical structures, generally hyphal tips, bearing nuclei of opposite mating ...
Complete or incomplete webbing of the fingers or toes. [zygo- + syndactyly]
The cell formed by the union of a male sex cell (a sperm) and a female sex cell (an ovum). The zygote develops into the embryo following the instruction encoded in its genetic ...
Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT)
: A technique in which a woman's egg is fertilized outside the body, then implanted in one of her fallopian tubes. This technique is one of the methods used to overcome ...
The stage of prophase in meiosis in which precise point for point pairing of homologous chromosomes begins. SYN: zygonema. [zygo- + G. tainia (L. taenia), band]
Pertaining to a zygote, or to zygosis.
Zygotic lethal gene
A gene that is lethal (fatal) for the zygote, the cell formed by the union of a sperm (male sex cell) and an ovum (female sex cell). The zygote would normally develop into an ...
SYN: sporozoite. [G. zygotos, yoked, + blastos, germ]
SYN: sporoblast. [G. zygotos, yoked, + meros, part]
1. Obsolete term for a mixture of enzymes. 2. Specifically, the intracellular enzymes of yeast that promotes alcoholic fermentation.
An isoenzyme pattern, as identified by isoenzyme electrophoresis. [zymo- + G. demos, populace]
Transformation of a proenzyme ( zymogen) into an active enzyme. [zymo- + G. genesis, production]
1. Relating to a zymogen or to zymogenesis. SYN: zymogenous. 2. Causing fermentation.
Strips of paper, gels, etc., in which the locations of enzymes, separated electrophoretically or by other means, are demonstrated by histochemical methods. [zymo- + G. gramma, ...
A carbohydrate (glucose polymer) obtained from the walls of yeast cells that interferes with complement.
An instrument measuring CO2 evolved and, therefore, the fermenting power of yeast. [zymo- + G. skopeo, to view]
An intermediate in the biosynthesis of cholesterol from lanosterol.
A cytoplasmic protein found in a number of distinct types of adherens junctions; it may play a role in the organization of membrane-cytoskeletal attachments.
Symbol for specific optic rotation.
Symbol for degree absolute; replaced by K (kelvin).
1. First letter of the Greek alphabet, alpha; used as a classifier in the nomenclature of many sciences. 2. Symbol for Bunsen solubility coefficient. 3. In chemistry, denotes ...
An F-actin binding protein in vertebrate cells that cross-links actin filaments into regular parallel arrays. It is found in both the Z line and the I band.
The 5α enantiomer of α-cortol; a metabolite of hydroxycortisone found in the urine.
The 5α enantiomer of α-cortolone; a metabolite of hydrocortisone found in urine.
5α-Pregnane-3α,20α-diol; a metabolite of progesterone and adrenocortical hormones, found in urine.
A highly toxic, heat-stable bicyclic oligopeptide in Amanita phalloides. It inhibits transcription by certain RNA polymerases.
Typically, an amino acid of the general formula R—CHNH2—COOH ( i.e., the NH2 in the α position); the l forms of these are the hydrolysis products of proteins. In rarer ...
An intermediate of porphobilinogen synthesis formed by δ-aminolevulinic acid synthase from succinyl-CoA and glycine; it rapidly decarboxylates to δ-aminolevulinic acid.
2-amino-1,6-hexanedioic acid; an intermediate of lysine biosynthesis in higher fungi and bacteria, but not in algae and higher plants. Also found in the degradation of lysine ...
2-amino-2-methylpropionic acid; a synthetic amino acid useful in the study of amino acid transport across cell membranes and in the study of cytokine effects; it is not ...
A glucanohydrolase yielding α-glucose and maltose in a random manner from 1,4-α-glucans. An amylase that has been used clinically as a digestive aid. SYN: glycogenase, ...
A conjugate of chloral and glucose used as an anesthetic in laboratory animals; it does not depress cardiovascular reflexes as much as most other anesthetic agents.
The 5β enantiomer of α-allocortol; a reduction product of cortisone, present in the urine, differing from cortisone in that the three keto groups are reduced to hydroxyls.
The 5β enantiomer of α-allocortolone; a reduction product of cortisone, present in the urine, differing from cortisone in that two of the keto groups (at positions 3 and 20) ...
An enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of α-d-galactosides to release free d-galactose. A deficiency of type A α-d-galactosidase is associated with Fabry disease. SYN: melibiase. ...
Maltase; a glucohydrolase removing terminal nonreducing 1,4-linked α-glucose residues by hydrolysis, yielding α-glucose; a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme is associated with ...
An enzyme with action similar to that of isoamylase; it cleaves 1,6-α-glucosidic linkages in pullalan, amylopectin, and glycogen, and in α- and β-amylase limit-dextrins of ...
A straight open-chain hydrocarbon built up of three isoprene units; one of the four isomeric forms occurs in the natural coating of apples.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of an an α-l-fucoside, producing an alcohol and l-fucose; a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme will result in fucosidosis.
