1. Formation of an angle; an abnormal angle or bend in an organ. 2. In orthopaedics, a method of describing the alignment of long bones that have been affected by injury or ...
SYN: angle. [L.]
- a. acromii [TA] SYN: acromial angle.
- a. costae [TA] SYN: angle of rib.
- a. frontalis ossis parietalis [TA] SYN: frontal angle of parietal bone.
- a. ...
Loss of the capacity to experience pleasure. The inability to gain pleasure from normally pleasurable experiences. Anhedonia is a core clinical feature of depression, ...
1. Not sweating. From the Greek an- meaning not + hidros meaning sweat. Inability to sweat may seem a blessing but it is not, since to sweat is to be able to stay cool. Anhidrosis ...
Pertain to anhidrosis, too little sweating. Hidrosis meaning sweating, so an-, too little + hidrosis = too little sweating.
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1. Relating to, or characterized by, ...
An enzyme that catalyzes the removal of water from a compound; most such enzymes are now known as hydrases, hydro-lyases, or dehydratases.
- carbonic a. a zinc-containing enzyme ...
An oxide that can combine with water to form an acid or that is derived from an acid by the abstraction of water.
Chemical prefix denoting the removal of water. Cf.:pyro- (2). [G. an- priv., + hydor, water]
An intermediate formed in the folic acid -catalyzed glycine-serine interconversion. SYN: N5,N10-methenyltetrahydrofolic acid.
Sugars from which one or more molecules of water, other than water of crystallization, have been eliminated. SYN: dehydrosugars.
Containing no water, especially water of crystallization.
Rarely used term for deficiency of niacinamide which may be associated with pellagra. [G. a- priv. + niacinamide + -osis, condition]
Rarely used term for aniacinamidosis. [G. a- oruv. + niacin + -osis condition]
Shapeless; denoting a formless mass of tissue. SYN: anidous. [see anideus]
A parasitic fetus consisting of a poorly differentiated mass of tissue with slight indications of parts. SEE ALSO: holoacardius amorphus. [G. an- priv. + eidos, shape]
Analgesic agent related chemically and pharmacologically to meperidine hydrochloride; used for relief of moderate to severe pain; also mildly antihistaminic and spasmolytic; ...
An N-acyl aniline; e.g., acetanilide.
A chemical compound implicated, along with o-toluidine, in the causation of bladder cancer. Aniline and o-toluidine, both aromatic amines, are used in the manufacture of a ...
A mixture of sulfonated triphenylmethane dyes used widely as a connective tissue stain and counterstain.
Sexual stimulation by licking or kissing the anus; a type of oral-genital sexual activity. SYN: anilinction, anilinctus. [L. anus, + lingo, to lick]
Denoting a cell or histologic structure that stains readily with an aniline dye. SYN: anilinophilous. [ aniline + G. philos, fond]
Chronic aniline poisoning characterized by gastric and cardiac weakness, vertigo, muscular depression, intermittent pulse, and cyanosis. SYN: anilinism.
1. The soul or spirit. See animus (4). 2. In jungian psychology, the inner self, in contrast to persona; a female archetype in a man. Cf.:animus (5). [L. breath, soul]
1. A living, sentient organism that has membranous cell walls, requires oxygen and organic foods, and is capable of voluntary movement, as distinguished from a plant or mineral. ...
Term used by believers in the preformation theory to designate the supposed miniature body contained in a gamete. See homunculus. [Mod. L. animalculum, dim. of L. animal, a ...
1. The state of being alive. 2. Liveliness; high spirits. [L. animo, pp. -atus, to make alive; anima, breath, soul]
- suspended a. a temporary state resembling death, with ...
Attribution of mental or spiritual qualities to both living beings and nonliving things. SEE ALSO: animism.
The view that all things in nature, both animate and inanimate, contain a spirit or soul; held by primitive peoples and young children. SEE ALSO: animatism. [L. anima, soul]
1. An animating or energizing spirit. 2. Intention to do something; disposition. 3. In psychiatry, a spirit of active hostility or grudge. 4. The ideal image toward which a ...
A negatively charged ion. Pronounced an-I-on. An anion is as opposed to a cation, which is a positively charged ion.
* * *
An ion that carries a negative charge, going therefore ...