Formerly, the enzyme system converting pyruvate (a 2-oxoacid) to acetyl-CoA and CO2, with reduction of NAD+ to NADH and the participation of lipoamide and thiamin ...
A metabolite of glutamine formed by the action of glutamine aminotransferase; elevated in certain cases of hepatocoma. SYN: 2-oxoglutaric acid.
A salt or ester of α-ketoglutaric acid.
- α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of 2-ketoglutaric acid to ...
An enzyme that hydrolyzes terminal desulfated α-l-iduronic acid residues of dermatan sulfate and of heparan sulfate; a deficiency of this enzyme is associated with Hurler ...
An enzyme that hydrolyzes 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-d-galactosides to the alcohol and free 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-d-galactose. A deficiency of this enzyme will result in Schindler ...
An enzyme that hydrolyzes glycosides of N-acetylglucosamine producing the alcohol and N-acetylglucosamine. A deficiency of this enzyme results in mucopolysaccharidosis III B.
A derivative of thiourea; a highly toxic antithyroid agent, especially to small mammals, causing pulmonary edema, fatty degeneration of the liver, and low body temperature; used ...
The benzimidazole nucleoside in vitamin B12.
A fungal toxin that acts on the large subunit of rRNA and inactivates the ribosome.
Symbol for α-tocopherol.
5,7,8-Trimethyltocol; a light yellow, viscous, odorless, oily liquid that deteriorates on exposure to light, is obtained from wheat germ oil or by synthesis, biologically ...
Abbreviation for human α1-protease inhibitor.
A glycoprotein that contains neuraminic acid and that during electrophoresis migrates with the α2 portion of serum proteins. SEE ALSO: C1 esterase inhibitor.
1. Second letter of the Greek alphabet, beta. 2. In chemistry, denotes the second in a series, the second carbon from a functional ( e.g., carboxylic) group, or the direction of ...
3-Aminopropionic acid or β-aminopropionic acid; a decarboxylation production of aspartic acid. Found in brain, in carnosine, and in coenzyme A.
An enzyme that reversibly transfers the amino group of β-alanine to pyruvate, thus producing l-alanine and malonate semialdehyde. A deficiency of this enzyme is believed to ...
The 20β isomer of α-allocortol and 5α enantiomer of β-cortol; a metabolite of hydrocortisone found in urine.
The 20β isomer of α-allocortolone and 5α enantiomer of β-cortolone; a metabolite of hydrocortisone found in urine.
The 5α-pregnane-3β,20α(and β)-diols; both are metabolites of progesterone and adrenocortical hormones; found in urine.
3-Amino-2-methylpropionic acid; an end product of thymine catabolism; high urinary levels (200–300 mg/day) have been noted in some individuals, either from some disease ...
A glucanohydrolase yielding β-maltose units from the nonreducing ends of 1,4-α-glucans. An exoamylase. SYN: glycogenase, saccharogen amylase.
Misnomer for 1-(β-asparagino)-N-acetylglucosamine or 1-(β-aspartamido)-N-acetylglucosamine, or, formally, 1-(β-l-aspartamido)-N-2-acetamido-1,2-dideoxy-β-d-glucose; a compound ...
An enzyme catalyzing the reaction of β-carotene plus O2, producing two retinals. SYN: β-carotene-cleavage enzyme, carotenase.
Acid- or pepsin-degraded β-corticotropin. SYN: corticotropin (2).
α-Cortol with a 20β-OH group; the 5β enantiomer of β-allocortol, found in urine.
α-Cortolone with a 20β-OH group; the 5β enantiomer of β-allocortolone, found in urine.
A sugar-splitting enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of lactose into d-glucose and d-galactose, and that of other β-d-galactosides; it also catalyzes galactotransferase ...
A glucohydrolase similar to α-d-glucosidase, but attacking β-glucosides and releasing β-d-glucose. SYN: amygdalase, cellobiase, gentiobiase.
An enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of various β-d-glucuronides, liberating free d-glucuronic acid and an alcohol; a deficiency of this enzyme is associated with Sly syndrome. ...
One of the two isomers (trans) that occurs in the alarm pheromone of some aphids and also in various essential oils.
β-h-Fructosidase; an enzyme hydrolyzing β-d-fructofuranosides and releasing free d-fructose; if the substrate is sucrose, the product is d-glucose plus d-fructose (invert ...
An enzyme that hydrolyzes the beta galactoside linkage in lactose-producing glucose and galactose; also hydrolyzes the chromogenic substrate IPTG ( isopropylthiogalactoside) ...
An enzyme that participates in the catabolism of certain ceramides; a deficiency of β-galactosylceramidase is associated with Krabbe disease.
An enzyme that hydrolyzes β-glucosides in cerebrosides; a deficiency of this enzyme results in Gaucher disease.
SYN: chorionic gonadotropin.