The process by which an anion in a mobile (liquid) phase exchanges with another anion previously bound to a solid, positively charged phase, the latter being an anion exchanger. ...
An insoluble solid, usually a polystyrene or a polysaccharide, with cation groups ( e.g., —NR3+ or —NR2H+), which can attract and hold anions that pass by in a moving ...
A measurement of the interval between the sum of "routinely measured" cations minus the sum of the "routinely measured" anions in the blood. The anion gap = (Na+ + K+) - (Cl- + ...
Referring to a negatively charged ion.
The migration of a negative ion in tautomeric changes.
Absence of the iris; when congenital, a rudimentary iris root is usually present. About 60% of cases are inherited as autosomal dominant, although somewhat irregularly ...
Infection of the intestinal wall by larvae of Anisakis marina and other genera of anisakid nematodes (Contracaecum, Phocanema), characterized by intestinal eosinophilic ...
Common name for nematodes of the family Anisakidae.
Family of large nematode worms (superfamily Heterocheilidae) found in the stomach and intestines of fish-eating birds and marine mammals, infection being acquired from marine ...
Genus of nematodes (family Anisakidae) that includes many common parasites of marine fish-eating birds and marine mammals. [G. anisos, unequal, + akis, a point]
A salt of anisic acid, usually possessing antiseptic properties.
The fruit of Pimpinellla anisum (family Umbelliferae); an aromatic and carminative resembling fennel.
An ocular condition in which the image of an object in one eye differs in size or shape from the image of the same object in the fellow eye. SYN: unequal retinal image. [G. ...
A crystalline volatile acid obtained from anise; its compounds are the antiseptic anisates. SYN: 4-methoxybenzoic acid.
An anticoagulant with pharmacologic actions similar to those of phenindone and bishydroxycoumarin.
Unequal, dissimilar, unlike. [G. anisos, unequal, fr. an-, not, + isos, equal]
Variation between the two eyes in accommodation capacity. [ aniso- + L. accommodo, to adapt]
The unequal distribution of hemoglobin in the red blood cells, such that the periphery is pigmented and the central region is virtually colorless, as observed in films of blood ...
Both pupils are usually of equal size. If they are not, that is termed anisocoria (from "a-", not + "iso", equal + "kore", pupil = not equal pupils).The pupil may appear to open ...
Considerable variation in the size of cells that are normally uniform, especially with reference to red blood cells. [ aniso- + G. kytos, cell, + -osis, condition]
Unequal length in corresponding fingers. [ aniso- + G. daktylon, finger]
Fusion of two gametes unequal in size or form; fertilization as distinguished from isogamy or conjugation. [ aniso- + G. gamos, marriage]
Having jaws of unequal size, the upper being wider than the lower. [ aniso- + G. gnathos, jaw]
Variation in size of nuclei, greater than the normal range for a tissue. [ aniso- + G. karyon, nut (nucleus), + -osis, condition]
Obtained from anisic acid; used in perfumery.
Breasts of unequal size. [ aniso- + G. mastos, breast]
A condition of inequality between two paired limbs. [ aniso- + G. melos, limb]
The condition in which the two eyes have an unequal refractive power. One eye may be myopic (nearsighted) and the other hyperopic (farsighted). Anisometropia is a serious ...
1. Relating to anisometropia. 2. Having eyes of unequal refractive power.
Unequal arterial blood pressure on the two sides of the body. [ aniso- + G. piesis, pressure]
Irregular action of the heart, or absence of synchronism in the rate of atria and ventricles. [ aniso- + G. rhythmos, rhythm]
Difference in volume, force, or time of the pulse in the corresponding arteries on two sides of the body, e.g., the two radials, or femorals. [ aniso- + G. sphygmos, pulse]
Of unequal strength; denoting two muscles or groups of muscles that are either paired or are antagonists. [ aniso- + G. sthenos, strength]
Not having equal tension; having unequal osmotic pressure. [ aniso- + G. tonus, tension]
Not having properties that are the same in all directions. [ aniso- + G. tropos, a turning]
Nikolai, Russian pathologist, 1885–1964. See A. cell, A. myocyte.
The ankle joint is complex. It is made up of two joints: the true ankle joint and the subtalar joint: The true ankle joint is composed of 3 bones: the tibia which forms the ...
The ankle bone is termed the talus. It is the bone of the foot that joins the tibia and fibula to form the ankle joint. Plural tali.
The ankle joint is complex. It is made up of two joints: the true ankle joint and the subtalar joint: The true ankle joint is composed of 3 bones: the tibia which forms the medial ...
The ankle is a "hinged" joint. The severity of ankle sprains ranges from mild (which can resolve within 24 hours) to severe (which can require surgical repair). ...
Ankle-foot orthosis (AFO)
A brace (usually plastic) worn on the lower leg and foot to support the ankle, hold the foot and ankle in the correct position, and correct foot drop.
Bent, crooked, stiff, fused, fixed, closed. SEE ALSO: ancylo-. [G. ankylos, bent, crooked; ankylosis, stiffening of the joints, fr. ankos, a bend, a hollow]
Congenital or acquired adhesion of the upper and lower eyelid by bands of tissue. SYN: blepharocoloboma, filiform adnatum. [ ankylo- + G. blepharon, eyelid]
A minor congenital anomaly (birth defect) in which the flap of mucous membrane under the tongue (known as the frenum) is too short and limits the normal mobility of the tongue. ...
A curved or bent probe. [ ankylo- + G. mele, probe]
Stiffened; bound by adhesions; denoting a joint in a state of ankylosis.
Stiffening or fixation of a joint as the result of a disease process, with fibrous or bony union across the joint. [G. a., stiffening of a joint]
- artificial a. SYN: ...
1. SYN: Ancylostoma. 2. SYN: trismus. [ ankylo- + G. stoma, mouth]
Characterized by or pertaining to ankylosis.
An erythrocyte membranal protein that binds spectrin. A deficiency in a. may lead to a type of hereditary spherocytosis. SYN: anchorin, syndein. [G. ankyra, anchor, + -in]
Known also as hereditary spherocytosis (HS), this is a genetic disorder of the red blood cell membrane clinically characterized by anemia, jaundice (yellowing) and splenomegaly ...
1. SYN: primordium. 2. In psychoanalysis, genetic predisposition to a given trait or personality characteristic. [Ger. plan, outline]
1. Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, More commonly called acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A quickly progressive malignant disease in which there are too many immature blood-forming ...
Annals of Internal Medicine, the
A medical journal especially concerned with information in the field of internal medicine (adult medicine). Designed to be read largely by internists, the Annals states it is "is ...
1. To soften or temper a metal by controlled heating and cooling; the process makes a metal more easily adapted, bent, or swaged, and less brittle. 2. In dentistry, to heat gold ...
Connected with; joined. [L. an-necto, pres. p. -nectere, pp. -nexus, to join to]
A phylum that includes the segmented or true worms, such as the earthworm.
Common name for members of the phylum Annelida.
A conidiogenous cell that produces conidia in succession, each leaving a ringlike collar on the cell wall when released. [Fr. annelide, fr. L. anellus, a ring]
SYN: accessory structures, under structure.
Annexin V is the cause of a syndrome called the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with abnormal blood clotting. The annexins are a family of proteins first described in 1990. ...
The annexins are a family of proteins first described in 1990. All of the annexin proteins share the property of binding calcium and phospholipids. The antiphospholipid antibody ...
In genetics, to identify the locations and the coding regions of genes in a genome and determine what those genes do. To annotate (irrespective of the context) is to add a note ...
The process of identifying the locations and the coding regions of genes in a genome and determining what those genes do. An annotation (irrespective of the context) is a note ...
Coloring matter extracted from the seeds of Bixa orellana; contains bixin and several other yellow to orange-red pigments; used for coloring butter, margarine, cheese, and oils. ...
SYN: anular. [L. anulus, ring]
An abnormal ring of pancreas that encircles the duodenum and often causes intestinal obstruction. Nausea and vomiting are the usual symptoms and reflect the intestinal ...
Reconstruction of the ring (or annulus) of a cardiac valve. [L. anulus, ring, + G. plastos, formed]
Closure of a hernial ring by suture. [L. anulus, ring, + G. rhaphe, seam]
A ringlike structure, or any body part that is shaped like a ring. Applied to many small ring-shaped structures. The base of a heart valve that supports the valve's leaflets is ...
Abbreviation for anodal opening contraction.
1. Failure of cells or other elements of tissue to be colored in the usual manner when treated with a stain (or stains). 2. Accumulation of hemoglobin in the peripheral zone of ...