A key intermediate in the synthesis of ketone bodies, of steroids, and of farnesyl and geranyl derivatives. SYN: 3- hydroxy- 3-methylglutaryl-CoA.
- β- hydroxy- ...
A minor intermediate in propionate and methylmalonate metabolism. See β-hydroxypropionic aciduria.
Elevated levels of β-hydroxypropionic acid in the urine; seen in defects in methylmalonic acid and propionate metabolism, as well as in ketotic hyperglycinemia syndrome.
A class of broad-spectrum antibiotics that are structurally and pharmacologically related to the penicillins and cephalosporins.
An enzyme produced by many species of bacteria that disrupts the four-membered β-lactam ring of penicillin and cephalosporin groups of antibiotics, destroying their ...
A phytosterol and anticholesteremic. SYN: cinchol.
Symbol for β-tocopherol.
A lower homolog of α-tocopherol that contains one less methyl group in the aromatic nucleus and is less active biologically; accompanies α-tocopherol and γ-β-tocopherol.
1. Third letter in the Greek alphabet, gamma. 2. In chemistry, denotes the third in a series, the fourth carbon in an aliphatic acid, or position 2 removed from the α position ...
Abbreviation for γ-aminobutyric acid.
4-Aminobutyric acid; a constituent of the central nervous system; quantitatively the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter. Used in the treatment of a number of disorders ( ...
A betaine of γ-aminobutyric acid; a precursor of carnitine by hydroxylation of the β-carbon.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of γ-carboxyglutamyl residues in many proteins, several appearing in the blood clotting cascade.
An enzyme cleaving l-glutamyl residues from pteridine oligoglutamates; used in certain antitumor treatments. SYN: carboxypeptidase G, γ-glutamate (glutamate γ-) ...
A necessary precursor in the biosynthesis of glutathione; contains an isopeptide rather than a eupeptide bond.
- γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase an enzyme that catalyzes the ...
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a γ-glutamyl group from a γ-glutamyl peptide (usually glutathione) to another peptide, certain amino acid s, or water; a deficiency of ...
a naturally occurring short-chain fatty acid, a metabolite of γ- aminobutyric acid ( GABA) found in all body tissues, with the highest concentration in the brain; it affects ...
Symbol for γ-tocopherol.
A form biologically less active than α-γ-tocopherol.
1. Fourth letter of the Greek alphabet, delta. 2. In chemistry, denotes a double bond, usually with a superscript to indicate position in a chain (Δ5); application of heat in a ...
δ-aminobutyric acid amino transferase
An enzyme catalyzing the reversible transfer of an amino group from δ-aminobutyric acid to 2-oxoglutarate, thus forming a l-glutamic acid and succinate semialdehyde. An ...
An acid formed by δ-aminolevulinate synthase from glycine and succinyl-coenzyme A; a precursor of porphobilinogen, hence an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of heme. ...
1. Fifth letter of the Greek alphabet, epsilon. 2. Symbol for molar absorption coefficient or extinction coefficient. For terms beginning with this prefix, see the specific ...
The eighth letter in the Greek alphabet, theta; symbol for angle.
The ninth letter in the Greek alphabet, iota.
Symbol for kappa, the tenth letter in the Greek alphabet.
1. The 11th letter of the Greek alphabet, lambda. 2. Symbol (λ) for Avogadro number; wavelength; radioactive constant; Ostwald solubility coefficient; molar conductivity ...
1. The 12th letter of the Greek alphabet, mu. 2. Symbol for micro- (2); micron; dynamic viscosity; magnetic or electric dipole moment of a molecule; chemical potential; ...
1. Symbol for Bohr magneton.
Symbol for microcoulomb.
Symbol for microcurie.
Symbol for micrometer.
Symbol for micromole.
Symbol for nuclear magneton.
Symbol for micromicrogram.
1. The 13th letter of the Greek alphabet, nu. 2. Symbol for kinematic viscosity; frequency; stoichiometric number. 3. In chemistry, denotes the position of a substituent ...
1. The 16th letter of the Greek alphabet, pi. 2. Symbol for the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, approximately 3.14159; symbol for osmotic pressure (Π). ...
1. The 17th letter of the Greek alphabet, rho. 2. Symbol for population correlation coefficient; density.
1. The 18th letter of the Greek alphabet, sigma. 2. (σ) Symbol for reflection coefficient; standard deviation; a factor in prokaryotic RNA initiation; wavenumber; surface ...
The 19th letter of the Greek alphabet, tau; symbol for relaxation time.
1. Upsilon, 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. 2. Symbol for kinematic viscosity.
The 21st letter of the Greek alphabet, phi. Symbol for phenyl; symbol for quantum yield (π).
1. Capital psi, the 23rd letter of the Greek alphabet. 2. Symbol for pseudouridine; psychology.
1. The 24th and last letter of the Greek alphabet, omega. 2. Symbol for ohm.
Symbol for histidino.
Symbol for recipe in a prescription. See prescription (2).