Theory that afferent stimuli, especially pain, contribute to the development of surgical shock, and, as a corollary, that conduction anesthesia at the surgical field and ...
Of, pertaining to, or emanating from an anode. SYN: anodic.
1. The positive pole of a galvanic battery or the electrode connected with it; an electrode toward which negatively charged ions (anions) migrate; a positively charged ...
Lining of the anal canal immediately inferior to the dentate line and extending for about 1.5 cm to the anal verge; it is devoid of hair and sebaceous and sweat glands, and so ...
Congenital absence of the teeth; developmental, not due to extraction or impaction. SYN: agomphious, agomphosis, agomphiasis. [G. an- priv. + odous, tooth]
- partial a. SYN: ...
Congenital absence of tooth germ development.
A compound less potent than an anesthetic or a narcotic but capable of relieving pain. [G. an- priv. + odyne, pain]
Lacking the power of comprehension, as in severe and profound levels of mental retardation. [G. anoesia, from a- priv. + noos, perception]
Relating in any way to both the anal and the genital regions.
A malformation together with its subsequently derived structural changes. [see anomaly]
An instrument used to diagnose abnormalities of color perception in which one-half of a field of color is matched by mixing two other colors. [G. anomalos, irregular, + skopeo, ...
A deviation from the usual, something different, peculiar, or abnormal. A congenital anomaly is something that is unusual and different at birth. A minor anomaly in this context ...
A birth defect. A malformation that occurs before birth and is present at birth.
One of two sugar molecules that are epimeric at the hemiacetal or hemiketal carbon atom (carbon-1 in aldoses, carbon-2 in most ketoses); e.g., α-d-glucose and β-d-glucose. SEE ...
SYN: nominal aphasia. [G. a- priv. + onoma, name]
1. Lawlessness; absence or weakening of social norms or values, with corresponding erosion of social cohesion. 2. In psychiatry, absence or weakening of individual norms or ...
SYN: innominate. [G. an- priv. + onyma, name]
In public health, anonymous reporting permits the acquisition of certain data such as the proportion of persons with a positive test or with a disease.
Testing in which no name is used-there is total anonymity-to identify the person tested. For example, the State of Florida requires that each county have a site for anonymous HIV ...
A genus of mosquitoes (family Culicidae, subfamily Anophelinae). The sporogenous cycle of the malarial parasite is passed in the body cavity of female mosquitoes of certain ...
An agent that drives away or prevents the bite of Anopheles mosquitoes.
A subfamily of the mosquitoes ( Culicidae) consisting of several genera, including Anopheles.
The tribe of mosquitoes (family Culicidae) that includes the genus Anopheles. [G. anopheles, useless, troublesome]
The habitual presence in any region of Anopheles mosquitoes.
Absence of the eye, as a result of a congenital malformation (birth defect) of the globe. Anophthalmia refers, strictly speaking, to absence of the globe and ocular tissue from ...
Reconstruction of the anus often using advancement flaps. [L. anus + G. plastos, formed]
A genus of large tapeworms (family Anoplocephalidae) with strong linear segmentation, numerous scattered testes, and eggs with a pyriform apparatus; they are parasitic in ...
The order of insects that includes the bloodsucking lice of mammals, with some 450 species arranged in 6 families, of which 4 contain species of medical or veterinary importance: ...
Absence of the testes; may be congenital or acquired. SYN: anorchia. [G. an- priv. + orchis, testicle]
1. Relating to, characteristic of, or suffering from anorexia, especially anorexia nervosa. 2. An agent that causes anorexia. SYN: anorexic.
: A decreased appetite or aversion to food. Anorexia nervosa is a serious psychological disorder characterized by an extreme aversion to food, most often affecting young women.
A decreased appetite or aversion to food. Anorexia nervosa is a serious psychological disorder characterized by an extreme
A drug (“diet pills”), process, or event that leads to anorexia.
Anorgasmia, or anorgasmy
Failure of a male or female to achieve an orgasm (climax) during sexual intercourse. Anorgasmia is characterized by psychologists as a " psychosexual dysfunction," a sexual ...
Failure to experience an orgasm; may be biogenic (secondary to a physical disorder or medication), psychogenic (secondary to psychological or situational factors), or a ...
A short speculum for examining the anal canal and lower rectum.
- Bacon a. an instrument resembling a rectal speculum, with a long slit on one side and an light source ...
No sense of smell, due to loss of the sense of smell or failure for it to develop. Loss of the sense of smell can be due to a number of things including swelling within the nose ...
Indifference, real or assumed, regarding the presence of disease, specifically of paralysis. [G. a- priv. + nosos, disease, + diaphora, difference]
Ignorance of the presence of disease, specifically of paralysis. Most often seen in patients with non-dominant parietal lobe lesions, who deny their hemiparesis. [G. a- priv. + ...
Relating to the anus and the spinal cord.
Failure of bone formation. [G. an- priv. + osteon, bone, + plasso, to form]
Failure of ossification. [G. an- priv. + osteon, bone]
No ear. The term “anotia” usually refers to congenital (from birth) absence of the external ear, the auricle, the visible part of the ear.
* * *
Congenital absence of one or ...
Acronym for analysis of variance.
Relating in any way to both anus and urinary bladder.
Absence of the development of a mature graafian follicle and/or the discharge of the ovum during a menstrual cycle. SYN: anovular.
Absence of oxygen in arterial blood; formerly often used to include moderate decrease in oxygen now properly distinguished as hypoxemia. [G. an- priv. + oxygen + G. haima, blood]
Absence or almost complete absence of oxygen from inspired gases, arterial blood, or tissues; to be differentiated from hypoxia. [G. an- priv. + oxygen]
- anemic a. a term ...
Denoting or characteristic of anoxia.
Abbreviation for atrial natriuretic peptide.
G.V., 20th century Lebanese physiologist in Britain. See A. phenomenon.
Abbreviation for anterior nasal spine; autonomic nervous system.
Any anatomical structure in the form of a loop or an arc. SEE ALSO: loop. [L. loop, handle]
- a. cervicalis [TA] a loop in the cervical plexus consisting of fibers from the ...
1. (an′ser-in)Resembling or characteristic of a goose. See cutis anserina, pes anserinus. 2. (an′ser-en) Na-(β-Alanyl)-π-methyl-l-histidine; present in muscle and brain. ...
Abbreviation for American National Standards Institute.
In the shape of a loop or arc. SYN: ansate. [L. ansa, handle, + forma, shape]
1. Surgical division of a loop, usually a constricting loop. 2. Section of the ansa lenticularis for treatment of striatal syndromes. [L. ansa, handle + G. tome, cutting]
One of the most numerous insects (order Hymenoptera), characterized by an extraordinary development of colonial dwelling and caste specialization.
- black imported fire a. SYN: ...
Also called thief ants, a scourge, these red or yellow ants of small-to-medium size, originally from South America, have a severe sting that burns like fire and can trigger an ...
Common in most parts of the world including the Southern and Southwestern U.S., velvet ants are not true ants but rather parasitic wasps. Their sting can trigger allergic ...
1. Neutralizing an acid. 2. Any agent that reduces or neutralizes acidity, as of the gastric juice or any other secretion ( e.g., calcium carbonate, magnesium hydroxide). SYN: ...
1. Denoting mutual opposition in action between structures, agents, diseases, or physiologic processes. Cf.:synergism. 2. The situation in which the combined effect of two or ...
In biochemistry, an antagonist acts against and blocks an action. For example, insulin lowers the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood, whereas another hormone called glucagon ...
Rarely used term for lowering of a previous elevation in pain threshold. [anti- + G. algesis, sense of pain]
1. Strengthening or invigorating. 2. An agent possessing such qualities. [anti- + G. astheneia, weakness]
1. Preventing or curing atrophy. 2. An agent that promotes the restoration of atrophied structures.
A histamine-antagonizing agent used in treating allergy; also available as a. phosphate. SYN: phenazoline hydrochloride.
Before a meal. The plural is ante cibos, before meals. [L.]
Before, in front of (in time or place or order). SEE ALSO: pre-, pro- (1). [L. ante, before, in front of]
A precursor. [L. antecedo, to go before]
- plasma thromboplastin a. (PTA) SYN: factor XI.
In front of the elbow. [ ante- + L. cubitum, elbow]
Rarely used term for antepyretic. [ ante- + L. febris, fever]
To bend anteriorly (forward) or cause to bend anteriorly. [ ante- + L. flecto, pp. flexus, to bend]
A bending forward; a sharp forward curve or angulation; denoting especially the normal forward bend in the uterus at the junction of corpus and cervix uteri.
- a. of iris rarely ...
In the direction of normal movement, as in blood flow or peristalsis. [ ante- + L. gradior, to walk]
Amnesia in which the lack of memory relates to events occurring after a traumatic occurrence.
Before death. Cf.:postmortem. [ ante- + L. mors (mort-), death]
SYN: prenatal. [ ante- + L. natus, birth]
Before labor or childbirth. Cf.:intrapartum, postpartum. [ ante- + L. pario, pp. partus, to bring forth]
Before the occurrence of fever; before the period of reaction following shock. [ ante- + G. pyretos, fever]
1. [NA] In human anatomy, denoting the front surface of the body; often used to indicate the position of one structure relative to another, i.e., situated nearer the front part ...
Anterior (anatomic orientation)
The front, as opposed to the posterior. The anterior surface of the heart is toward the breast bone (sternum). For a more complete listing of terms used in medicine for spatial ...
The space in the eye that is behind the cornea and in front of the iris. The cornea is the outer, transparent, dome-like structure that covers the iris, pupil, and the anterior ...
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)
One of the ligaments in the knee, the ACL crosses from the underside of the femur (the thigh bone) to the top of the tibia (the bigger bone in the lower leg). ACL injuries can ...
The front portion of the pituitary, a small gland in the head called the master gland. Hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary influence growth, sexual development, skin ...
Anterior. [L. anterior, more before, earlier, fr. ante, before, + -r- -ior, more]
1. Moving forward. Cf.:antegrade. 2. Extending forward from a particular point in time; used in reference to amnesia. [L. gradior, pp. gressus, to step, go]
Loss of short-term memory with retention of memories from the distant past (long-term memory).
1. Relating to both front and rear. 2. In x-ray imaging, describing the direction of the beam through the patient (projection) from anterior to posterior, e.g., an A-P projection ...
Anteroposterior (anatomic orientation)
From front to back, as opposed to posteroanterior. When a chest x-ray is taken with the back against the film plate and the x-ray machine in front of the patient it is referred ...
In anatomy, AP stands for anteroposterior: from front-to-back. For example, an AP X-ray of the chest is taken from front-to-back. AP in this respect is the opposite of PA, which ...
Pertaining to an effort to avoid erotic feelings. [anti- + G. erotikos, pertaining to love]
Premature activation of the ventricle responsible for the pre-excitation syndrome of the Wolff-Parkinson-White or Lown-Ganong-Levine types.
Turning forward, inclining forward as a whole without bending. [ ante- + Mediev. L. versio, a turning]
Tilted forward; in a position of anteversion.
SYN: antihelix. [anti- + G. helix, coil]
1. An agent that destroys or expels intestinal worms. SYN: anthelminthic, antihelminthic, helminthagogue, helminthic (2), helmintic (2), vermifuge. 2. Having the power to ...
- a. E SYN: enterogastrone.
- a. U SYN: urogastrone.
The male gametangium produced in the teleomorph part of the life cycle of fungi. [Mod. L. anthera, flower, fr. G antheros, blooming, fr. antheo, to bloom, + dim. suffix ...
Used in the treatment of filariasis and schistosomiasis.
A group of floral pigments, existing as glycosides in combination with glucose or cellobiose molecules, that range from red to blue and are often pH dependent; soluble in water ...
A genus of muscoid flies similar in appearance to the common housefly. [G. anthos, flower, + myia, fly]
- A. canicularis a small black horsefly, the larvae of which have been ...
An abnormal and persistent fear of flowers. Sufferers experience anxiety even though they realize they face no threat from flowers. Any genus or species of flowers can instill ...
The presence of Bacillus anthracis in the circulating blood, usually resulting from previously developed anthrax of the skin or lungs. SYN: anthrax septicemia.
1. A hydrocarbon obtained from coal tar; it oxidizes to anthraquinone, which is converted to alizarin dyes. SYN: anthracin. 2. A compound containing a. (1) as a part of its ...
Coal; carbon; carbuncle; corresponds to L. carb-, carbo-. [G. anthrax, anthrakos, charcoal, a live coal; a carbuncle, a pustule]